« PreviousContinue »
the troops of the allies shall take on their march, bary powers, the flag and the territory of the Isle BOOK XII. in order that the means of subsistence thereon of Elba, for which purpose the relations with the may be provided; and cominissaries shall be ap- Barbary powers shall be assimilated to those with Chap. I. pointed Po regulate all the arrangements of detail, France. and accompany the troops, till the moment of 6. “ There shall be reserved in the territories
1814. their quitting the French territory.
hereby renounced to bis majesty the Emperor In iestimony whereof, the respective plenipo- Napoleon, for himself and his family, domains or tentiaries bave signed the present convention, and rent-charges in the great book of France, prohave affixed thereto the seal of their arms.-Done ducing a revenue, clear of all deductions and at Paris, tbis 230 April, 1814.
charges, of 2,500,000 francs. These domains or (Here follow the signatures.) rents shall belong, in full property, and to be
disposed of as they shall think fit, to the princes During these transactions at Paris, a consi and princesses of his family, and shall be divided derable degree of curiosity was excited respect- amongst them in such a manner that the revenue ing a treaty which had been concluded on the of each shall be in the following proportions, Ilth of April, between Napoleon and the allied powers, the terms of which sufficiently proved To Madame Mere
300,000 either his own remaining consequence in their To King Joseph and his queen 500,000 opinion, or the powerful intercession that had To King Louis
200,000 been made in his favor. Indeed, subsequent To the Queen Hortense and to her events have proved, that his partizans were both children
400,000 numerous and powerful; and, that the army To King Jerome and his queen 500,000 was entirely devoted to him. As the treaty is of To the Princess Eliza
300,000 peculiar importance, we shall here lay it before To the Princess Paulina
300,000 our readers.
2,500,000 Treaty between the Allied Powers and his
“ The princes and princesses of the house of Majesty the Emperor Napoleon.
the Emperor Napoleon shall, besides, retain their
property, moveable and immoveable, of whatArt.“ 1. His majesty the Emperor Napoleon ever nature it may be, which they shall possess renounces for himself
, his successors and descen- by individual and public right, and the rents dants, as well as for all the members of his family, of which they shall enjoy (also as individuals.) all right of sovereignty and dominion, as well to 7. “ The annual pension of the Empress Josethe French empire and the kingdom of Italy, as pbine shall be reduced to 1,000,000, in domains, over every other country.
or in inscriptions in the great book of France; she 2. “ Their majesties the Emperor Napoleon shall continue to enjoy, in full property, moveable and Maria Louisa shall retain their titles and and immoveable, with power to dispose of it conrank, to be enjoyed during their lives. The formable to the French laws. mother, the brothers, sisters, nephews, and nieces, 8. “ There shall be granted to Prince Eugene, of the emperor, shall also retain, wherever they Viceroy of Italy, a suitable establishment out of may reside, the titles of princes of his family. France.
3. “ The Isle of Elba, adopted hy his majesty 9. “ The property which bis majesty the Emthe Emperor Napoleon as the place of bis resi peror Napoleon possesses in France, either as dence, shall form, during his life, a separate prin- extraordinary domain, or as private domain, atcipality, which shall be possessed by bim in full tached to the crown the funds placed by the emsovereignty and property; there shall be besides peror, either in the great book of France, in the granted, in full property to the Emperor Napo- Bank of France, in the Actions des Forets, or in leon, an annual revenue of 2,000,000 francs, in any other manner, and which his majesty abanrent-charge, in the great book of France, of which dons to the crown, shall be reserved as a capital, 1,000,000 sball be in reversion to the empress.
which shall not exceed 2,000,000, to be expended 4. “ The duchies of Parma, Placencia, and in gratifications in favor of such persons, whose Guastalla, shall be granted, in full property and names shall be contained in a list to be signed sovereignty, to her majesty the Empress Maria by the Einperor Napoleon, and which shall be Louisa; they shall pass to her son, and to the transmitted to the French government. descendants in the right line. The prince, her 10. “ All the crown-diamonds shall remain in son, shall, from henceforth, take the title of France. Prince of Parqia, Placencia, and Guastalla.
