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The Vice-prefect of the Isle of Elba, performing these words then form the delightof your thoughts, BOOK XI.
the Functions of Prefect, to the Inhabitants and be impressed on your souls with transports of of that Isle.
consolation ; let fathers rehearse them to their Caap. X. “The most fortunate event which could illustrate children, and let the memory of the words which
1814. the history of the isle of Elba is realized before secure glory and prosperity to the isle of Elba your eyes.
be perpetual from generation to generation. “Our august sovereign, the Emperor Napoleon, « Fortunate citizens of Porto Ferrajo! within is come among us.
your walls the sacred person of his imperial and “Give, then, free course to that joy which must royal majesty is to dwell. Mild in character at overflow your hearts : your wishes are accom all times, constant in affection to your prince, plished, and the felicity of the isle is secured. Napoleon the Great resides with you: never belie
“ Listen to the first memorable words which the favorable idea wbich he formed of you. he has condescended to address to you, through “ Beloved, faithful in Jesus Christ, act in corresthe medium of the public functionaries: I will be pondence to your fate; Non sint schismata inter vas:
good father, be you to me good children. idem sapite, pacem habete, et Deus pacis et dilecLet them be for ever impressed on your grateful tionis erit vobiscum. Let fidelity, gratitude, subhearts.
mission, reign in your hearts. Let all of you “ Let us all rally round his sacred person, emu unite in a respectful sentiment of internal affeclous in zeal and fidelity to save him ; this will be tion for your prince, father rather than sovereign; the sweetest recompense to bis grateful heart, and and exult with sacred joy in the goodness of the thus sball we render ourselves worthy of that sig- Lord, who, from the ages of eternity, had destined nal favor which Providence has conferred on us. for you this happy event.
“ BALBIANI, Vice-prefect. “With this view we order that next Sunday, in * Office of Prefecture, at Porto Ferrajo,
all the churches, a solemn Te Deum be sung, in May 4, 1814."
thanksgiving to the Almighty for the precious gift
which, in the abundance of his mercy, he has conGuiseppe Fillippo Arrighi, Honorary Canon of ferred upon us.
the Cathedral of Pisa, and of the Metropo “ Given from the ecclesiastical court of Elba,
Vicar-general. the Lord, our Brethren composing the Clergy,
- “ FRANCESCO ANGIOLETTI, Secretary." and all the faithful in the Isle, Health and
On the 5th of May, in the morning, Napoleon, " That bigh Providence which irresistibly and with the commissioners of the allied powers, rode beneficently disposes of every thing, and assigns to Porto Longone, about five miles from Porto to nations their destiny, has determined, that Ferrajo. He also visited the iron-mines, which amidst the political changes of Europe we should constitute the chief wealth of the isle of Elba. in future be the subjects of Napoleon the Great. Napoleon was hardly established in his new soThe isle of Elba, already celebrated for its na vereignty, when he received an account of the tural productions, must now be more illustrious in death of his late empress, Josepbine. This priucess the history of nations, because it renders homage died at Malmaison, on the 29th of May, in conto its new prince of immortal fame. The isle of sequence of a disorder which at first exhibited the Elba takes its place in the rank of nations; and symptoms of a catarrhal fever, but suddenly asthe minuteness of its territory becomes ennobled sumed such a malignant character that it carried by the name of its ruler. Elevated to an honor her off in three days. She had the melancholy so sublime, it receives into its bosom the anointed consolation of expiring in the arms of her daughter of the Lord, and those other distinguished per- and her son, from whom she had been a long sonages who accompany him. When his imperial while separated. All parties agreed in giving her and royal majesty selected this isle for his retreat, an excellent character for a humane and benevohe announced to the world with what predilec- lent disposition. Her funeral was celebrated on tion he loved it. Opulence will inundate this the 3d of June, at the church of Ruel, the country, and multitudes will flock from other parts parish in wbich the palace of Malmaison is situto our territory to behold a hero. The first dayated. It was attended by a number of persons he set foot upon our shore, be pronounced our of distinction, among whom were the Prince of destiny and our felicity. I will be a good fatber,' Mecklenburgh, General Sacken, many marshals said be, be you good children.'
