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Cuar. XI.

city in that part of Europe, it had been reduced

peace, which is one of the weightiest objects at BOOK XII. almost to beggary, and had seen many of its prin- present. cipal inhabitants in the condition of fugitives or “ To forward this, Hamburgh's citizens must, exiles, its finest suburbs demolished, and its popu at the present moment of restoration, forget their

1814. lation wasted by want and disease. After the late sufferings and injuries; they must in ihe armbattle of Leipsic Marshal Davoust was compelled ed and unarmed foreigners behold only friends of to retire into the city, and the allies immediately their deliverer,- carefully avoid every occasion began to invest it on all sides; but the for- of discord, -abstain from all unauthorised protifications had been so much strengthened by the ceedings,-and leave the remedy and correction French, that the allies gave up the design of be of grievances which they may think they have sieging it in regular form. They therefore con against individuals, to their own legitimate goverted it into a rigorous blockade; and Davoust, vernment. determined to resist to the last extremity, expelled “ The honorable senate, full of confidence in all the inhabitants that were not able to provide its beloved fellow-citizens, expects and orders themselves with provisions for six months. Al with paternal earnestness, that this be their mode though the garrison of Hamburgh amounted to of proceeding. It also recommends the most about 20,000 men, yet no action of any particular friendly behaviour to the troops of the bigh allies notice occurred between the respective forces. about to enter, among whom also are to be found On the abdication of Bonaparte, an officer was our armed children, who are about to return to the sent from Paris with the information to Davoust; bosom of their families. but for several days he gave no credit to it; nor " At the happy moment when the honorable would he allow any communication with the city, sepate, after so many misfortunes and calamities until he had ascertained the correctness of it by which this good city has suffered, again addresses an officer which he dispatched to Franee for that its fellow-citizens for the first time, it takes upon purpose. He was soon afterwards replaced by itself the sacred obligation not only to avert with General Girard, who began to make preparations vigour and zeal every thing that might be injafor the immediate evacuation of the place. The rious to the internal happiness of the citizens, but troops departed by columns; and on the 26th of to exert itself with constancy both at home and May, the Hamburghers witnessed the resumption abroad for the promotion of its welfare: thereto, of the government by their native constituted au however, it expects the unanimity and co-operathorities with sensations of true patriotic delight. tion of its fellow-citizens, together with attachHamburgh was restored to its ancient indepen- ment to our tried constitution, which in its fundadence under the patronage of the allied powers.

mentals must remain unimpaired, although, perThe senate, on that occasion, published the fol- haps, the spirit of the times may, after careful lowing address to their fellow-citizens, which is consideration, render necessary some changes in marked by a spirit of wisdom and moderation. the mode of its administration. “ As the great events which have taken place

“ The senate is convinced, that through these in Europe within the last months have also gra- reciprocal endeavours, Providence will bless our dually produced beneficial effects for our good labours, heal our wounds, and again cause our city, and as both from these events and the will prosperity to bud forth. of the high allied powers, the happy freedom and “Given in our senate-house, at Hamburgh, independence of 'Hamburgh has again com

again com- May 26, 1814.” menced; therefore tbe honorable senate, under Though it was not yet thought proper to leave existing circumstances,--since the French civil the city without the protection of foreign troops, authorities have already left the city, and the ge- confidence was sufficiently renewed for the oper nerals commanding the French and allied troops ation of those causes which are found so efficaare agreed, that it is proper the Hamburgh au cious in speedily effacing the wounds inflicted on thorities should resume their functions,--deem it commercial prosperity. their daty to assume the reins of government “ Every thing (says an account which was soon without delay, that order and tranquillity may be afterwards received from Hamburgb) here acmaintained; and they, at the same time, summon quires new life, activity, and cheerfulness: the for to-morrow a general meeting of the citizens. Elbe is again filled with vessels of every descrip

“ The honorable senate, convinced that the du- tion, and several richly laden ships have already ties which they owe to their beloved fellow-citi- entered our port. The road from Altona to zens dictate this mode of proceeding, cannot, at Hamburgh is covered with an almost uninterruptthe same time, conceal from themselves, that their ed line of waggons laden with the household furmeasures, which have only in view the welfare of niture, &c. of emigrants. Many small huts and Hamburgh, will not have the desired effect, un sheds have been already built out of the wrecks less all the citizens unite with one patriotic spirit of the suburbs, and the foundation-walls are laid

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CHAP. I.

