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Return of the Pope of Rome.- His Measures for restoring the Ecclesiastical Authority and Pro
perty of the Church.-Re-establishes the Order of Jesuits.-Festivals renewed.-Suppression of Freemasons and other secret Societies.-Re-establishment of the regular Orders.—King of Sardiria restored to his Dominions. His Proclamation.--Observations.-Bonaparte's Arrival at
Elba.-Papers issued on the Occasion.--Death of the Empress Josephine.- Her Funeral. BOOK XII. Of all the sovereigns, whom the subversion of On the 7th of August, that event so important
the tyranny of Napoleon restored to their domi to the church of Rome, and which peculiarly CôAP. X.
nions, no one appears to have resumed bis au marks the spirit of the present pontificate, the
thority with the resolution of exercising it more restoration of the order of Jesuits was publicly 1814.
fully to its former extent, than Pope Pius VII. declared. When it is considered that the supPreviously to his return to Rome, he issued a pression of this order, in 1773, was effected by proclamation at Cezena, on the 5th of May, the compulsion of the sovereigns of the house of wherein he applied to himself the ancient title of Bourbon, and was the consequence of that jea“ God's vicar on earth ;" he spoke of his tem lousy of its power, and detestation of its prinporal sovereignty as essentially connected with ciples, which then seemed almost universal in his spiritual supremacy, and acquainted bis peo the catholic world, it must appear a measure of ple, that although he could not at this moment extraordinary boldness in a pontiff but just reresume the exercise of it in all the ancient pos stored to his own authority, to become the renosessions of the church, he did not doubt shortly vator of a body lately so obnoxious. The Jesuits, to recover them, being confident, not less in the indeed, were always regarded as the most deinviolability of his sacred rights, than in the voted satellites of the see of Rome; whence it justice of the allied sovereigns. A proclamation, was not to be wondered at that their revival was issued at Rome, on the 15th of May, declared in a desirable object of the papal court ; but the the name of his holiness the abolition of the policy of effecting it in so precipitate a manner, code Napoleon, and the restoration of the former and by a mere exertion of ecclesiastical authopontifical, civil, and criminal code; also the sup rity, appears very questionable. The ceremonial pression of what was called the civil state; and observed on this great occasion is thus described. that all the funds, rents, &c. of every corporation
“ His holinines, on Sunday, August 7, went to shall be placed under the administration of a the church of Jesus, to celebrate high-mass at the commission formed of ecclesiastics, which com altar of St. Ignatius. After hearing another mass, mission is immediately, “ even previously to the he proceeded to the neighbouring oratory of the examination of the respective and legitimate congregational nobles, where he was seated on rights,” to restore the yet un-alienated property of a throne prepared for him. He then handed to all religious establishments, and to cause the regu the master of the ceremonies, and caused him to lars of each sect to be paid a two month's pension, read, with a loud voice, the following bull, for the and to provide for the public service in the re-establishment of the coinpany of Jesuits. churches.
* The pope, on resuming his functions in person, PIUS, BISHOP, SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD. at his capital, at first contented himself with re
(Ad perpetuam rei memoriam.) quiring the retraction of those who had taken 6 The care of all the churches confided to our part in the late usurped government, and for humility by the divine will, notwithstanding the bade, by a proclamation, all inquiries by indivi lowness of our deserts and abilities, makes it our duals into the late transactions, reserving to duty to employ all the aids in our power, and himself all proceedings against the culpable. which are furnished to us by the mercy of Divine Such ecclesiastics as had taken the oath to Bona Providence, in order that we may be able, as far parte were ordered to disclaim it, on pain of being as the changes of times and places will allow, to suspended from all divine offices. A commission relieve the spiritual wants of the Catholic world, was appointed in July for the purpose of making without any distinction of people and nations. a report on the property termed national, or ex “ Wishing to fulfil this duty of our apostolic mitraordinary domains, which had been ceded to nistry, as soon as Francis Kareu (then living) and companies that were creditors of the French go- other secular priests resident for many years in vernment, or had been sold by agents of the the vast empire of Russia, and who had been financial administration.