of France, senatore, and general officers, both “ Beloved Catholics, what words of tenderness! French and foreigners, the two grand-children of what expressions of benevolence ! what hopes the deceased princess, a great number of ecclesimay we not cherish of our future felicity? Let astics from the neighbouring parishes, prefects,
BOOK XII. sub-prefects, mayors, &c. The funeral ceremony nument would be erected. “ More than 8,000 inwas performed by M. Baral, Archbishop of Tours, habitants of the environs,"
habitants of the environs," says the Paris papers, CHAP. X.
first almoner to the deceased, assisted by the “ assembled to pay the last tribute to the memory
Bishops of Versailles and Evreaux. The body of a princess who so richly deserved the appella1814.
was deposited in a vault recently made under the tion of the mother of the poor and distressed." The nave of the church, in 'which, it was said, a mo empress was born on the 9th of June, 1763.
Switzerland.-Federal Compact published.- Opposition of the Canton of Bern. -Dissentions in
the Cantons.--The Allied Powers interfere.—Diet assembled.—Compact amended and signed by the Deputies of the Cantons.-Its Articles.-Geneva restored to Independence.--Its Constitution and Union with the Swiss Confederacy.-Holland.Remarks upon the Prince of Orange taking the Title of Sovereign-prince of the Netherlands.—Dutch Constitution.—Meeting of the Notables. -Speech of his Royal Highness.-Acceptance of the Constitution, and Oath taken by the Princesovereign.-Meeting of the States-general.-Speech of the Sovereign.-State of Finances.—Dutch Colonies restored.—Catholic Netherlands.—Their projected Union with Holland.- Prince of Orange appointed Provisional Governor.-His Address to the Belgians. Occupation of Belgium by Troops.—Decree concerning French Settlers.-Decree respecting the Press.-Session of the Dutch States-general.-Hamburgh evacuated by the Frenoh.--Its Independence restored.-Address of the Senate on the Occasion.
Whilst the_greater part of the subordinate compact, the avoyer and council of the republic states on the European continent were waiting, of Bern issued a proclamation, addressed to their in suspence, and under provisional occupation, faithful and dear subjects of the canton," which the decision of the great powers respecting their began with reciting the infraction of the ancient future condition, the Swiss confederacy was em
Swiss confederation, by the power of France in ployed in settling, at a national diet, the terms on 1798, and the restoration of the legitimate governwhich they were hereafter to exist as an inde ment in Bern, under the influence of the allied pendent community. In the beginning of July, powers, in the last December. It then complained a federal compact of the cantons was accepted of the renewal of all the former acts of injustice by the grand council. The sovereign cantons towards the canton by the new federal pact, which composing the confederation, in number nineteen, had parcelled out the canton of Bern still more were thus enumerated: Uri, Schweitz, Under than heretofore, bad stripped it of rights over walden, Lucerne, Zurich, Glaris, Zug, Bern, Fri- countries acquired by their ancestors, and sepaburg, Soleure, Basle, Schaffhausen, Appenzel, rated it from its ancient subjects. After stating St. Gall
, the Grisons, Argovia, Thurgovia, Tessin, some other grounds of complaint, the proclamation and Vaud. The plan of confederation, consisting proceeded to mention the sacrifices which the of a number of articles, was based upon a prin- canton had been willing to make for the sake of ciple of equality of rights among all the commu union. The grand council had not only abandoned nities forming the Helvetic body, which, however the rights of the state over the ancient common wise in theory, as conducive to a solid union, seignories, but had expressed their intention to could scarcely fail of exciting discontent in such of leave, upon equitable conditions, its liberty to the the cantons as were reduced in their relative import- country of Vaud. They could not, out of gratitude ance, and especially those which had possessed to their subjects of Argovia for their fidelity, resubjects. At the head of these was Bern, long the nounce the Bernese part of that country, but they most wealthy and populous of the cantons, and had opened a plan for their union with ihe canton, the sovereign of several dependent distriets which and had offered them a share in all the rights and it had ruled as a master.
advantages of Bernese subjects. The paper coeNot long after the publication of the federal cluded with expressing a desire to defend the con
stitution and rights of the canton against all attacks, on this weighty point; and, on the 8th of Septem- BOOK XII. and called upon all to whom it was addressed for ber, the following important document was signed their support. by the deputies of all the nineteen cantons.