Norway.-Origin of the War between Sweden and Denmark.Treaty between Russia and Sweden,

and between Great Britain and Sweden.- The King of Denmark compelled to cede Norway to Sweden.Treaty of Kiel.-Proclamation of his Danish Majesty.-Cession of Norway to Sweden opposed by the Norwegians.Prince Christian Frederick repairs to Christiania.- His Reception Proceeds to Drontheim.- Returns to Christiania.--- Appointed Regent,--His Proclamations. Mission of Count Rosento Sweden.Mr. Anker's Deputation to England. --His Return to Norway.-Notifica. tion of the Blockade of Norway by England.Declaration of the King of Sweden.--Parties in Norway.-Meeting of the Diet.-Prince Christian proclaimed King, and the Diet dissolved.- Decla. ration of the English Envoy, Mr. Morier.Answer of the Norwegian Government.Delegation from the three Allied Powers.—Armistice proposed and rejected.--State Papers.-Return of the

Envoys.-Departure of Prince Christian for the Army. BOOK XIII. Whilst the grand contest in France was pro- Emperor of Russia engaged, either by negocia

ceeding in a manner that foreboded a speedy ter tion or by military co-operation, to unite the

mination, a cloud was gathering in the north, kingdom of Norway to Sweden. The emperor 1814.

which was to produce a new storm of war, and engaged, moreover, to guarantee the peaceable for a time retard the restoration of the general possession of it to his Swedish majesty. As the tranquillity of Europe. In order ihat our readers two powers were unwilling to make an enemy of may be enabled to form a judgment of the justice the King of Denmark, if it could be avoided, it or policy of annexing Norway to Sweden, it is was proposed to that sovereign to accede to this necessary that we should revert to the origin of alliance; and an offer was made to his Danish the war between Sweden and Denmark in 1813.

majesty, to procure for him a complete indemnity Soon after the French invaded Russia, in 1812, a for Norway, by a territory more contiguous to his meeting took place between the Crown-prince of German dominions, provided he would for ever Sweden and the Emperor of Russia, when a cede his right on the kingdom of Norway to the treaty was concluded between the two powers, King of Sweden. This proposition, however, was which was afterwards acceded to by Great Bri- rejected by the King of Denmark, who announced tain. In the articles of that treaty, it was stated, bis determination to maintain the union of his that the French government having committed an kingdoms. In the treaty between Great Briaet of hostility against the Swedish government, tain and Sweden, it was stated, that in conseby the occupation of Swedish Pomerania; and quence of the latter having engaged to employ a by the movement of its armies having menaced corps

of not less than 30,000 men in a direct opethe tranquillity of the empire of Russia, the con ration on the continent against the common foe, tracting parties engaged to make a diversion against his Britannic majesty agreed to oppose no obstacle France and her allies, with a combined force of to the annexation of Norway to the kingdom of 25 or 30,000 Swedes, and of 15 or 20,000 Sweden; but to assist, if necessary, in obtaining Russians, upon such point of the coast of Ger that object, by a naval co-operation. many as might be judged most convenient for that Although the King of Denmark had rejected purpose. But the King of Sweden having the propositions of the allies, yet no military ope, urged that he could not make this diversion in favor rations were directed against Norway, or indeed of the common cause, consistently with the se any part of the dominions of Denmark, till the close curity of his dominions, so lovg as he could re of the campaign in Germany, in 1813. But after gard the kingdom of Norway as an enemy, the the memorable battle of Leipsic, the Crown-prince

of Sweden was detached from the grand army of to declare war against that power, and in conse- BOOK XIII. the allies, in order to proceed against Denmark. quence to join an auxiliary Danish corps to the We are not well acquainted with the reasons army of North Germany, under the orders of his CAAP. I. which induced the King of Denmark to adhere royal highness the Crown-prince of Sweden; and

