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nizance of the crimes of high-treason and offences is administered in his name by judges, whom he BOOK XII, against the state. Peers only to be judged by nominates and appoints. Art. 58, the judges
nominated by the king cannot be removed. CHAP. VII,
Art. 59, the ordinary courts and tribunals acOF THE CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES OF DEPARTMENTS.
1814. Art. 33, this chamber to be composed of de. tually existing are retained. Art. 60, the pre
sent institution of the judges of commerce is preputies chosen by the electoral colleges, whose
served. Art. 61, the office of justice of the organization shall be determined by law. Art. 36 and 37, every department to have the same
peace is likewise retained. The justices of the number of deputies as at present; the deputies to
peace, though nominated by the king, are re
moreable. Art. 62, no man can be taken out of be cbosen for five years, and the chamber to be
the hands of his natural judges. Art. 63, there renewed annually, by a fifth. Art. 38, no deputy can be admitted into the chamber, unless he
cannot, of course, be created any extraordinary
commissions and tribunals. Art. 64, the pleadbe forty years of age, and pay direct taxes to the amount of 1,000 francs. By Art. 40, the electors ings in criminal matters may be published, unless
their publicity he dangerous to good order and of the deputies must pay direct taxes to the
morals; and, in this case, the tribunal sball declare amount of 300 francs, and be at least thirty years
it by a judgment. Art. 65, the institution of juof age. By Art. 41, the presidents of the electoral colleges are to be nominated by the king. fiscation of property is abolished, and cannot be
ries is retained. Art. 66, the penalty of the conBy Art. 43, the king appoints the president of the re-established. “ Art. 67, the king has the right chamber of deputies from a list of five members presented by the chamber. Art. 44, the sittings Art. 68, the
civil code and the laws actually ex- ,
of pardon, and that of commuting punishments. of the chamber are public; but the demand of isting, not contrary to the present charter, remain five members is sufficient for forming it into a
iu force till they shall be legally abolished. secret committee. Art. 45, the chamber divides itself into bureaux to discuss the projets which
PARTICULAR RIGHTS GUARANTEED BY THE STATE. have been presented to it on the part of the king.
Art. 69, the military in active service, the offiArt. 46, no amendment can be made in a law,
cers and soldiers who have retired, the widows, unless proposed in committee by the king, and
officers, and soldiers pensioned, shall retain their unless transmitted to and discussed in the bu
ranks, honors, and pensions. Art. 70, the public reaux. Art. 47 and 48, the chamber of de
debt is guaranteed; all kinds of engagements puties receives all propositions for taxes; and
contracted by the state with its creditors are inno tax can be imposed or levied unless as
violable. Art. 71, the ancient nobility resume sented to by the two chambers, and sanc
their titles; the new retain theirs. tioned by the king. Art. 49, the land-tax is
creates nobles at pleasure, but he confers on them voted only for a year; the indirect taxes may
only ranks and honors, without any exemption voted for several years. Art. 50, the king every
from the charges and duties of society. Art. 72, year convokes the two chambers; he prorogues them, and may dissolve that of the deputies; but, fix its anterior regulations and decorations. Art.
the legion of bonor is maintained. The king will in this case, he must convoke a new one within the
73, the colonies shall be governed by particular space of three months. Art. 51, no personal re
laws and regulations. Art. 74, the king and straint shall be laid upon any member of the
bis successors shall swear at the ceremony of their house during the session, or within six weeks be
anointment to the faithful observance of the
prefore and after it. Art. 52, no member of the
sent constitutional charter. house can, during the session, be prosecuted or arrested for criminal matters, till the house has permitted his prosecution. Art. 53, all petitions
Art. 75, the deputies of the departments of io either house must be presented in writing.