11. " His majesty the Emperor Napoleon sball 5. “ All the powers engage to employ their return to the treasury, and to the other public good offices to cause to be respected, by the Bar- chests, all the sums and effects that shall bave
BOOK XII. been taken out by his orders, with the excep- ratifications exchanged at Paris, within two days, .
tion of what has been appropriated from the civil or sooner if possible. CAAP. I. list.
“ Done at Paris, the 11th of April, 1814. 12. “ The debts of the household of his ma (L. S.)
« The Prince De METTERNICH. 1814.
jesty the Emperor Napoleon, such as they were (L. S.) J. F. Comte De STADION.
13. “ The obligations of the Mont-Napoleon, (L. S.) Marshal Ney. of Milan, towards all the creditors, whether (LS.) Caulincourt.” Frenchmen or foreigners, shall be exactly fulfilled, unless there shall be any change made in this After the allied powers had signed this treaty, respect.
they applied to the British government for 14. “ There shall be given all the necessary their accession to it; but this was refused, except passports for the free-passage of his majesty the merely as far as regarded the arrangements for Emperor Napoleon, or of the empress, the princes securing the duchies of Parma, &c. to Mariaand princesses, and all the persons of their suites Louisa and her son, in perpetuity, and the Isle who wish to accompany them, or to establish of Elba to Bonaparte for life; to these articles themselves out of France, as well as for the pas- alone the signature of Lord Castlereagh was sage of all the equipages, horses, and effects be- affixed. longing to them. The allied powers shall, in Among the many curious anecdotes that have consequence, furnish officers and men for es been related of Bonaparte before his downfal, we corts.
shall notice the following :- After the sanguinary 15. “ The French imperial guards shall fur- reverses in Saxony, in 1813, he returned to Paris nish a detachment of from 1,200 to 1,500 men, of on the 9th of November: and on the 11th he all arms, to serve as an escort to the Emperor held a council of state. Impatient to see what Napoleon to Saint Tropes, the place of his em kind of face the emperor wore after bis disasters, barkation.
the members of the council crowded into the 16. “ There shall be furnished a corvette and saloon adjoining the council-chamber. To avoid, the necessary transport-vessels to convey to the in some measure, the embarrassment of a first inplace of his destination bis majesty the Emperor terview, the emperor abruptly called for the goNapoleon and his household, and the corvette vernor of the bank, to whom he addressed a long shall belong, in full property, to his majesty the discourse respecting that establishment. After emperor.
speaking for about half-an-hour, during which 17. “ The Emperor Napoleon shall be allowed the governor had not time to put in a single word, to take with him, and retain as his guard, 400 they passed into the council-room. The sitting men, volunteers, as well officers as sub-officers was opened by the reading of a decree of finance, and soldiers.
to be passed by imperial authority, without the 18. “ No Frenchman who shall have followed sanction of the legislative body, which was, howthe Emperor Napoleon or his family, shall be ever, convoked for the 2d of December. The held to have forfeited his rights as such by not decree was for nothing less than to raise the returning to France within three years; at least taxes one half. It passed without any objection they shall not be comprised in the exceptions to the principle, and solely after a short accessory which the French government reserves to itself discussion, in which the emperor expressed va. to grant after the expiration of that term. rious contradictory or absurd opinions. “Taxes,"
19. “ The Polish troops of all arms, in the said he,“ have no limits-in general they present service of France, shall be at liberty to return the idea of a fifth: but they may, according to home, and shall retain their arms and baggage, circumstances, be raised to a quarter, third, half, as a testimony of their bonorable services. The &c. No_Taxes have no limits. If there be officers, sub-officers, and soldiers, shall retain laws to say the contrary, they are laws badly the decorations which have been granted to made.” them, and the pensions annexed to those deco After this decree, the projet of a senatus conrations.
sultum was read, to place at the disposal of the 20. “ The high allied powers guarantee the minister of war 300,000 men of the ancient conexecution of all the articles of the present treaty, scriptions, solemnly liberated or exhausted. The and engage to obtain that it shall be adopted and most profound silence reigned in the assembly. guaranteed by France.
