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solemn recognition of the king and of his succes the happiness and independence of the Scandi- BOOK XIII. sors to the throne, according to the order of suc. navian peoinsula : its two nations have abjured cession of the 26th of September. We are, there. their long and unfortunate animosities, and in fu- Chor WI. fore, ready to enter at once into the discussion of ture will know no other rivalry but in their love

1814. the plan of constitution, with the committee whom for their common country. In concurring towards you have designated for that purpose; and we this great object, gentlemen, you have acquired feel persuaded, that on your side, as on our's, not sacred claims to the regard of bis majesty, and to a moment will be lost in putting the last seal to the gratitude of your fellow-citizens. the union of the two kingdoms. The king will “The double glory has been reserved to the then deposit in the midst of you the oath, which king, of seeing two free nations present to him shall be to you a pledge of the principles of his the crown by their spontaneous and unanimous government, and of his private sentiments. You wishes. Towards the Swedes he never set up will then receive the prince, who, destined to in the rights of his birth; and in like manner he herit one day the solicitude of his father for the preferred to those claims which the most solemn kingdoms of Scandinavia, already sees his glory treaties had given bim, the titles more pleasing united to that of old Norway, and his own happi- and dear to his heart which he might derive from ness depend upon that which be shall be able to your affections. The king has always wisbed, make you enjoy. You will learn from his mouth that the Norwegians and Swedes, as being equal how well he knows how to appreciate a people in rights, should enjoy the same constitutional who feel their own value, and love their liberty." benefits; and the new fundamental law which you

The election of the King of Sweden by the have adopted in concert with the king, will serve diet took place with entire unanintity on the 4th at once as a guarantee of your liberty, and as a of November, and seven of its members were de- proof to Europe of the liberal views and the moputed to convey the intelligence of this event to deration of your sovereign. the Crown-prince of Sweden. When the depu “ You will reply, gentlemen, to the just confities had their audience of the crown-prince, dence which he has placed in you. You will Fredericksball, one of them, Count Wedel Jarls- guide this faithful people, and after zealously fulberg made a speech, in which he said, that the filling your functions as legislators, you will conNorwegian diet had proclaimed Charles XIII. tribute by your intelligence and efforts to make and his beirs, according to the order of succession that government loved which you have given of the 26th of September, 1810; that thus two yourselves. ancient kingdoms, which the Creator had united “ In order to prepare the means of doing this, together, would be bound in common ties; that it is essentially important to enlighten the nation the happy hour was arrived in which Norwegians as to its situation and prospects. It is necessary, and Swedes could embrace as brothers who had that they should not ascribe to the new authority one common father; that it had been reserved for evils of which it was not the cause: it is necessary Charles XIII. and his worthy son to accomplish that the people should know in what state the the glorious work of the union; that the Norwe- king found your finances and your administration, gians greatly regretted that his majesty's weak in order that they may be able to judge imparstate of bealth would not allow of bis visiting tially of the ameliorations which must be the nathem in this rigorous season; that they wished, tural fruit of his government. You will receive, therefore, that his royal highness, and his promis- gentlemen, a proposition as to the preparatory ing son, would repair to the capital of Norway, measure which will be necessary for this purpose. and receive the assurances of the love and alle “ The union between Sweden and Norway is giance of the people of Norway to their new king, founded on our geographical position, on the naand at the same time give them an opportunity of tional character of both states, on their mutual beholding a prince of such rare qualifications and interest, and on the wisdom which presides over distinguished virtues, who was destined one day their deliberations: I add also, on the attachment to wear the united crowns of Norway and of which they both feel to personal liberty, to the Sweden.

rigbts of property, and to a representative governOn the 8th of November, his royal highness, ac ment. Accordingly, may we ever remain two nacompanied by his son, Prince Oscar, set out from tions united and independent. Satisfied with the Frederickshall, and on the 10th repaired in state Jimits wbich nature has prescribed to us, impressto the ball of the diet. On this occasion he deli. ed with the great truth, that beyond them there vered the following address, which is certainly re can exist no real good for us, our policy will markable for the mildness and candour 'of its sen- always be that of never provoking war, but of timents.

religiously maintaining the harmony which exists “ Gentlemen,-The king has seen the wisbes with all powers. Since Providence has placed accomplished which he has not ceased to form for our happiness and our duties within the same cir.