CHAP. XI. At this time, Switzerland was far from being in Act of the Acceptation of the Treaty of Alliance, 1814, a tranquil state. The Vaudois and the Argovians were resolute in asserting their independence on
concluded between the Cantons of the Swiss Bern. Some time before, a conspiracy was formed
Confederations at Soleure, for taking possession of the town, and Switzerland, invested with full and sufficient au
“ Whereas the deputies of the sovereign states of deposing the ruling party, which was disconcerted thority to announce the wilt of their constituents, by an accident; and its ill success was said to
on the new plan of a treaty of alliance, dated bave prevented the execution of a similar plot at Bern. The canton of St. Gall having made a
the 16th of August, 1814, as also on the convendemand of a federal aid from the diet, on account
tion concluded on the same day, terminated the of a spirit of disobedience manifested in the dis- objects of their mission in the sitting of the 6th of tricts of Uznach and Sargans, the ministers of the September, and having endeavoured, in various
private conferences, to remove the difficulties which allied powers thought it proper to interpose, by a note addressed to the diet on the 8th of August. tained this day, the 8th of September, an object so
stood in the way of an absolute union, have atIn this, the ministers expressed their regret for important to the safety and the welfare of tbe the doubts they have been compelled to entertain of the firmness with which they hoped that
country at large. body would maintain the arrangements of their
“The diet has in consequence decreed
“The treaty of alliance between the nineteen circular of May 31st, which established the immutability of the status quo of the possessions of every the tenor and effect, shall be signed and sealed as
cantons of Switzerland, of which the following is canton, and of the political relations of their inha
a true federal convention, in the forms heretofore bitants, till the definitive settlement of affairs in
used for the acts of the diet: general; and, in a tone of authority, they require the preservation of the public peace by a vigorous execution of that provisory law. This interposi 1. “ The nineteen sovereign cantons of Switzertion, together with the disturbed state of Switzer- land, viz. Zurich, Bern, Lucerne, Uri, Schweitz, land, appeared to have excited very serious appre- Glaris, Underwalden, Zug, Friburg, Soleure, hensions in the political leaders; and, on the 16th Basle, Schaffhausen, Appenzel, St. Gall
, Grisons, of August, the president of the diet addressed in Argovia, Thurgovia, Tessin, and Vaud, are united his own name (that body not then sitting) a cir- by the present treaty, for the preservation of cular to all the governments of the cantons. After their liberty and independence, and for their reciting the violent opposition which the federal common safety against any attack from foreign compact bad met with, and the necessity under powers, as well as for the maintenance of order which the diet had found itself of framing a new and public tranquillity in the interior. They replan, with various modifications, the president ciprocally guarantee their constitutions, such as warmly exhorts the cantons to unanimity, and they have been accepted by the chief authorities proceeds to say, “A note of the ministers of of each canton, in conformity to the principles Austria, Russia, and England, officially commu of the treaty of alliance. They reciprocally nicated to the deputations in our sitting of this guarantee their territory. day, shews the danger which a longer division may 2. “ For the maintenance of this guaranty, and draw down upon our country. The opening of the neutrality of Switzerland, there shall be raised the general Congress, a period of the greatest im among the men of each canton, fit to bear arms, a portance to Switzerland in particular, as well as to contingent upon the calculation of two in each Europe in general, is approaching. Switzerland hundred. The troops shall be furnished by the attracts the attention of foreign powers; and it cantons as follows:- Bern 4,184, Zurich 3,858, daily becomes more probable, that if the Swiss Vaud 2,964, St. Gall 2,630, Argovia 2,416, Griconfederation be not fixed at that time, her consti sons, 2,000, Tessin 1,084, Lucerne, 1,784, Thurgotution will no longer depend on herself, but her via 1,670, Friburg 1,240, Appenzel 972, Soleure fate be determined without her participation.” He 904, Basle 816, Schweitz 602, Glaris 482, Schaffthen announced the intention of the diet to return hausen 466, Underwalden 282, Zug, 250, Uri 236, to Zurich on the 4th of September, in order to making a total of 30,006 men. resume its deliberations on the following day, and “ This proportion is fixed for one year, and shall take the necessary steps to obtain the guaranty of be revised by the diet in 1815, in order to its the independence of Switzerland at the general being corrected. Congress, and regulate its political interests. 3. “ The cantons, in order to furnish the means
The diet having assembled at the time ap for defraying the expenses of war and the confe
BOOK XII. tions:-Bern 91,695 francs, Zurich 77,153, Vaud states. The diet is to consist of nineteen deputies,
59,273, St. Gall 39,481, Argovia 52,212, Grisons one from each canton, who shall vote according Chap. XI. 12,000, Tessin 18,039, Lucerne 26,016, Thurgovia to their instructions; each canton to have a voice
25,052, Friburg 18,591, Appenzel 9,728, Soleure by its deputy. 1814.