France, who sat in the legislative body at the OF THIE MINISTERS.
time of the last adjournment, shall continue to sit Art. 54, the ministers may be members of the in the house of deputies till they are replaced. chamber of peers or of that of deputies. They have, Art. 76, the first renewal of one-fifth of the house moreover, a right to admission in either house, of deputies shall take place, at the latest, in the and must be heard whenever they desire it. Art. year 1816, according to the order fixed between 55, the chamber of deputies has a right to im
the classes. peach the ininisters, before the peers, which alone After these proceedings, his majesty rose ainidst are competent to try them. Art. 56, they cannot repeated acclamations, and returned to the Thuil, be accused, except for high-treason or peculation. leries. The two houses then repaired to their
respective chambers, and both of them voted adOF THE JUDICIAL ORDER.
dresses of thanks to his majesty. Art. 57, all justice emanates from the king; it A nomination of 154 persons was afterwards
BOOK XII. made by the king to compose for life the French made to him; above all, my deep repentance for
house of peers. A number of the marshals of having signed my name (although against my CHAP. VII. France created in the late government were in will) to acts contrary to the discipline and belief
this list, but it was remarked that the names of of the catholic church, to which my heart has 1814. Soult and Massena did not appear in it.
ever been sincerely united. I beseech God to The king having alluded to the will of Louis accept my firm resolution of taking the first XVI. in his speech to the legislative body, we opportunity in my power of making a full conshall here present our readers with a correct copy fession of my sins to a catbolic priest, and of of that interesting document.
receiving the sacrament of penitence. I beg all
those whom I bave offended, through inadverThe last Will and Testament of Louis XVI. tency, (for I do not recollect having ever inten
« In the name of the Holy Trinity, the Fa- tionally offended any one) and also those to ther, Son, and Holy Ghost. This day, the 21st whom I may have given a bad example, to of December, 1792, I, Louis the Sixteenth, forgive me for the evil which such conduct may King of France, having been for more than four have produced. I beseech all those who are months shut up with my family in the tower of endowed with charity, to join their prayers with the Temple, by those who were my subjects, and mine, to obtain of God the pardon of my iniquideprived of every communication, even with my ties. I pardon, with my whole heart, those who family, since the eleventh of this month ; and bave become my enemies without cause, and I being moreover involved in a trial, of which, from pray God to pardon them; as also those who, the passions of men, it is impossible to foresee from false or inistaken zeal, have done me the The event, and for which neither pretext nor pre- greatest injuries. cedent can be found in any existing law; having
“ I recommend to God my wife, my chilno witness of my thoughts but God, and no one dren, my sister, my aunts, my brothers, and all but him to whom I can address myself, I here de- those who are attached to me by the ties of blood clare, in his presence, my last will and senti or in any manner whatsoever. I earnestly in treat ments.
of God to cast the eyes of mercy on my wife, my “'I recommend my soul to God my Creator, children, and my sister, who have for a long beseeching bim to receive it in his mercy, and not time suffered with me; and, in case of their to judge me according to my merits, but accord- losing me, that he may be their support and ing to the merits of Jesus Christ our Lord, who consolation, as long as they sball remain in this offered himself as a sacrifice to God bis father perishable world. for the human race, unworthy as we are, I myself “ I recommend my children to my wife. I in particular. I die in the communion of our never doubted her maternal tenderness; and I holy mother, the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman recommend, above all, that she will carefully enchurch, wbich holds its power by an uninter- deavour to make them good christians; to teach rupted succession from St. Peter, to whom Jesus them to consider worldly grandeur as dangerous Christ entrusted it. I finally believe all that and perishable, and to fix their minds on eternity, is contained in the apostles' creed, and in the where alone solid and lasting glory is to be found. commandments of God and the church; in the I entreat my sister to continue ber tenderness to sacraments and mysteries, as the catholic church my children, and that she will be to them as a teaches and has always taught. I have never parent, if they should bave the misfortune to lose presumed to make myself a judge of the different their mother. I beseech my wife to forgive me manners of explaining the doctrines which divide all those hardsbips she bas undergone on my acthe church of Jesus Christ, but I have always count, and all the uneasiness I may have given adhered to, and if it pleases God to prolong my her in the course of our union; and if she should life, shall always abide by, the decisions which think that she has any cause to reproach herself the superior ecclesiastics, in uuion with the holy on account of any