BOOK XIIJ. cle, I fear not to take, in the face of the universe, The union of Norway to Sweden having now. a solemn engagement, that no foreign domina been accomplished, a deputation from the diet

, Chap. III. tion shall ever defile your soil or violate your headed by the Bishop of Aggerhuus, announced rights.

to his royal bighness, on the 25th, that the labours 1814.

“ Gentlemen, the king accepts the constitution, of the diet were terminated. The deputation such as it has been agreed upon between you and were informed by the crown-prince, that he would his majesty's commissioners. He reserves to repair next day to the hall of the assembly, behimself to present to the states-general of Swe tween three and four o'clock, to dissolve the den the articles which assign reasons for some states. Accordingly, on the 26th, the garrison changes or modifications in the Swedish consti- being under arms, his royal bighness, escorted by tution.

a detachment of ligbt-horse, and by the city-guard “ In the name of the king, also, I now deposit of honor, accompanied by Prince Oscar, the with you, gentlemen, bis oath to govern the king, viceroy, Count Essen, the Swedish commissioners, dom of Norway according to its constitution and and counsellors of state, proceeded to the house laws, and I now invite you to take the oath to where the diet held its sittings, at the entrance of his majesty

which were assembled the officers of his suite. “ The compact which he has entered into with He was introduced into the hall by a deputation, the Norwegian people is now therefore defini when he delivered the following speech to the tively concluded. May that Providence who diet, which Prince Oscar interpreted in the Norwatches over the fate of empires bless this solemn wegian language. moment, which opens to the two nations of the " Gentlemen,--You have witnessed the paterScandinavian peninsula a new career of glory and nal intentions of the king, in the sanction of that prosperity. I will second the paternal efforts of constitutional law which guarantees the liberty the 'king for the happiness of the Norwegians, of the Norwegian people. If, in passing rapidly and will transmit to my son the sentiments of love from an absolute government, to one founded on and affection which I bear them. Amidst the the laws, the wishes which you have expressed tumult of arms, and when marching with the have been sometimes mixed with fears and disallies of Sweden, on the soil of Germany, to op- quietudes, they must be ascribed to the recollecpose the most frightful tyranny that ever oppress tion of times and relations which no longer exist. ed Europe, I looked forward only to the present You were animated with the zeal of defending the moment' as a reward for my labours; and the rights of the people ; the king was desirous of repeaceful palm which I this day receive from the cognizing them, and he was induced so to do, as hands of a free people is more satisfactory to my much by his particular sentiments as by the free beart than all the laurels of victory.

constitution of Sweden. “ I renew to you, gentlemen, the assurance of “ The people who have attentively observed my regard, which is as deep as it is real."

your deliberations, will acknowledge in their proThe assembly afterwards took the oath of fide gress and result the sacredness of the promises of lity to the king, and his royal highness delivered the king, and his respect for the national liberty; to the president bis majesty's promise of govern- they will see that the wisdom of his majesty has ing according to the national laws. On the fol- preserved you from the two rocks of anarchy and lowing day, Field-marshal Count d’Essen was of despotism. invested with the dignity of Stadtholder of the “ Satisfied with a successive increase in our kingdom of Norway. On the 13th, a selemn commerce and agriculture, we shall never desire Te Deum was celebrated at the cathedral church the glory of holding in the pageantry of the world of Christiania, and an eloquent discourse compos- any other place than that of a happy people. ed for the occasion was delivered by the Bishop ** But, whilst peace is our only object, we ought of Aggerhuus. The King of Sweden issued a not to forget that the most effectual means of atproclamation to the Norwegians on the 11th, taining it depends on our energy. The duty of which reiterated the assurances of the crown- defending the country, which stimulates the warprince. In this he tells them, that “ the funda. rior in his noble career, entitles him to the just mental law which your representatives have consideration of his fellow-citizens; it is the most adopted in concert with our commissioners, and gratifying recompense the soldier can receive, for which we have solemnly received and approved, the privations to which he devotes himself. will serve as a guarantee both of your right and “ The king, accustomed to govern a free peoyour future prosperity. Bear in mind, that these ple, has recognized, with a lively satisfaction, the valuable blessings are only to be preserved by rights whieh the constitution gives to that respectrespect for religion and social order, and that able class of agriculturists, whose industry supplies the sanctity of rights always rests on the faith the cities, and whose arms assist in defending the ful performance of the duties thereto attached.” country.

