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BOOK XIII. it was a manifest act of usurpation, on the part nimity was to be performed, there the allies were

of Prince Christian, under a delegated autho to be seen conspicuously foremost; but where the Crap. II. rity. There were a number of Danes in Nor- painful task of punishing an unoffending people 1814.

way, who acted under the authority of the Prince was to be undertaken, where the most odious of Denmark, who, on his part, bad completely as measures were to be enforced by the most odious sumed the sovereign power. The question hitherto means, then England was to stand forward prehad never been fairly stated to the Norwegians, as eminent, while the allies, who were to reap all the proclamations of the King of Sweden the chief benefit, took scarcely any part in that had been industriously suppressed, and Prince hateful scene.

hateful scene. He ridiculed the idea of guaChristian bad assured them of the support of the ranteeing a constitution, as if we were to keep British government. The present conduct of the watch over the peace like so many constables; Norwegians was no national act, but that of a and said, that instead of having recourse to few designing individuals, as many of the prin- such excuses, it would have been more manly cipal parts of Norway were friendly to a connec in his majesty's ministers to have come forward and tion with Sweden. The case of Spain that had have allowed that they had in a moment of baste been quoted by the noble earl was not all in consented to a treaty which could not be obpoint. The treaty then made with Bonaparte served without disgrace to the country. He conwas made by the king in a foreign country, and jured their lordships to consider that if it could be under the influence of terror ; and by the fun- discovered that Sweden had not to the utmost damental laws of the realm, the king had no fulfilled her part of the treaty, we were not bound power to alter the succession to the crown. With to ratify what was so injurious and disgraceful. respect to Sweden, that country had amply paid Any thing short of going to war ought to be for all the stipulations in her favor. In marching adopted, rather than submit to tarnish the national her troops to Holstein she had been guilty of no character by the observance of such a compact. bad faith, as that movement bad taken place with Lord Boringdon said he should vote against the consent of the allies; and a considerable body the resolutions, on the ground that circumstances of troops had been placed under the command of might arise of so imperative and paramount a nathe crown-prince by the Emperor of Russia. Ne- ture, as to leave no option for action, though every ver had so extensive a confederacy taken place liberal mind might feel, that the sentiments of as that betwixt the allied powers, in which so right and justice went the other way. few grounds of complaint had arisen.

This was

Lord Grey replied. He regretted that his to be ascribed to the magnanimity of the allies, majesty's ministers, who had so manfully and gloand their determination to sacrifice all minor ob- riously exerted themselves against the aggresjects, when put in competition with the great sions of France, should now support a set of opiobjects which had been so successfully attained. nions on which all those aggressions had been If any measure were wise when first adopted, this built or justified: nor could be hear without country was bound in justice to adhere to it, astonishment the doctrine of the noble lord, that though the state of affairs might have since mate- paramount occasions might overturn the very, narially changed. Norway had resisted the cession ture of justice. He had himself thought that it to Sweden, and with that part of Denmark we was a moral maxim, 'fiat justitia, ruat cælum.' were in a state of war; and he trusted, that the But the uoble lord reversed the maxim : he said, house would be of opinion, that government should cultivate

cultivate your interests, cherish your own advanbe armed with powers sufficient to enable them tage, and then “ruat justitia." It was the first to fulfil the solemn obligations of a treaty. and he hoped would be the last time such a doc

Lord Holland replied at some length to the trine would be uttered in a British parliament. last speaker, and defended the motion of his noble His lordship stated, that though Prince Chrisfriend. The noble lord (Liverpool), by his own tian bad acted by a delegated authority at first, confession, had placed the house in an unfortunate he had afterwards acted as sovereign by the apdilemma, either of committing an act of flagrant pointment of several of the most considerable injustice, or of violating a solemn treaty. The persons in Norway.

persons in Norway. A Norwegian diet had been free construction of the treaty had been wholly fixed for the 10th of April, and the assembly had overlooked by the noble lord; as the employmentof offered the crown of Norway to Prince Christian, force to effect the annexation of Norway to Sweden upon the express condition that he should give was distinctly disclaimed, except in the event of up Denmark altogether. the King of Denmark refusing to join the allies. Lord Liverpool, in explanation, said, that The King of Denmark had not refused to join the what he had stated with respect to Denmark was allies, and consequently no pretence existed for this, that either the acts of Prince Christian were making use of force. It was an unhappy and the effects of Danish treachery; or, as he was cruel situation for this country, that wherever the more inclined to suppose, his conduct was au work of generosity and clemency, and magna- usurpation of the crown of Norway,