part of her conduct towards church, have given, according to the discipline me, she may rest assured that I retain nothing on observed since Jesus Christ. I lainent, with my my mind unfavorable to her. whole heart, those of my brethren of mankind " I recommend, with the greatest earnestwho are in error, but do not presume to judge ness, to my children, after what they owe to God, them; and I do not the less love them all in which must ever be considered as their first duty, Jesus Christ, as christian charity enjoins. I to remain always united to each other, submisimplore God to pardon all my sing. I have sive aud obedient to their mother, and grateful endeavoured serupulously to know them, to detest for the pains and care she takes of them; and I them, and to bumble myself in the presence of conjure them, for my sake, that they shall respect the Almighty. Not having it in my power to their aunt as a second mother. avail myself of the ministry of a catholic priest, “ If my son should ever have the misfortune I pray God to receive the confession wbich I have to be established on the throne, I anxiously re
commend that he should devote himself to the whom I never had bestowed any favor. I beg BOOK XII. bappiness of his countrymen; that be ought to that all those persons will accept my grateful acdivest himself of all resentment and animosities, knowledgments. In the present situation of things, Char. VII. particularly those which have a reference to my I fear that I should injure them by being more misfortunes and miseries. He can ensure the explicit on this subject : but I particularly exhort happiness of the people only by reigning accord. my son to seek opportunities of making them a ing to the laws; although, at the same time, a suitable return. I think, however, that it would king cannot make himself respected, and do all be calumniating the nation to express any fear of the good which is in the heart, without a neces- openly recommending to my son M. de Chamilly sary degree of authority; without which he must and M. Hue, whose sincere attachment to me be confined in his operations; and when he can bas induced them to shut themselves up along not inspire respect, he necessarily becomes more with me in this melancholy abode, and who have hurtful than useful.
been frequently in danger of becoming victims to “ I recommend to my son, to take care of their generosity. I also recommend to him, all those persons who have been attached to me, Clery, with whose attention I have had every as far as the circumstances in which he may find reason to be satisfied since he has been with me; himself shall afford him opportunity. He ought and as he has remained with me to the last, I beg ever to regard this as a sacred debi which I have of the commune to give to him my clothes, my contracted towards the children or parents of books, my watch, my money, and all the other those who perished for my sake, or bave been effects belonging to me, which have been derendered miserable on my account. I know there posited in the hands of the council of the comare several persons, amongst those who were attached to me, who bave not behaved towards “ I most willingly pardon those who have me as they ought to have done, and who have even guarded me, for the harshness of their conduct, shewn ingratitude: but I forgive them (for in and the constraint which they thought necessary times of trouble and effervescence, men are not to impose upon me. I have found in the temple always masters of their conduct); and I beseech some persons of feeling and humanity : may my son, should he find an opportunity of serving they long enjoy that serenity of mind which such them, to reflect only upon their misfortunes. dispositions naturally produce!
“ I wish it were in my power openly to ex «I beseech Messrs. de Malesherbes, Tronchet, press my gratitude to all who have shewn me a and Deseze, to receive my most grateful thanks truly disinterested attachment: but if I have and cordial acknowledgments for the pain and been painfully affected by the ingratitude and dis- labour they have taken for me. loyalty of those to whom I have always acted “ I conclude by declaring, before God, being with kindness, I have likewise had the consola- ready to appear in his presence, that I do not retion of receiving services and strong marks of proach myself with any of those crimes which bave attachment from several of my subjects, on been charged against me.
Projet of the Law for the Liberty of the Press submitted to the Chamber of Deputies.Remarks
upon it.The Law referred to a Committee of the Chamber.-Their Report.-Speech of M. Raynouard on this Occasion. Discussions in the Chamber respecting it. - Speech of the Abbé Montesquiéu in Defence of it.-Reply of M. Raynouard.
It is not our object to enter on a detailed ae and the Count de Blacas were introduced into count of all the topics which engaged the atten the chamber of deputies, being ordered by the king tion of the Freneh chambers during their first to present a law on the liberty of the press: this session ; but some it would be improper to pass was prefaced by an explanatory speech from over. The first in importance respected the the former, of which the following is the outliberty of the press, which had been stipulated line: for in the 8th article of tbe constitutional charter. “ Gentlemen, the king charges me to present