18,097, Basle 20,450, Schweitz 3,012, Glaris “ The diet declares war, concludes peace, makes 4,829, Schaff hausen 9,327, Underwalden 1,907, alliances with foreign states; but in ihese importZug 1,497, Uri 1,184, making a total of 490,507 ant matters two-thirds of the voices are required francs.
to determine--in all others an absolute majority. 6. These contributions are in like manner to con The diet is also to decide on treaties of commerce. tinue in force for one year, and the diet shall de “ Treaties to furnish soldiers, or other minor cide anew, in 1815, on this subject, and on the engagements, with foreign powers, may be conappeals which each canton may find it expedient tracted by the cantons severally, but without into make on the subject. A similar revision shall fringing ihe general confederation. take place every twenty years, as well for the ad from the confederation to be named by the diet. justment of the contributions as for the contingents “ Done at Zurich, the 8th of September, 1814. of men.
In the name of the diet—its president, burgo« In order to meet the expenses
master of the canton of Zurich, shall be established, besides, a federal war trea
« REINHART. sury, the funds of which shall accumulate until
6 MOUSSON. they amount to a double contingent in money, “ The Chancellor of the Confederation." This military chest shall be exclusively applied to defray the expenses arising from the move Such were the conditions of this compact, ments of federal troops; and, in case of emer which on being ratified by the deputies of the gency, one moiety of the charge shall be defrayed cantons, the diet received the congratulations of by the produce of a contingent in money, accord the ministers of the three allied powers. An ing to the scale, and the other moiety paid out of union of the Geneva, Neufchatel, and the Vallais, the military chest.
with the Helvetic body, was afterwards effected. “ To supply this military chest, duties shall be The restoration of the republic of Geneva to imposed on all foreign goods introduced, not a state of independence, was a consequence of being articles of the first necessity; these duties
the overthrow of the French military power, to be levied by the frontier cantons, which will which cannot fail of giving pleasure to all who make returns to the diet, according to the tariff have been interested by the moral and literary and regulation to be fixed by the diet, which character of that city. Occupied provisionally will also take care of the appropriation of the by the Austrian troops on their entrance into money.
France, and burdened by the usual military 4. “ In case of danger, external or internal, requisitions, it was soon permitted to entertain each canton is entitled to claim the aid of the hopes of a favorable change in its condition. On confederates. When disturbances arise in any the 1st of May, the envoys-extraordinary of their canton, notice must be sent to the chief place; imperial and royal majesties addressed a declaand if the danger continues, the diet, on the in ration to the syndics and council of Geneva, in vitation of the government of the canton, shall which, referring to an address presented by the take the necessary 'measures.
citizens of Geneva, on the 22d of April, to the 5.“ All differences or claims between canton and provisional council, expressing their wishes for canton, not provided for by the treaty of alliance, the restoration of the republic, and its aggregashall be decided by the confedera:ion.
tion to the Helvetic body, they congratulate the 6. “ There must not be concluded between se Genevans on the accession of the provisional parate cantons any alliance unfavorable to the council to their desires. They affirm that the general confederation, or to the rights of other allied powers are desirous that the republic of cantons. All recourse to arms in disputes between Geneva, strengthened by a liberal constitution, , canton and canton is prohibited.
and by a suitable increase of territory, should 7. “ The confederation does homage to the offer itself to Switzerland as a co-estate; for which principle according to which, having recognised purpose, they advise that the provisional council the nineteen cantons, there is no longer any sub- should employ itself in preparing the plan of a ject in Switzerland; and thus the enjoyment of constitutional act for the republic, the cautons rights cannot any longer be the exclusive privi- being now engaged at Zurich in drawing up their lege of any particular class of the citizens of a federal compact; and they declare that Geneva capton.