members of the company of Jesus suppressed by
Clement XIV. of happy memory, had suppli- the kingdom of Sicily, on the warm request of BOUK XII. cated our permission to unite in a hody, for the our dear son in Jesus Christ, King Ferdinand, purpose of beiug able to apply themselves more
who begged that the company of Jesus might be Crap. X. easily, in conformity with their institution, to the re-established in his dominions and states as it instruction of youth in religion and good morals, was in Russia, from a conviction that, in these
1814. to devote themselves to preaching, to confession, deplorable times, the Jesuits were instructors and the adıninistration of the other sacranients, most capable of forming youth to Christian piety we felt it our duty the more willingly to comply and the fear of God, which is the beginning of with their prayer, inasmuch as the then reigning wisdom, and to instruct them in science and letEmperor Paul I. had recommended the said ters. The duty of our pastoral charge leading priests in his gracious dispatch, dated the 11th us to second the pious wishes of these illustrious of August, 1800, in which, after setting forth his monarchs, and having only in view the glory of special regard for them, he declared to us that it God and the salvation of souls, we by our brief, would be agreeable to him to see the company of beginning Per alias, and dated the 30th of July, Jesus established in his empire, under our autho- 1804, extended to the kingdom of the Two Sicirity: and we, on our side, considering attentively lies the same concessions which we had made for the great advantages wbich these vast regions the Russian empire. might thence derive ; considering how useful “ The Catholic world demands, with unanithose ecclesiastics, whose morals and doctrine mous voice, the re-establishment of the company were equally tried, would be to the Catholic reli- of Jesus.
of Jesus. We daily receive to this effect the gion, thought fit to second the wish of so great most pressing petitions from our venerable breand beneficent a prince.
thren, the archbishops and bishops, and the most “ In consequence, by our brief, dated the 7th distinguished persons, especially since the abunof March, 1801, we granted to the said Francis dant fruits which this company has produced in Kareu, and his colleagues residing in Russia, or the above countries have been generally known. who should repair thither from other countries, The dispersion even of the stones of the sanctuary power to form themselves into a body or congre- in those recent calamities (which it is better now gation of the company of Jesus; they are at li to deplore than to repeat); the annibilation of the berty to unite in one or more houses to be pointed discipline of the regular orders (the glory and out by their superior, provided these houses are support of religion and the Catholic church, to the situated within the Russian empire. We named restoration of which all our thoughts and cares the said Francis Kareu general of the said con are at present directed), require that we should gregation; we authorised them to resume and accede to a wish so just and general. follow the rule of St. Ignacius of Loyola, ap
6 We should deem ourselves guilty of a great proved and confirmed by the constitutions of Paul crime towards God, if, amidst these dangers of III. our predecessor, of happy memory, in order the christian republic, we neglected the aids that the companions, in a religious union, might' which the special providence of God has put at ; freely engage in the instruction of youth in reli our disposal ; and if, placed in the bark of Peter, gion and good letters, direct seminaries and col tossed and assailed by continual storms, we releges, and with the consent of the ordinary, con fused to employ the vigorous and experienced fess, preach the word of God, and administer the rowers who volunteer their services, in order to sacraments. By the same brief we received the break the waves of a sea which threatens every congregation of the company of Jesus under our moment shipwreck and death. Decided by moimmediate protection and dependence, reserving tives so numerous and powerful, we have resolved to ourselves and our successors the prescription to do now what we could have wished to have of every thing that might appear to ús proper to done at the commencement of our pontificate. consolidate, to defend it, and to purge it from After having by fervent prayers implored the Dithe abuses and corruption that might be therein ' vine assistance, after baving taken the advice and introduced; and for this purpose we expressly counsel of a great number of our venerable broabrogated such apostolical constitutions, statutes, thers the cardinals of the holy Roman church, privileges, and indulgences granted in contradic we have decreed, with full knowledge, in virtue tion to these concessions, especially the apostolic of the plenitude of apostolic power, and with letters of Clement XIV. our predecessor, which perpetual validity, that all the concessions and begin with the words, Dominus ac 'Redemptor powers granted by us solely to the Russian emNoster, only in so far as they are contrary to our pire and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, sball brief, beginning Catholicæ, and which was given ' henceforth extend to all our ecclesiastical states, only for the Russian empire.