1814. so long to the cause of Bonaparte, unless he was all this according to and in pursuance of the actuated hy his hatred to England, on account of convention that has been settled between his the attack on Copenhagen : it is probable, also, majesty the King of Denmark, and his majesty that his subjects sympathised in this feeling; the King of Great Britain and Ireland. otherwise it seems wonderful that men of such 4. " His majesty the King of Denmark, for pure and simple habits as the Danes, and enjoying himself and his successors, renounces, for ever a greater portion of liberty than most of the people and irrevocably, all his rights and claims on the of the continent, should have so long gone along kingdom of Norway, together with possession of with their sovereign in his support of Bonaparte. the bishoprics and dioceses of Christiansand, However this may be, it was soon apparent that Bergenhuus, Aggerhuus, and Drontheim, hethey must eventually yield to the force which was sides Nordland and Finmark, as far as the fron. sent against them under the Crown-prince of tiers of the Russian empire. Sweden. Of the operations which took place on “ These bishoprics, dioceses, and provinces, this occasion, we must refer the reader to our constituting the kingdom of Norway, with their tenth book. The treaty of Kiel, which was signed inhabitants, towns, barbours, fortresses, villages, between Sweden and Norway, on the 14th of Ja- and islands, along the whole coast of that kingpuary, 1814, consisted of the following articles : dom, together with their dependencies (Green

Art. 1. “ There shall benceforward be peace, land, the Ferroe isles, and Iceland, excepted); friendship, and good understanding between his as well as all privileges, rights, and emoluments majesty the King of Sweden and his majesty the thereto belonging, shall belong in full and soKing of Denmark; the high contacting parties vereign property to the King of Sweden, and shall do every thing in their power to maintain make one with his united kingdom. For this perfect barmony between each other, their respec- purpose his majesty the King of Denmark binds tive states and subjects, and avoid all measures

himself in the most soleinn manner, as well for which might be prejudicial to the peace bappily him as for his successors and the whole kingdom, restored between them.

henceforward to make no claim, direct or india 2. “ As his majesty the King of Sweden rect, on the kingdom of Norway, or its bishophas unalterably determined, in no respect to se rics, dioceses, islands, or any other territory parate the interests of the allies from his own, thereto belonging. All the inhabitants, in virtue and as his majesty the King of Denmark is de of this renunciation, are released from the oath sirous that his subjects may again enjoy all the which they have taken to the king and crown of blessings of peace; and as his majesty has also Norway. received, through the instruinentality of bis royal 5. " His majesty the King of Sweden binds highness the Crown-prince of Sweden, positive himself on the other hand, in the most solemn assurance on the part of the courts of Russia and manner, to cause the inhabitants of the kingdom Prussia of their amicable disposition, to restore of Norway, and its dependencies, to enjoy, in their old connections of friendship with the Danish future, all the laws, franchises, rights, and pricourt, such as they existed before the breaking vileges, such as they have hitherto subsisted. out of hostilities ; so they solemnly charge and

6. “ As the whole debt of the Danish monarbind themselves on their side to neglect nothing chy is contracted, as well upon Norway as the that may tend to a speedy peace between his ma other parts of the kingdom, so his majesty the jesty the King of Denmark, and their majesties King of Sweden binds himself, as sovereign of the Emperor of Russia and King of Prussia; Norway, to be responsible for a part of that his majesty the King of Sweden engages to use debt, proportioned to the populatiou and revenue bis mediation with his high allies, that this salu- of Norway. By public debt is to be understood tary object may be as speedily as possible at that which has been contracted by the Danish tained.

government, both at home and abroad. The 3.“ His majesty the King of Denmark, for the latter consists of royal and state obligations, purpose of giving a manifest proof of his wish to bank-bills, and paper money formerly, issued renew the closest relations with the high allies of under royal authority, and now circulating in his Swedish majesty, and in the full conviction both kingdoms. that the most earnest wishes are cherished on “ An exact account of this debt, such as it was their side to restore a speedy peace, as they have on the Ist of January, 1814, shall be taken by solemnly declared before the breaking out of hos- commissioners appointed to that effect by both tilities, engages to take an active part in the crowns, and shall be calculated upon a just dicommon cause against the emperor of the French, vision of the population and revenues of the

BOOK XIII. kingdoms of Norway and Denmark. These 10. “ The public debt, which is contracted by

commissioners shall meet at Copenhagen, within the royal Pomeranian chamber, remains chargeCAP. I.

one month after the exchange of the ratification. able on the King of Denmark, as sovereign of

of this treaty, and shall bring this affair to a the dukedom of Pomerania, who takes upon 1814.