The flatterers, when interrogated, remained si21. " The present act shall be ratified, and the lent for some time. A member, however, at
length said—“ Sire, the safety of the empire." Though his fall from the highest rank of so- BOOK XII. Another blamed the expression in the projet of vereignty, and the real power of wielding the frontiers invaded, as being alarming. «Why?'' first sceptre in Europe, to the station of lord of a Chap. I. replied the emperor, “ it is better to tell the petty island, was one of the greatest that history truth now. Is not Wellington in the South! The
1814, records, yet the alleviation by which it was Russians in the North? Do not the Austrians
Do not the Austrians attended, migbt, in some degree, flatter his pride and Bavarians menace the East ? Wellington and support his ideas of self-consequence. He in France !-What a shame! and they did not set out from Fontainbleau on the 20th of April. rise in a mass to drive him out!—The English The circumstances of the parting scene deserves will laugh at the simplicity of our peasants. But to be mentioned. To the officers and subalterns the English have no ships there, they cannot of the old guard, who were still with him, Napractice their naval maneuvres; they are on our poleon spoke in nearly the following words :territory; we must beat them and drive them out. “I bid you farewell. During the twenty All my allies have abandoned me; the Bavarians years that we have acted together, I have been have betrayed me: Cowards! they would place satisfied with you. I bave always found you themselves in my rear; they pretended to cut in the path of glory. All the powers of Euoff my retreat, but they were well-paid for it; rope have armed against me: a part of my genethey were mowed down and massacred: I killed rals have betrayed their duty: France itself has Wrede and all his relations with him. No: no betrayed it. With your assistance, and that of peace till I have burned Munich! Atriumvirate the brave men who remained faithful to me, I is formed in the North, the same that divided have for three years preserved France from civil Poland. No peace till it be broken. Vienna Be faithful to the new king whom France next year! We shall see! I demand 300,000 has chosen; be obedient to your commanders, men. I will form a camp of 100,000 at Bor and do not abandon your dear country, which deaux, another at Lyons, and a third at Metz. too long has suffered. Pity not my fate: I shall With the former levy and what remains I shall be happy when I know that you are so likewise. have one million of men under arms; that will do I might have died: nothing would have been for the moment. I demand 300,000 men; but I more easy for me: but I still wish to pursue the must have men, grown men. What are these path of glory: What we have done I will write, young conscripts good for? to choak up the hos I cannot embrace you all; but I will embrace pitals or die on the roads. The French are
your general-come, general. (He embraced always brave-so are the Piedmontese and Ita- him.) Let the eagle be brought to me, that I lians; they fight well; but these men of the north may also embrace it. (On embracing it, he said) (Germans) they are good for nothing–It is not Ah, dear eagle, may the kisses which I bestow blood but water ' tbat flows in their veins! I on you resound to posterity! Adieu, my chilcannot really rely but on the inhabitants of an dren! Adieu my brave companions! Once cient France.”-“ Sire, the Belgians," said one more encompass me.” member—“ Yes, the Belgians," replied the em The staff, accompanied by the commissioners peror, “ they love me perhaps. What signify all of the four allied powers
, formed a circle round these addresses they make them send? It is the him, and Bonaparte got into his carriage, maniheight of ridicule!"_" Sire,” said another mem festly affected with the scene. He was followed ber, “ ancient France must remain to us. by fourteen carriages, and his suite employed “ And Holland," said the emperor, turning short sixty post-horses. The four commissioners acupon him," rather than give up Holland, I would companied him, and the principal officers of his bury it in the sea. As for Italy, if she be not household were part of his suite. So great was under France she must be independent.
the enthusiasm produced by this speech among “ Gentlemen, we must have an impulse: all the soldiers present, that it was received with must march. It may not come to that, but, in shouts and cries of “ Vive l'Empereur!”—“ A short, it should. M. Cambaceres, you too shall Paris !"_“ A Paris!” and when he departed march, you shall be chief of a legion !
under the custody of the allied commissioners the “ Counsellors of state! you are fathers of fami- whole army wept; there was not a dry eye in the Jies; you are the chiefs of the nation. It is you multitude who were assembled to witness his dethat should give this impulse. I know it-you parture. Even the imperial guard, who had been are effeminate, cowardly. They speak of peace trained in scenes of suffering from their first --peace! peace! I hear no other word than peace! entry into the service, who had been inured, for a whilst all should cry out for war!"
long course of years, to the daily sight of human After this speech, the plan of senatus consul misery, and had constantly made a sport of all tum was adopted. The emperor
the the afflictions which are fitted to move the human sitting, and every body withdrew, agitated by heart, shared in the general grief; they seemed
BOOK XII. mander was involved, the hardships to which the gates of Moscow, and shed over the fall of
they had been exposed, and the destruction which their emperor those tears of genuine sorrow CBAP. I.
he had brought upon their brethren in arms; they which they denied to the deepest scenes of pri1814.
remembered him when he stood victorious on the .vate suffering, or the most aggravated instances field of Austerlitz, or passed in triumph through of individual distress.