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“ Gentlemen, the duties of the extraordinary amongst us, has given us unequivocal proofs of BOOK XIII. assembly of Sterthing being concluded, I an your regard for the rights of the nation, of your sonounce to you, in the name of the king, and by licitude

for its glory and felicity. You have been chap. Ilt. virtue of the power which gives to bis majesty the able to judge for yourself that rectitude, moderaconstitutional compact, that the session is termi tion, and firmness, are the principal traits of the

1814. bated; in returning to your peaceful babitations, national character. Important occupations Dow each of you, strong in the testimony of his con recal your royal highness to the country of our science, and happy in having insured the inde- brethren. May you and your son, the hereditary pendence of your country, and the liberty of your prince, who excites such high hopes, condescend fellow-citizens, will always remember that union to be the interpreter to our king and common and order constitute the force of a state, and that father, of the sentiments, the wishes, and the its existence and prosperity require the submission hopes of the nation, and be pleased to assist him ef all individuals to the sacred commands of the in maintaining its rights. Convinced of this law. The first duty of a prince is, to cause this trutb, that whosoever forms his resolution with sovereign of kings and of people to be religiously wisdom and prudence, afterwards persists in it respected. The ancient inhabitants of the North with unalterable firmness, be pleased, sir, to ashave never conferred the title of good on mildness sure the king, that he has acquired a people destitute of energy. Shew yourselves the worthy whose attachment and fidelity it will depend upon descendants of those respectable ancestors! Like himself to render immovable. them, make the good of your country the object “ Be pleased, also, sir, to inform the faithful of your lives ; like them, teach your children that Swedish nation, that the northern and western the most sure guarantee of their rights is the scru frontiers of Sweden are inhabited by a nation of pulous discharge of their duties. Resume the brothers, who in future will only labour for the functions which you have quitted, to answer to happiness, the security, and the glory of the two the call of public confidence. The fear of God is countries. the only one that free men ought to acknowledge. “ Colleagues and fellow-citizens! We return May it be the companion of your labours and the to our homes to devote ourselves to our peaceful rule of your actions! Goodness will dwell in the employments. Guided by the love of our counmidst of you, and the liberty of Scandinavia will try, we have decreed the union of Norway with be as imperishable as its mountains.

Sweden. As good patriots, we will co-operate “ May God watch over the king, and protect with unalterable constancy towards its confirmahis two kingdoms, and retain you, gentlemen, in tion. We will explain to our fellow-citizens the his holy and worthy keeping"

equitable intentions of government, and will not In reply to this speech, the president of the omit to point out to them that they have with the diet said, “ The important transactions, ever-me- king a friend and intercessor, who will watch morable in the annals of the North, for which this over their liberty and independence-a hero who extraordinary diet was assembled, are terminated, is their best safeguard. and in consequence the diet is closed, by order of “ Sir, when you shall return to Norway, which the king.

we hope will be seen, and that our hopes will be " It was with circumspection, and not without confirmed, the happy Norwegians, full of joy, will anxiety, that the representatives of the Norwegian press in crowds around your steps, and will prepeople proceeded in their deliberations; and that sent to you the most sincere testimonies of their they deereed the union which has been so happily affection and attention." concluded between Norway and Sweden. They The diet afterwards broke up; and the crown. knew not, they could not know, the intentions of prince returned to Sweden. The following is the king; and the business before them was a re the substance of the alterations which were made solution which decided the fate of the present ge- in the Norwegian constitution:neration, and of generations to come. The king Art. 1. Norway is an hereditary kingdom, free, transmitted to them propositions founded on an independent, and indivisible, united with Sweden acknowledgment of the rights of the nation; they under the authority of a king. The form of gowere presented by respectable men, whose ap vernment is a moderate monarchy. pearance inspired confidence, whose mode of act. 5. Jews continue excluded. ing gained the complete esteem and approbation 6. The inheritance of the crown is regulated of the deputies. À mutual solicitude for the by the laws of succession established in Sweden, glory and prosperity of the two kingdoms has on the 25th of September, 1810. produced the union; concord and reciprocal cares 7. When there is no prince in the line of suce will consolidate it; such are our wishes, such are cession, the king may propose his successor at our hopes.