and also to all other states. We therefore con« A short time after we had ordained the re cede and grant to our well-beloved son, Taddeo storation of the order of Jesuits in Russia, we Barzozowski, at this time general of the company thought it our duty to grant the same favor 'to of Jesus, and to the other members of that com
BOOK XII. pany lawfully delegated by him, all suitable and cially the brief of Clement XIV. of happy me
necessary powers, in order that the said states mory, beginning with the words, Dominus ac Cuar. X. may freely and lawfully receive all those who Redemptor Noster, issued under the seal of the
shall wish to be admitted into the regular order Fisherman, on the 22d of July, 1773, which we 1814.
of the company of Jesus, who, under the au expressly abrogate, as far as contrary to the pre-
“ Cardinal PRODATAIRE.. obedience, and that of the holy see, all the col
“ Cardinal BRASCHI leges, houses, provinces, and members of this order, and all those who sball join il; always After the reading of the bull, the Jesuits prereserving to ourselves and the Roman pontiffs sent were admitted to kiss the pope's feet, and an our successors, to prescribe and direct all ihat we act was afterwards read concerning the restitution may deem it our duty to prescribe and direct to of the patrimony of the Jesuits in funds still existconsolidate the said company more and more, to ing, and provisional compensations for alienated render it stronger, and to purge it of abuses, property. “ Thus," says the Diario Romanio, should they ever creep in, which God avert. It 56 ended a ceremony eternally glorious and menow remains for us to exhort, with all our heart, morable!” That, however, tbis restoration was and in the name of the Lord, all superiors, pro not universally approved even at Rome, appeared vincials, rectors, companions, and pupils of this from a number of satirical pieces circulated on re-established society, to shew themselves at all tbe occasion.. times and in all places faithful imitators of their In the progress of re-establishing, every thing father; that they exactly observe the rule pre- ancient, which was the predominant principle of scribed by their great founder; that they obeythe revived papal government, the magistracy of with an always increasing zeal, the useful ad Rome published an ordinance by which the faithvices and salutary counsels which he has left to ful were apprised that all the festivals observed his children.
before the incorporation of the city with the “ In fine, we recommend strongly, in the Lord, French empire were restored. Another more the company and all its members to our dear sons puerile example of the same policy was given by in Jesus Christ, the illustrious and noble princes a rescript, which announced that the lamps introand lords temporal, as well as to our venerable duced by the late government were suppressed. brothers the archbishops and bisbops, and to all The streets of Rome were formerly lighted by the those who are placed. in authority; we exhort, flambeaux and lanterns placed by devotees under we conjure them, not only not to suffer that these the numerous images erected at the corners and religious be in any way molested, but to watch crossings, as well as those at the doors of private that they be treated with all due kindness and houses, and it was thoughit proper to renew this charity.
mode, however irregular, as gratifying to pious “ We ordain that the present letters be invio. feelings, and costing nothing to the government. lably observed, according to their form and . It was in a more enlightened spirit that the tenour, in all time coming; that they enjoy their governor made known that the places called full and entire effect; that they shall never be sanctuaries were no longer to afford security to submitted to the judgment or revision of any criminals. In every arbitrary goveroment, secret judge, with whatever power be may be clothed; meetings and associations of persons connected declaring null and of no effeet any encroachment by rites or engagements, known, only to themon the present regulations, either knowingly or selves, are objects.of particular jealousy, it being from ignorance; and this, notwithstanding any justly concluded, that where men are restrained apostolical constitutions and ordinances, espe- from expressing their opinions openly, they will.