Operations of the Army under Lord Wellington.-Battle of Thoulouse.-Cessation of Hostilities.
Remarks on the Military Characters of Lord Wellington and Soult. Affairs of Spain.Proceedings of the Cortes.--Arrival of Ferdinand in Spain.-Affairs of Holland.— The British repulsed in an Attack on Bergen-op-Zoom.—Belgium.-Carnot's Conduct at Antwerp.-Military Operations in Italy.--Treaty between the King of Naples and Emperor of Austria.- Armistice. -The French evacuate Italy.-Capture of Genoa by Lord Bentinck. Restoration of the Pope to his Dominions.
The deposition of Bonaparte, and the restora Garonne and the celebrated canal of Languedoc; țion of the Bourbons, being the great crisis to and part of an ancient wall still remains : tbe which every other civil and military occurrence French engineers took advantage of these cir. on the European continent was subordinate, we cumstances, and constructed têtes-du-pont comshall now bring up to that period the events which manding the approaches by the canal and the had been taking place in other parts.
river, and supporting them by musketry and In the great work of the liberation of France, artillery from the wall. They bad, besides, forand through it of Europe, no country had acted a tified a commanding beight to the eastward with more bonorable and conspicuous part than Great five redoubts; and as the roads had become imBritain; for many years, indeed, her co-operation passable for artillery and cavalry, no alternative had been almost entirely confined to the supply remained but to attack them in this formidable of money; or, if she did send troops to the conti- position. nent, their courage was rendered of no avail, by On the 8th of April, part of Lord Wellington's incapacity either in the plan or execution of the army moved across the Garonne; and the cavalry purpose for which they were sent. At last the of the enemy were driven from a village on a campaign in the Peninsula commenced; and the small river which falls into the Garonne below British soldiers displayed what they were capa the town: between this river and canal of Lanble of doing when led on by a general worthy to guedoc were the fortified heights which formed command them, and taught the nations of Eu- the chief strength of the enemy's position. Lord rope, that the generals and soldiers of France Wellington therefore resolved, that while these were not invincible.
heights were stormed in front, the enemy's right We have already mentioned, in our tenth should be turned, and the tête-du-pont on the cabook, that Soult had retreated in the direction of Dal to the left should be threatened, and that Thoulouse after the battle of Orthies. To that these operations on the right of the Garonne city he was followed by Lord Wellington. Be should be supported by a simultaneous attack on fore, however,
be attacked the enemy, Bonaparte the tête-du-pont formed by the suburb on the left had been overthrown, and intelligence of this of the river. The whole of the 9th was occupied event had been sent both to Lord Wellington in making preparations for these different attaeks; and Soult; but the messengers being unaccount and on the 10ih they were carried into execution. ably detained on the road, hostilities between the Marshal Beresford carried the heights of Monttwo armies continued after peace was restored to blanc, and forced his way to the point, at which tbe rest of France. Though Thoulouse was not na. he turned the enemy's rigbt, while a Spanish turally very strong, yet Soult had had time to pre corps moved forward to the attack in front; but pare for its defence, by the continual falls of rain the French troops were so strongly posted, that wbich impeded the advance of the allied army. they not only repulsed but pursued the assailants This city is surrounded, on three sides, by the to some distance. At this time, the light dixi
sion, under Sir Thomas Picton, was moved up commanded by Suchet, who had likewise acknow- BOOK XII. to their assistance; they were formed again, and ledged the provisional government. brought back to the attack.