conclusion as speedily as possible, and at least himself the stipulations agreed upon for the re-
before the expiration of the present year; with duction of the said debt.
this understanding, however, that the King of 11.“ The King of Denmark recognises the
Sweden, as sovereign of Norway, shall be res donations wbich the King of Sweden has given
ponsible for no other portion of the debt contract on the domains and revenues in Swedish Pome-
ed by Denmark, tban that for which Norway was rania and the isle of Rugen, and which amount
liable before its separation.

to the yearly sum of 48,000 Pomeranian rix7." His majesty the King of Sweden, for him- dollars; bis majesty also binds himself to mainself and his successors,

renounces irrevocably tain the donatories in the full and undisturbed and for ever, in behalf of the King of Denmark, possession of their rights and revenues, so that all rights and claim to the dukedom of Swedish they may receive, sell, or make over the same, Pomerania, and the principality of the island of and that all may be paid them without any binRugen.

derance, and without duties and expenses under “ These provinces, with all their inhabitants, whatsoever name. towns, havens, fortresses, villages, islands, and 12. “ Their majesties the King of Sweden and all their dependencies, privileges, rights, and the King of Denmark mutually engage never to emoluments, shall belong, in full sovereignty, to divert from their original destination monies apthe crown of Denmark, and be incorporated with propriated to objects of beneficence or public that kingdom.

atility, in the countries thus reciprocally obtained " For this purpose his majesty the King of by the present treaty, namely, the kingdom of Sweden engages; in the most solemn manner, Norway, and the dukedom of Swedish Pomeboth for himself

, his successors, and the whole rania, with their respective dependencies. Swedish kingdom, never to make any claim, di “ The King of Sweden, in pursuance of this rect or indirect, on the said provinces, islands, mutual agreement, engages to support the uniand territory, the inhabitants whereof, in virtue versities of Norway, and the King of Denmark of this renunciation, are released from the oath that of Grieswald." which they have taken to the king and crown of “ The payment of all public offices, both in Denmark.

Norway and Pomerania, is to remain a charge 8. “ His majesty the King of Denmark solemn- upon the acquiring power, reckoning from the ly engages, in like manner, to secure to the in- day of taking possession. habitants of Swedish Pomerania, the islands of « Pensioners are to receive the pensions asRugen and their dependencies, their laws, rights, signed to them by the preceding government franchises, and privileges, such as they now without interruption or change. exist, and are contained in the acts of the years 13. “ As the King of Sweden, so far as is 1810 and 1811.

practicable, and as depends upon bim, wishes As the Swedish paper-money has never been that the King of Denmark may receive compencurrent in Swedish Pomerania, so his majesty the sation for the renunciation of the kingdom of King of Denmark engages to make no alteration Norway, of which bis majesty has given satisfacin this respect, without the knowledge and con tory proof in the cession of Swedish Pomerania sent of the states of the province.

and the isle of Rugen, so his majesty will use 9. “ As his majesty the King of Sweden, by all his endeavours with the allied powers, to the 6th article of the treaty of alliance, entered secure, in addition, at a general peace, a full into at Stockholm, the 3d of March, 1813, with equivalent to Denmark for the cession of Nor. his majesty the King of Great Britain and Ire- way. land, bound himself to open, for the period of 14. “ Immediately upon the signing of the twenty years, reckoning from the date of the ex

present treaty, an account of the same sball be change of the ratification of the treaty, the port sent, with all possible speed, to the generals and of Stralsund, as an entrepot for all colonial pro- armies, in order that hostilities may wholly cease duce, merchandize, and manufactures, brought on both sides, both by sea and land. from England and her colonies, in English or 15. “ The high contracting parties engage, Swedisle vessels

, upon payment of one per cent that immediately after the signing of the present ad valorem on the goods thus introduced, and an treaty, all contributions and requisitions, of whatequal duty on their removal from thence; so his ever kind and denomination, sball immediately majesty the King of Denmark engages to fulfil cease, so that even those which shall have been this existing agreement, and to renew the same already ordered shall not be enforced. It is likein bis treaty with Great Britain.

wise agreed, that all property which has been

' sequestrated by the army of North Germany, shall also repaired ourself, to be nearer the scene of BOOK XIII. be restored to the owners. Herefrom are ex action, and the negociations. cepted such ships and ship-ladings as belonged “ A renewal of the negociations again averted