naturally seek such occasions of propagating them allied powers, dated Paris, April 25, and address- BOOK XII. in private. On this account, the societies of free- ed to the subjects of the continental states of the masons, which, among us, no one suspects of King of Sardinia, in which they are informed,
CHAP. X. serious or dangerous intentions, have been re that they are about to return under the dominion
1814. garded in many parts of the continent as insti- of that august family; and that, in virtue of a tuted for the purpose of fostering innovations in convention concluded with France, the Austrian church or state; and it appears, that under this troops are to take possession of the country in the idea they were peculiarly obnoxious to the Roman name of Victor Emanuel; and till the arrival of government. Cardinal' Pacca, pro-secretary of his Sardinian majesty, bis states will be admistate, published in August an edict, prohibiting, nistered by a military governor charged with under very severe penalties, all assemblies of their defence, and by a civil governor, assisted secret societies, especially of that of free-masons. by a council of regency. In the same declaraAt the same time, the greatest encouragements tion, Count Bubna was nominated to the former were offered to all who should become informers; post, and the Count de St. Marsan to the latter. and they were told by his holiness, that there The King of Sardinia arrived at Genoa on the was nothing wroog or dishonorable in such de 12th of May, where he issued the following propunciations, since they were equally important' olamation to bis Italian subjects, announcing the to the faith and the state. In consequence, many recovery of his rights:-persons were committed to prison, or otherwise. “ Called by the renunciation of our dearly-bepunished.
loved brother, Cbarles Emanuel, and by the right It was by no means to the Jesuits that this zea- of succession to the throne of our august anceslous pope Timnited his purpose of re-establishing tors, my heart longs, after sixteen years of the the religious orders fallen to decay in the late severest afflictions and the most cruel vicissitudes, revolutionary times. Sensible that all the mo to be again in the midst of you, my beloved subnastic communities were attached to the see- of jects, like a tender father in the midst of his Rome-as their head, and regarding them as the children. The odious barriers which separated firmest pillars of the church, he had, from the us are at length overthrown. Divine Providence time of his restoration, declared his intention of bas animated the allied powers with one spirit, reinstating them, as far as was in his power, in and directed their hearts and wills to one and the their ancient consequence; and Cardinal Pacca, same object; it has blessed their noble and
geneon the 15th of August, issued an edict, declara rous undertaking; it has led their valiant armies tory of his holiness's views on this subject. After from victory to victory; it has crowned their efrepresenting, as one of the greatest calamities of forts with the most unexpected success. Europe the time, the almost total annihilation of these is free, and the people have recovered their legi. religious societies, and stating the holy father's timate sovereigns, and the rank which they forearnest wishes. to repair the mischief, the edictmerly held among nations. Their happiness is proceeded to mention the many obstacles whieh established on solid and imperishable foundations. at present opposed his designs, and the means. Yours shall ever be the sole objects of our exer: he had in view to overcome them. A commission • tions. had been appointed for investigating every tbing “ Our first care shall be to relieve you from connected with the re-establishment of the regular the load of exorbitant taxes, by which you are orders, which had presented their plan to his bowed down; to make agriculture and commerce holiness ;- but as circumstances would not permit flourish ; and, what is still more interesting to our their renewal in all the pontifical states, it was heart, to restore to our holy religion its ancient proposed to make a commencement at Rorne, lustre. Forget the oppression under which you where all the disposable convents were to be have groaned, and forgive your oppressors. This given tbem, in wbieh the superiors might be we have a right to require of you, and we shall lodged, and “the greatest possible number of ourselves set you the example. Let us form, O!' monks assembled.” A hope was also expressed, faithful subjects, one single family ; let us all con-that from the religion of the governments, and cur in the general felicity. Brave soldiers! we the zeal of the bishops of the Catholic world, remember, with the highest satisfaction, your they would patronize the establishment of these perseverance under fatigues, your intrepidity, asylums of christian piety, and evangelical per-. your manly valour in combat; we call to mind: fection.
with what energy you repulsed, for several years, Among the restitutions definitively agreed upon 'an arrogant and devastating enerny, The field previously to the meeting of the grand congress, of honor batbed with your blood, and the witness. was that of the Italian territories, formerly pos- of your glory, is again open to you and your sosessed by the sovereign house of Sardinia." The vereign, wlio was your companion in arms, in-.. Austrian lieutenant-general,.Count Bubna, pub- vites you to return ibither.
BOOK XII, Whilst we shall make it our business to obtain a hoisted on the castle, amidst the salute of artillery.
correct information relative to the other burdens Soon after, Bonaparte landed with all his suite, Chap. X. from which the present circumstances will allow us and was saluted with 101 rounds of cannon. The
to relieve you, we declare the tax on successions, English frigate replied with a salute of twenty1814.
by or without will, to be abolished, and revive four guns. Napoleon was conducted to the house the law previously in force. The right of patent of the mayor, where he received the visits of all is also abolished.