We have so often had occasion to dwell
CAAP. II. In the mean time Marshal Beresford had suc the transcendent talents of Lord Wellington, that ceeded in carrying the redoubt, which covered it is almost needless to bring them again under
1814. the extreme right of the enemy, and had esta the notice of our readers ; yet, as hostilities were blished himself on the heights on which the four now brought to a conclusion, we may be perother redoubts were placed. As soon
mitted to say a few words on the subject. When marshal's artillery could be brought up, and the Lord Wellington first took the command of the Spaniards were formed again, the marshal con British army in the Peninsula, he had many pretinued bis movement along the heights, and judices to contend against. The ambition, and storined the two next redoubts, which covered the alleged vanity of his family, were much to the centre of the enemy; who, after being driven his disadvantage; wbile the convention of Cintra, from them, made a desperate effort to regain and the very high reputation of the armies to them. There now remained only the two re which he was opposed, induced those who did doubts on the enemy's left, and these were soon not know him thoroughly, to anticipate only decarried by the British troops advancing along feat and disaster. Even when he retreated to the ridge, while the Spaniards, at the same time, the lines before Lisbon, his talents, as a general, attacked in front. While these things were going were not duly appreciated ; but wben it was seen on, Sir Tbomas Picton drove the enemy's left that he had thus foiled Massena, one of the best within the tête-du-pont on the canal; and Sir and most experienced of Bonaparte's generals, Rowland Hill forced the works of the suburb on his reputation began to rise; and each subsethe left of ibe Garonne; so that, at the close of quent transaction, in wbich he was engaged, the day, the French were closely bemmed in, the proved that it had not yet attained its just height. allies having established themselves on three Indeed, there seems scarcely a single quality or sides of Thoulouse, and the road of Carcassone talent, either of nature or experience, necessary being the only one left open. By this road Mar to constitute a consummate general, which he sha Soult drew off the remainder of bis troops, does not possess. Endowed with great quick ' in the night of the 11th, leaving in the hands of ness and comprehension of mind, he unites with the allies three generals, and 1,600 prisoners; it more tban a usual share of coolness and deterand Lord Wellington entered Thoulouse in tri mination; while he continues to inspire his offiumph the following morning.
cers, and even his men, with many of his own The loss of the combined army in this battle qualities. To the comfort of his soldiers be was was very severe, amounting to about 600 killed, particularly attentive; so that while in point of and 4,000 wounded. It was not till the evening discipliue he was uncommonly strict, and even of that day (the 12th), that his lordship received severe, he was yet a favorite with them on acfrom Paris intelligence of the events which bad count of his looking so carefully, and so much occurred in that capital. It was brought by Co- like a father, after their wants. lonel Cooke, who was accompanied by a French Of all the French marshals and generals to officer (Colonel St. Simon), directed by the pro- whom Lord Wellington was opposed: Soult was visional government to convey the same informa undoubtedly the man of the most talent. Stern tion to Marshals Soult and Suchet. The former and unbending in his temper, he was possessed did not, at first, consider it to be so authentic as of uncommon vigour of mind, and of great perto induce birn to send his submission to the new sonal courage. The whole of his conduct in the government; but proposed to Lord Wellington a south of Spain, particularly bis mode of orgasuspension of hostilities, for the purpose of giving nizing that part of the country, so as to maintain bim time to ascertain the real state of affairs. To a large army there for so long a time, in the this bis lordship refused bis consent, and marched midst of, the greatest difficulties, sufficiently his troops forward, on the 15th and 17th, to Cas proves that his talents were not merely those of telnaudary; in the mean time, he coucluded a a soldier; while the manner in which he opposed suspension, with the commandant of Montauban. Lord Wellington, even after a great part of his On the 10th, another officer arriving from Paris, old and best troops had been withdrawn by Bowas forwarded to Soult, who, on the following naparte, and had been replaced by, raw and day, sent Lord Wellington a letter, by the ge- inexperienced conscripts, proves that he was worneral-of-division Count Gozan, ioforming bim thy of contending with the British chief. ' that he had formally acknowledged the provi One unfortunate event marked the close of the sional government of France. In consequence, campaign in the south of France. Sir John a convention for the suspension of hostilities was Hope, after the battle of Orthies, invested Bay- . immediately entered into, which included not onne; before this place the enemy had an enonly the army under Marshal Soult, but that also trenched camp, from which they made a sortie