shall be authentically acknowledged in the pos8. “ The diet, according to the provisions of the session of its political rights, and of the territory treaty of alliance, takes care of the affairs in the which the allied powers intend to assign to it. confederation, confided to it by the sovereign The full concurrence of the court of England
to this disposition of the other allies was made wealth. Accordingly, soon after the entrance of BOOK XII. known on the 4th of May, by a note to the pro- bis serene highness into Amsterdam, which we visional government, transmitted by M. d'Ivernois, have mentioned in our tenth book, the general
CRAP. XI, from Mr. Stratford Canning, minister-plenipo- commissaries of the national government issued tentiary from the prince-regent to the Swiss confe. an address to the inhabitants, in which they
1814. deration. In this paper his royal highness ex announced the change in the supreme aupresses, in the most obliging terms, his friendly thority in the following terms: " It is not Wilsentiments towards Geneva, and promises his liam VI. whom the people of the Netherlands efforts at the Congress to bring to effect the pur- have recalled, without knowing what they have poses in its favor declared by his allies.
to hope or expect from him. It is William I. On the 18th of August two companies of Zurich- who, as sovereign-prince, by the wish of the Neers arrived at Geneva to form its garrison; and therlanders, appears as sovereign among that on the same day was published the constitution people, which once before has been delivered by of the Genevan republic. The following are its another William I. from the slavery of a foreign most important articles. The Protestant religion despotism. Your civil liberty shall be secured is the predominant. There shall be at Geneva by laws, by a constitution giving a basis to your a church appropriated to the Catholic worship; freedom, and be better founded than ever.” it shall be maintained at the expense of the state.
On the 3d of March, the following paper was The constitution recognises neither patrician nor issued by the Prince of Orange:privileged classes. All the Genevese are equal in the eye of the law. The liberty of the press
Dutch Political Constitution. is acknowledged, but every work must be signed.
“ The Hague, March 3, 1814. Should circumstances require it, the representa “ We, William, by the grace of God, Prince of tive body shall have power to limit the exercise Orange Nassau, Sovereign Prince of the United of that liberty. The legislative power is vested Netherlands, &c. in a representative council, coinposed of 250 “ To all whom these presents come, greeting! members, or 268, including the syndics and coun “ Invited to the sovereignty of these states by cil of state. The legislative council shall con your confidence and your attachment, we from form to the general laws of the Helvetic confe the first declared, that we would undertake the deration; it shall possess authority to fix the taxes same only under the guarantee of a wise constiannually, to accept or reject treaties, to coin mo tution, which might secure your freedom against ney, to appoint to the administrative and judicial all possible abuses; and we have ever since conoffices that are reserved for it, to regulate all mat tinued to feel the necessity thereof. ters relative to the ordinary and extraordinary “ We regarded it, therefore, as one of the first diets, and to name the deputies to the latter, and most sacred of our duties, to summon togeThe representative council shall be convoked as ther some men of consideration, and to charge a matter of course, on the first Monday in May them with the weighty task of establishing a funand December; each session shall last three damental code, built upon your manners, your haweeks. The executive power is vested in a coun bits, and corresponding to the wants of the precil of state, composed of twenty-eight members, sent time. elected from among the members of the legislative “ They cheerfully took upon themselves this council only. Official intelligence of the union of office, performed it with zeal, and have subthis state with the Swiss confederacy, as one of mitted to us the fruits of their uninterrupted the cantons, arrived on the 19th of September at labours. Geneva, and was received by the whole popula “ After a careful examination of this work, we tion with every expression of joy.
have given it our approbation. But this does not We shall now turn our attention towards Hol- satisfy our heart. It respects the concerns of the land. It is a remarkable circumstance, that the whole Netherlands. The whole Dutch people Prince of Orange was invited, on the commence must be recognised in this important work. That ment of the revolution in that country, to take the people must receive the strongest possible assurreins of government, not under the ancient title ance, that their dearest interests are sufficiently of stadtholder, but the new and indefinite one of attended to therein; that religion, as the fountain sovereign. Whence this alteration originated has of all good, is thereby honored and maintained, not been made public; but we may learn from and religious freedom disturbed by nothing of the past history of Holland, that the zealous temporal concerns, but secured in the most amfriends of the house of Orange have always been ple manner ; that the education of youth, and the vigilant to take occasion of the dangers and ne spread of scientific knowledge, shall be attended cessities of the state to enhance an authority per to by the government, and freed from all those haps too limited for the exertion of the powers vexatious regulations which oppress the genius equisite for the executive head of the cominon and subdue the spirit; that personal freedom shal,