the same time to the states of Norway and Swe. “ Your royal bighness, during your residence den. If the proposal is accepted, the representa

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BOOK XIII. tives of the two nations may nominate from among present at the resolves of the king respecting

themselves a committee empowered to fix the Norway, Crap. III.

choice, in case any of the persons proposed should 25. The king has the supreme cominand of the 1814.

not unite the majority of the votes of the repre- forces by sea and land; yet be cannot, without sentatives of the two nations.

the consent of the diet, send troops to the service 9. The king arrives at years of majority in of foreign powers, or jptroduce foreign troops into Norway at the same time as in Sweden.

the kingdom, except as auxiliaries in case of io11. The coronation takes place at Christiania vasion. or at Trondheim.

34. The Norwegian minister of state, and the 12. The king every year passes some time in two counsellors of state, have seats in the Swedish Norway, unless prevented by great obstacles. council of state, and may deliver their opinions or

13. The council of state, which the king no questions interesting to both kingdoms. minates, is composed of a viceroy or governor 58. The diet meets every five years, in the bed general, a minister of state, and at least seven ginning of February, in the capital, or any other members.

city of the kingdom. 14. In the king's absence the internal govern 63. The king appoints the speakers of the two ment is directed by the viceroy and five counsel chambers. lors of state. The viceroy has two voices. Dur 69. A resolution adopted by three legal diets ing the king's presence, the functions of the vice- shall have the force of law, even should the king roy cease, and he is only first counsellor of state. not assent thereto, provided it be not contrary to None but the crown-prince or his son

the letter or the spirit of the constitution.. viceroys. The powers attached to that office can 70. The diet does not remain assembled more only be exercised during a fixed period. The than three months, without permission of the king governor-general may be either Norwegian or 82. The king will propose to the representaSwede; but the counsellors of state must be Nor. ives of the two nations a law, to the effect that wegians.

Norwegians and Swedes may reciprocally obtain 15. The king has constantly with him the the rights of citizenship in Sweden and Norway. Norwegian minister of state and two counsellors, 99. All subjects are alike liable to military será who are to be changed every year. They are vice until the age of twenty-five years.

can be

CHAPTER IV.

Affairs of Spain. - Political Parties.The Grandees and Prelates join Ferdinand at Valencia

Extraordinary Declaration of Ferdinand, in which he refuses to accede to the new Constitution,and pronounces the Decrees of the Cortes null, and their Supporters guilty of High-treason.-Dis. solution of the Cortes without a Struggle.--Entrance of Ferdinand into Madrid.--Arrests.-Con: vents restored.-Circular, respecting the Adherents of Joseph Bonaparte ; and to the Authorities in the Indies.--Address from the University of Salamanca.- Discontents in various Parts of Spain. -Re-establishment of the Inquisition..

Op all the states on the continent of Europe, volve the country in all the evils of civil discord. which had been delivered from the military des “ We cannot conceal it;" said the Spanish paper, potism of France, none excited such a deep and entitled The Conciso, “ two parties exist in Spain. universal interest as the transactions which took The one consists of those who love and support place in Spain this year. Although the return of the political reforms which have taken place; the Ferdinand VII. to his kingdom was hailed by the other, of those who either oppose, or bypocriti

. general voice of Spain, yet it was early remarked cally pretend to cherish them." The writer then that the unanimity was only external, and that goes on to say, that for more than twenty months, factions were brooding which would shortly in the enemies of reform.endeavoured, under the pre

text of religion, to stigmatize its promoters with monstrations of affection and loyalty with which BOOK XIII. the appellation of heretics, atheists, and deists; the people of Madrid came out to receive me, this and finding that this did not answer their purpose display of love towards my royal person making Cap. IV. they added the titles of jacobins and republicans, and a deep impression on the French hosts, who, under