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The house then divided upon the question, were familiar with their writings. He proceeded BOOK XIII.
whether Lord Grey's motion should be agreed to. to show from Vattel, that the course taken by
Contents

27
ministers, with respect to Norway, was in every

CRAP. II.
Proxies
7. 34 respect justifiable. It would have been but a

1814. Not-contents

86

mockery on our part to have acceded to the treaty Proxies

29—115

concluded between Sweden and Russia, had we

offered to introduce a proviso, that if the people Majority for ministers

81

of Norway resisted, it should not be carried into

effect. On such terms our assent would not have Iu the bouse of commons, on the 12th of May, been accepted by Sweden. But it was said that Mr. Wynne, after a very luminous speech res

Sweden had not fulfilled her engagements, and pecting the state of Norway, in which he added therefore we were not bound to perform ours. It many forcible arguments to the grounds already would come with a very bad

grace

from us to say taken on this important subject by Earl Grey in this now, if we had made po remonstrances to the house of lords, moved, “ That an hurable this effect before. The services of the crown. address be presented to his royal highness the prince at Leipsic, his defence of Berlin, &c. had prioce-regent, bumbly to request, that his royal greatly forwarded the plans of the allies. He highness would be graciously pleased to inter did not think ministers deserved more praise in pose bis mediation, to rescue the unoffending peo- any one thing, than for having discovered that ple of Norway from the dreadful alternative of confidence could be placed in the Crown-prince famine, or of subjugation to the yoke of a foreign of Sweden, at a time when the prevailing opinion and hostile power: and that during the discus of this country was much against it. After the sion of such proposals as his royal highness may services required of Sweden had been performed, be advised to make for this most desirable object, it was not just, because, now the danger was past, all hostile operations on the part of this country

doubts could be raised on the conduct of the against a people struggling for the sacred right crown-prince, that we should put aside the enof national independence may be discontinued.” gagements we had made. If this treaty were a Mr. Lambton seconded the motion.

violation of eternal justice, and of the law of naMr. Stephen was decidedly of opinion, that tions—if it were a transgression of the law of God that wbich was inconsistent with duty could never -then, if that were made out, he would admit it be conducive to interest. We could never pur- ought not to be fulfilled. If we sinned in making sue our true interest by violating the laws of God it, we should not sin in breaking it, if we made or of nature. Those who attempted to do this the party suffering from our doing so all the rethrew the gauntlet to Almighty justice; and he paration in our power. The conduct pursued toshould fear, in such a case, even if he could not wards Norway he again vindicated, by referring immediately see the connection between cause to the public writers he bad quoted before. Norand effect, that the supreme governor of the uni way, as belonging to Denmark, with whom we verse would not fail to take it up.

were at war, we had a right to conquer if bound to perform the treaty we had concluded, could, and we had a right to contract with anoby doing all in our power to annex Norway to ther power to effect its subjugation. If it were Sweden, unless we were released from the obli- proved that this was contrary to the law of nagation by Sweden herself. Nothing was more tions, he would give up the argument. A ceded repugnant to common sense and to common prin- people, it was said, must consent to the cession ciple, than to argue, because Norway had been before it could take place: but bow was this exceded to Sweden, though the cession was suc pressed but through their legitimate organ, the cessfully resisted by the Norwegians, that we had king? The King of Denmark had consented to done all the treaty required, and were bound to the cession of Norway, and we were bound by do nothing more in the business. By the terms of solemn treaty to carry that cession into effect. the treaty we engaged not only not to oppose the But it was said that Norway was part of Sweden, annexation of Norway in perpetuity to Sweden, or part of Denmark. If part of Denmark, it had but to co-operate with Sweden and Russia to been ceded to Sweden, and we had nothing more secure it to the former power, if Denmark did to do; if it was part of Sweden, with that country not join the allies. It was now said, after a san we were at peace. He should avoid both horns guinary campaign, because at last Denmark had of this dilemma. If it was part of Denmark, it been compelled to change her system, that we was bound to obey the law of Denmark. - If it were not bound by the stipulation of that treaty resisted to fulfil the treaty made by Denmark, it He should not be surprised to bear this from per- placed itself by such conduct in its former state sons unacquainted with those great writers on the of war with this country. They could in that law of nations, Grotius, Puffendorff, and Vattel; case have no right to benefit by the peace bebut he was astonished to hear it from those who tween the two powers. It was said that the plan