C#ap. I. to subjects of the King of Sweden and his allies, the attack that approached the frontiers of Jut

1814. and have been brought into the harbours of the land. It was not possible to prevent this province duchies of Sleswyk and Holstein; these shall from being overrun by a superior force; and if it remain with their present owners, who shall dis- became, like the Duchies, the seat of war, we pose of them as they think fit.

were wholly deprived of the means of sending (This article then arranges the mode in which corn to Norway. The important moment was the places in Holstein and Sleswyk, possessed now come to decide respecting peace, or the conby the allied troops, are to be evacuated by tinuation of the war. Never was a country in a them.)

more critical situation than Denmark, cut off from “ Immediately on the signing of the present Norway, and opposed alone to so many powerful treaty, the Swedish troops shall enter into Nor- enemies; and never had a prince a more difficult way, and take possession of all the strong places duty, than to make a choice under these circumthere. His majesty the King of Denmark binds stances. Had the matter concerned us alone, or himself to give the necessary orders to that effect. had it been merely necessary to meet an iminent

“ The Swedish troops shall deliver up, Swedish danger, if we could have boped to obtain a happy Pomerania, and the Isle of Rugen, to the troops issue, even by the most terrible conflict, we should of the King of Denmark, as soon as the fortresses not have hesitated, for we knew the courageous of Frederickshall, Konigswinger, Frederickstadt, sentiments of our troops and 'of our people, and and Aggerhuus have been taken possession of by knew what the latter, though exhausted by a long the Swedish troops."

war, were ready to suffer and to sacrifice for us In the treaty with Great Britain, which is al and the country, if we called on them. But Juded to in the third article of the above treaty, under such circumstances we could not risk the the articles in substance were, that all conquests dissolution of the whole monarchy, por require a were to be restored, with the exception of Heli- faithful people to shed its blood in an unequal goland, which was to remain in the possession of contest, most probably to promote the reverse of England; that the prisoners of war on both sides the object in view. were to be liberated; that Denmark was to join “ But the result of the contest was not the only the allied armies with 10,000 men, on the condi- ground of our determination. Norway would be tion of a subsidy from England of 400,0001.; that exposed to the most dreadful famine, if Jutland Pomerania was to be ceded to Denmark in lieu became the seat of war, and Norway were deof Norway; that Stralsund was to continue a de- prived of all supplies from that side. According pôt for British produce; that Denmark was to do all to the reports, which we had already received in her power for the abolition of the slave-trade; from credible and well-informed persons, not a and that England was to mediate between her and fourth part of the corn necessary to supply Northe other allies. Accordingly, on the 17th of Ja way till the next autumn had been with extreme nuary, Denmark declared war against France; danger and loss sent over to that country. Even and a body of troops was soon afterwards placed our means of sending corn thither were no longer under the orders of the Crown-prince of Sweden. sufficient; not a fourth-part of the vessels that These troops, in conjunction with the Swedes, might formerly have been employed for that purwere marched to the Rhine, where they remained pose was now in the Danish ports; the rest, with inactive during the decisive events that were their cargoes, bad fallen a prey. The efforts taking place in France.

which Denmark had contrived to make were inThe forced cession of Norway was extremely supportable; they had already cost many milgalling to the Danish government, as appears lions. A third-part of the cultivated lands in from a proclamation which was issued by his Norway had not been sown last year, for want of Danish majesty on the 18th of January, of which seed-corn. The seed time for this year apwe shall make the following extract:—“ Re- proached, and required a consigoment of several peated overtures were made by us to the Crown- hundred thousand tons of corn. All

supply from prince of Sweden, who at the bead of a superior foreign ports in the north or south was imposarmy, composed of the troops of several powerful sible, on account of the blockade. To expose states, continued to insist on the cession of Nor- Norway again this year to want seed-corn would way, which Sweden's allies had guaranteed to have been a ruinous measure, the consequences him. Hostilities were renewed. Gluckstadt and of which would have been incalculable; for if Fredrick's Ort were taken. Not to hazard every the production of corn in Norway were to be anthing, it was requisite to confine our defence nually lessened or obstructed in such a high dechiefly to Fuboen, whither we ordered all the gree, and the exportation of the products of this

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