1814. propagated the belief, that those wbo bad planned the cloak of friendship, bad advanced as far as a constitutional monarchy wished to leave a king that city, being a presage of what that heroic poout of the scheme. He further observes, that the pulation would one day perform for their king and persons disaffected to the new constitution had for their bonor, and giving that example which formed a junction with the Frenehified party; and the other parts of the kingdom have nobly folthat they would doubtless attempt to instil into lowed: since that day, I determined in my royal the minds of Ferdinand notions which had brought mind to reply to sentiments so loyal, and to saruin upon Charles IV. and Maria Louisa. If the tisfy the great obligations which a king is under Conciso, as being, under the influence of the towards his subjects, to dedicate my whole time to Cortes, bore somewhat of the stamp of a party the discharge of such august functions, and to repaper, it is certain that events too well verified pair the evils which the perpicious influence of a the statement and prediction bere made.

favourite bad caused in the preceding reign. My The arrival of Ferdinand at Valencia in April first labours were directed to the restoration of has been already observed in our last book. His various magistrates and other persons, who had long continuance at that place gave great uneasi been arbitrarily removed from their functions ; dess to the cortes, and the inhabitants of Madrid, but the difficult state of affairs, and the perfidy of where it was a general question, When will bis Bonaparte, from the cruel effects of which. I majesty swear to the constitution and rumours of wished, by proceeding to Bayonne, to preserve my the most opposite kinds were propagated on this people, scarcely allowed time for more. The point. The French papers, at this time under the royal family being assembled there, an atrocious control of the Bourbons, were continually publish- attack was perpetrated on the whole of it, and ing paragraphs in favor of the royal party against particularly on my person, unequalled in the bisthe popular. One of these stated, under the head tory of civilized nations, both in its circumstances of Barcelona, “ The cortes preserve a menacing and in the series of events which took place there; attitude, and wish to impose upon the sovereign and the sacred law of nations being there violated conditions which the dignity of the crown can in the highest degree, I was deprived of my linot admit. The new constitution is really

, repub- berty, stripped of the government of my kingdoins, lican: the executive power is so limited and and conveyed to a palace with my very dear brother checked, that it is impossible the machine can and uncle, which served as a sort of honorable support itself.” The Duke del Infantado bad now prison for about the space of six years. Amidst joined the king at Valencia, and was followed by this affliction, I had always present 10 my

mind most of the grandees, and many prelates also re the love and loyalty of my people, and the consipaired to his court.

deration of the endless calamities to which they The cortes becoming more and more suspicious were exposed formed a great part of my griefs; and anxious, dispatched two letters to the king, inundated as they were with enemies, nearly desexpressing their earnest. desire that he would as titute of all means of resistance, without a king, sume the reins of government, according to the and without a government previously established, constitution, and representing the mischievous which might put in motion and unite at its voice consequences that would result from a longer de. the force of the nation, direct its impulse, and avail lay, to which it does not appear that they received itself of the resources of the state, to combat the any answer. At length, all suspense and doubt forces which simultaneously invaded the Peninsula, was terminated by a declaration, which Ferdinand and bad treacherously got possession of its principal issued at Valencia on the 4th of May. As this fortresses. In this lamentable situation, as the only paper was the forerunner of all the disorders remedy that remained, I issued, as well as I could which afterwards took place in this country, we while surrounded by force, the decree of the 5th of think it our duty to lay the whole of it before our May, 1808, addressed to the council of Castile, readers.

and in defect of it to any other board or audience “ Since the period when Divine Providence, in that might be at liberty, in order that the cortes consequence of the spontaneous and solemn re might be convoked, wbo had only to employ themsignation of my august fatber, placed me on the selves on the spur of the moment, in raising the throne of my ancestors, of which the kingdom took taxes and supplies necessary for the defence of the oaths to me as heir by its procurators assem. the kingdom, remaiving . permanent for other bled in cortes, according to the law and custom events which might occur: but this my royal deof the Spanish nation, practised from the most re cree unfortunately was not known then; and, almote periods; and since that happy day on which though it was afterwards known, the provinces

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