We were

we

war.

pro

BOOK XIII. formed for starving them into submission was one lightly. One protest, he contended, was more

not to be contemplated without horror. God than equal to a thousand acquiescences. He CHAP. II. forbid that he should wish any nation to be placed then adverted to the cession of the island of Cor

in this situation! but by unequivocally stating our sica by the republic of Genoa, and traced from 1814. · intentions he thought we might save the Norwe. the circumstauces which that cession led to, the

gians from the miseries of famine and protracted production of that mind wbich had afterwards

le thought it would be mercy to Norway nearly destroyed the liberties of the world. The to put forth our means in concert with our allies cession of the Tyrol by Austria be next noticed, at once, in order to convince them that resistance and inquired if the gallant resistance of the Ty. would be vain. The situation of Norway he could 'rolese was to be stigmatized as a rebellion, and if not think likely to be at all deteriorated by its that hero who, fighting for his country, had union with Sweden. This to him was a consol- bably in his blood planted the seeds of European ing reflection, though under other circumstances liberty, was at that time of day to be called a he should still have contended - that we traitor. The vote of the house that night would bound to fulfil the treaty we had concluded. On decide whether he deserved to rank with Sydney these grounds he most cordially opposed the mo and Hampders, or was one of the blackest traitors tion, beleving that, instead of propitiating the su that ever prolonged the horrors of war. He preme governor of the world by agreeing to it, to wished to ask the learned gentleman, if there do so would only have the effect of heaping were no cases in which the people might with greater digrace on this nation than had ever justice resist the attempts of their sovereigns to fallen on any other country.

were

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cede them to foreign powers? He put it to bim, Sir J. Mackintosh, referring to the circum if the King of Spain were to cede the fine prostances under which the treaty between Russia vince of Andalusia to the barbarian called the and Sweden had been concluded, eulogized in Emperor of Morocco, or to the Dey of Algiers, the highest terms the splendid exertions of the

ions of the would it be high-treason in the people to refuse former power in the cause of Europe. He ad tbeir consent to such a transfer? The poor peamitted the convention with Sweden, to which this sant of Norway had that artificial instinct, the cou'ry was a party, to be binding; but stated love of his pative land, without wbich he could she question before the house to be this, whether be no man, without which the country could be this country was bound in fact, or by right, to no country, but merely a wretched bundle of compel the kingdom of Norway to subinit to slaves. A parallel case to that of Norway was the domination of Sweden, by a treaty concluded furnished by Scotland. Had not her sons rewith Sweden against the crown of Denmark ? sisted Edward the First; bad they suffered themHe contended that it could not bind us to make selves to be made slaves, they could never have war on an independent power, wbich was not in become useful friends to ibat great country to existence when the treaty was made. All that which it was now their honor and their glory to was asked by the resolution under consideration belong. It was because they had resisted, and was, that a pause should be made to give time for because a Wallace had suffered martyrdom, that inquiring into the real state of things in Norway, they had become what they were; and that from before the most odious measures of hostility were them the annals of Great Britain had been graced resorted to. Those who doubted whether the in- with the names of an Abercromby, a Moore, and surrection in Norway was unanimous, or who a Graham. He proceeded to picture the hard doubted of any of the facts which had been made case of the Norwegians, in being subjected to the had been asked, if Sweden would have accepted ment. He contended that, when the King of our assent to the treaty between her and Russia, Denmark had abdicated the sovereignty over with a proviso that it should not be enforced if it them, they had a right to act for themselves, as met with resistance from the Norwegian people? an independent power must commit some act of He would answer, Sweden would, if she had read hostility before any nation could with justice dethe law of nations, as laid down by Grotius, Puf- clare war against them. The honorable gentlefendorf, and Vattel. Recognizing the univer man wished to know whether the rising was parsally-received writings of these men as the law of tial or general, and this he proposed to ascertain Europe, she was bound to admit the proviso, as by starving the whole people.. But it was said much as if it had been inserted in the treaty. that they had been hostile to us. They bad been These he proceeded to support by quotations from 80 while it was their duty. Under the most trythose celebrated writers. For a prince to rede a ing circumstances, they had stood firm as their million of men by one stroke of his pen was to mountains, which he hoped would prove to them carry on a white slave-trade, to outdo the worst an unconquerable barrier. He expressed great scenes exhibited in Congou or Bohemia. The sorrow at finding the navy was to be put on so resistance of a people was not to be treated 30 abominable and

nefarious a duty as that af blocke

ading the people of Norway. Of the navy he plain of an overcharge for our conveyance-should BOOK XIII. could not speak without enthusiasm. Those who we refuse to pay the boatman!—The circuihcomposed it, adding ihe perfection of science to stances under which a treaty was concluded must,