“ V. EMANUEL,” the superior civil officers; he affected an air of
confidence, and even of gaiety, putting a number The king entered Turin on the 20th. Having of questions relative to the isle. After reposing no force under bis command, his territories con some moments, he got on horseback, and, with his tinued in the military possession of the Austrians, suite, visited the forts of Marciani, Campo, Capo, whilst the organization of the native troops was Liviri, and Rio. Generals Drouet and Bertrand, carrying into effect. In August, however, the and several other officers, accompanied Napoleon Emperor of Austria directed the entire evacuation to the island. Several of his brothers retired te of the provinces of Savoy by his troops, and the Switzerland. After peace was concluded with king determined up the re-establishment of the France, Lucien Bonaparte, who had resided in senate of that duchy. The citadel of Turin bad England several years, repaired to Rome, where he previously been occupied by the Sardinian troops, was received with the greatest distinction by the and the strong fortress of Fenestrella was deli- pope. The Empress Maria Louisa and her son vered up to the commissioners of his majesty. were sent to Vienna; but soon after her arrival Difficulties, however, appear to have occurred in - at that city, the empress set out towards Italy, completing the Piedmontese army; and, although with the intention of visiting her husband at Elba. · the king conferred upon the provinces their an On ber arrival in Tuscany, however, she was cient privileges of forming regiments under their prohibited from proceeding any farther by ber names, and even gave them to their old titular father. proprietors, it was found no easy task to keep The following papers were issued soon after them to their colours. The vallies were said at Bonaparte's arrival on the island :this time to be invested by banditti, which requir « Inhabitants of the Isle of Elba.--The vicissied a regular force for their suppression, and Âus- tudes of human life have conducted the Emperor trian garrisons still beld the towns of Ivree and Napoleon into the midst of you, and his choice Alexandria. The long occupation of Piedmont gives him to you as sovereign. by France had, apparently, fostered a French “ Before entering your interior, your august and interest in that country, which obstructed its new monarch addressed to me the following ready return to its ancient allegiance. The king, words; and I hasten to communicate them to however, on resuming the sovereignty, acted you, because they are the pledge of your future with prudence and moderation.—No one was
one was prosperity :- General, I have sacrificed my disturbed for the part taken under the former rights to the interests of my country, and have government; and several persons were appointed reserved to myself the sovereignty and property to important judicial and administrative posts, who of the isle of Élba ; which has been assented to 1 bad been employed by the French authorities.
by all the powers.
Be so good as to inform the Of the other states of Italy, we shall have oc inhabitants of this new state of things, and of the casion to notice more particularly in our account selection which I have made of their isle for my of the deliberations of the Congress of Vienna ; - residence, in consideration of the mildness of but while we are in this quarter, it may be as well their manners, and of their climate. Tell them, to mention the arrival of Bonaparte at Elba. · they shall be the constant objects of my mast This island is situated on the coast of Tuscany, lively interest.? : and is about thirteen miles long and eight « Elbese ! these words require no commentary; broad. It contains about 13,000 inhabitants. they fix your destiny. The emperor has formed Napoleon, on his arrival on the French coast, a proper judgment of you: it is my duty to embarked on-board an English frigate, and arrived render
you this justice, and I willingly do so. at Porto Ferrajo (the capital of the island) “ Inhabitants of the isle of Elba, I am about on the 3d of May. The commissioners of the to leave you ; this separation will be painful to allies, who accompanied him, immediately land me, because I love you sincerely; but the idea of ed; and having officially communicated to the your happiness mitigates the bitterness of my decommandant of the port the events which parture, and whenever I may, I shall always had taken place in France, the abdication of the cherish a recollection of the virtues of the inbaemperor, and his arrival at Elba, preparations bitants of this isle, and the wishes which I feel were made during the night for his reception. for them. Next morning, a flag sent by the dethroned em
DALESME, general of brigade. peror was brought into the town, and immediately · Porto Ferrajo, May 4, 1814."