СпAP. II. valour and generosi'y, bad - raised themselves according to all jurists of authority, be taken into within these last twenty years, as a body, more consideration, in order to judge of the propriety

1814. than any other class of persons he could name. and duty of adbering to its provisions. They had appeared to be without rivals, till the Mr. Whitbread said, that if the right honorable immortal Wellington made it doubtful whether member who had spoke last had not been able as our army or our navy was most to be admired. well as accustomed to weigh the meaning of He wourned that suich men were to be sent to words, he should have snpposed that he had mispersecute, under the profaned name of mercy, a taken the purport of his honorable friend's mopeople who would not believe them capable of tion. If there were any members in the house toacting such a part. He put it to the house, what night who had never heard the right bonorable. must be the feelings of the Norwegian mothers, gentleman before, they would be lamentably diswhile gazing on their dying infants-their infants appointed by the very inperfect specimen which famished by the mercy of England; they pointed he had given of his eloquence and powers of imato the British flag, which they bad taught their gination. His “ roar of waters, his trickling children to admire, and saw in that, which had stream, his ferry-boat, his ships climbing moungiven independence and relief to others, the cause 'tains," were not at all in that gentleman's usual of their subjugation and misery.

style of oratory. As to the part we should take Mr. Canning defended the character and con in the present contest, Mr. Whitbread contended duct of the Crown-prince of Sweden. He thought that it would be perfectly gratuitous and volunwe were expressly bound by treaty to assist in tary; there were no obligations in the treaty to putting Sweden in possession of Norway. Then bind us; we were free as air as to the conduct we how was this assistance to be rendered! Our should pursue. The Crown-prince of Sweden lofty ships could not scale the mountains of Nor- had not fulfilled the stipulations of the treaty, hy way, and of course the stipulated co-operation which we had agreed to assist him in the subjucould only be by blockading the Norwegian ports. gation and annexation of Norway. This was his Therefore, the blockade took place in adherence firm opinion; and it was, he believed, the opinion 10 the treaty, and the consequences which followed of the highest military authorities, that Sweden were naturally to be apprehended, however much had not given that assistance to the common cause they might be deplored. But such consequences which she was bound by the express conditions must ever be calculated upon in war; and how of this unprincipled contract to give. He should ever those intrusted with the weapons of war like to have had the opinions of Sir Charles might feel, they must wield those weapons with Stewart, of Marshal Blucher, as to the effective effect for legitimate objects, or becomie unfit for co-operation of Sweden at the battle of Leipsic, their situation, and dangerous to their country. and after that battle, after the allies had entered He regarded Sweden as a most important support France, or when they were under the walls of to the common cause, as the very nucleus of the Paris. With respect to the charge of treacherý continental confederacy, by cementing the con- against Denmark, in defeating the cession of nection between Russia and Eugland. The im- Norway, which she herself had formerly made, it portance of Sweden might indeed be judged of was sufficiently airswered by the ratification of from the testimony of Austria, which, in its ori- the original treaty with that country, so late as ginal declarations in favor of the allies, distinctly the 19th of April, when it was plain ihat the allies stated that “ Russia, Sweden, and England, form were perfectly satisfied with the conduct and ed the point of avion round which the coufederacy good faith of the King of Denmark. Every one of Europe rallies.” The rank here assigned to knew what blockade meant in the present ine Sveden 'showed that the services of Sweden were stance. It was not intended to prevent the sendbighly estiinated. Why then should such ser ing of arms or ammunition to Norway, but to cut vices be slighted, or why should the price which off her supplies of food, to inflict upon her that rbis country had engaged to pay for iben be re which lad been described by Mr. Burke as the. fused? We had entered into this engagement in greatest of all possible calamities, as a calamity a period of difficulty, when the danger that me- so dreadful that every humane mind shuddered naced uś was tremendous; and should we now, in and turned away from its contemplation. Would a moment of comparative repose, when the dan not the house panse, then, before they proceeded ger had sunk into insignificance, refuse to fulfil to this last act of aggravated injustice and cruour contract to that power which had materially - elty? Yet ministers would not allow them to incontributed to remove that difticulty-The waters quire, or were themselves most scandalously ignn. were out--clouds covered the opposite shore—' rant, whether tħe condition of a treaty, which couldi

BOOK XIII. duct, had been fulfilled or not. He was sorry hand, and a sword and famine in the other, to

not to see an honorable and learned member (Mr. compel them to accept of freedom and happiness, Char. II. Stephen) in his place, or he should have animad on the peril of their lives. Mr. Whitbread here

verted on some expressions that had fallen from pointedly alluded to the sentiment of the right 1814.

him. He might have alluded to the half pious, honorable member for Liverpool, delivered out of
half profane, expression which he suffered to es the house at a convivial meeting, in which the
cape him, that we had thrown down the gauntlet eloquent speaker had declared bis satisfaction,
to the Almighty, who, he had no doubt, would that it was in the wilds of Russia, of a barbarous
take it up: He would also (if he were present) and despotic country, that Bonaparte had been
say, that that honorable gentleman's tender mer first defeated. This, according to the right ho-
cies were cruel, though he himself was not among norable gentleman, proved that' patriotism had
the wicked; for, if he had not known his voice nothing to do with the freedom, or the forms of
and person, and his manner so well as he did, he government.
should have supposed, during his speech tc-right, He wished the right honorable member, and
that he was hearing one of those persons who the learned and honorable gentleman bebind him,
used formerly to descant on the miseries of the to apply this theory to the brave and unfortunate
Africans in their own country, in order to show people of Norway, and not to suffer them to be
the justice and humanity of the slave-trade. juggled out of their natural rights and political
(Here Mr. Wbitbread, seeing Mr. Stephen enter independence, by fine theories of liberty and
the house, hailed his approach, and, recapitula- happiness, by technical acuteness, and the strict
ting wbat he had just said, proceeded.) If that letter of unfulfilled treaties.
honorable and learned gentleman were not also After some observations from the cbancellor of
one of the most moral and pbilosophical charac- the exchequer, Mr. Ponsonby, and other mem-
ters of the age, who held all jacobins and jacobi- bers, the house divided,
nism in the utmost abhorrence, he should almost For the motion

71 have mistaken him for one of the members of the Against it

229 constituent assembly of France, setting out on a crusade to Norway, with the rights of man in one Majority against the motion

155

CHAPTER III.

Occupation of the Duchy of Holstein, by Russian and Prussian Troops.- Preparations of the Swedes for opening the Campaign.Proclamations of the Crown-prince and King of Sweden to the Nore wegians.Correspondence between Prince Christian and the Crown-prince.-Commencement of Hostilities.- Naval Action.The Swedish Army enters Norway.Success of the Swedes.Defeat of General Gahn by the Norwegians. Surrender of the Island of Kragero, and the Fortress of Frederickstadt to the Swedes.Passage of the Glommen by the Swedish Army.-Capture of Sleswig.-Defeat of the Norwegians.-Prince Christian's Army surrounded. He resigns.-Convention of Moss.-Armistice between the Swedes and Norwegians.Remarks upon the Claims of the Croton-prince upon Norway.- Proclamation of Prince Christian.Disturbances at Christiania.Meering of the Dieto-Prince Christian leaves Norway.-Election of the King of Sweden to the Crown of Norway.-Close of the Diet.Norwegian Constitution.

The return of the envoys of the four allied ance of the Norwegians to be transferred to Swepowers was generally considered a signal for the den; and though the King of Denmark had done commencement of hostilities.

In consequence,

every thing in his power to demonstrate that be Denmark was now placed in a very uneasy and had no concern in the events that had taken place delicate situation. The circumstance of Prince in Norway, the allies thought it was necessary to Christian, being a near relation to the King of keep him closely watched. Accordingly, a large Denmark, did ‘no good to the cause of Norway; body of Russian troops were marched into Holbecause a strong suspicion went abroad, that the stein, where they were joined by a corps of Prus. Danish monarch was at the bottom of the resist. sians.

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