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CHAPTER V.

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Spanish Affairs continued.- Disgust excited throughout Europe at the Conduct of Ferdinand.- Letter from the Spanish Ambassador on the State of Spain. - Proclamation of the Governor of Cadiz.

- Tumults and Executions.--Rota of the Nuncio restored.-Ordinance abolishing Torture.-Pope's Nuncio recalled, who had been banished by the Cortes.-Reform in the Court of Inquisition.Measures to repress Insurgents and Banditti. -Arrests multiplied.Restoration of Feudul Privileges.-Attempt of General Mina to take Pampeluna.His Flight into France. Arrested at Paris.Liberated by the French Government.--Council of Mesta re-established. - Arbitrary Conduct of the Spanish Government. The persecutions and troubles which distracted the people there enjoy even a happiness superior BOOK X107. the peninsula the greater part of this year, in to that which any nation ever experienced : for duced many persons of distinction to emigrate to none ever succeeded in recovering its indepen- Chap. V. Italy, where they rallied round the person of dence and its sovereign by such extraordinary Charles IV. at Roine. A strict examination of all efforts of courage, fidelity, and constancy. Con 1814. letters took place at the Spanish post-offices, and vinced of this happy situation of my country, I great pains were taken by the government to pre- have hitherto been silent respecting those reports vent information of the real state of affairs from of discontents which idle or evil-disposed persons being circulated, especially to foreign countries. take delight in propagating; and I should have Indeed, the conduct of the beloved Ferdinand and done the same in regard to your brother

journalist his ministers excited the greatestdisgust throughout at Munich, if, after having announced fålse intelevery country in Europe, and became the subject ligence, he had not added an atrocious calumny of discussion amongst all classes of society. The against iny august sovereign, and against his royal Spanish court, feasing perhaps of offending the highness ihe Infant Don Antonio. allied monarchs, thought it necessary to contra " I fattered myself, gentlemen, that the times dict the rumours that had gone abroad ; and an in which journalists insulted nations and sove. article having appeared in the Journal de Pa- reigns with impunity were long past, and what ris, reflecting on the conduct of the Spanish clergy, more aggravated insult can there be, than to at. the Spanish ambassador addressed a most extra tribute to the uncle of the King of Spain a deordinary letter to the editor of that

paper,

which claration wbich would be an act of rebellion, and we shall here insert,

to ascribe to his majesty a disease which would “Gentlemen, -In your paper of yesterday you incapacitate him from reigning? On what founinserted an article, dated Munich, 16th inst. repre- dation has this miserable journalist raised bis imsenting that the harangues of the Spanish clergy posture ?. And you, gentlemen, how could you had occasioned the greatest disorders in the ci think of inserting such an imputation in your paties of Leon and Compostella. You will readily per? The singularity of adopting Spanish news believe that I bave at Paris intelligence of a much from a German journal ought to have deterred more recent date, and, above all, more authentic you, had you even not reflected on the misthan the Bavarian news-writer who has furnished chievous consequences which your levity was you with the article in question. Allow me, there- likely to produce. All true Frenchmen have defore, to tell you, that the disorders at Leon and plored the war of perfidy and atrocity which their Compostella have no more reality than the alarm tyrant carried op for six years; they have deplored occasioned by the conduct and sentiments of Gene that war not only as unjust, but as a medium ral Mina, and the seditious proceedings announced wbich could not fail to raise to the highest for some time past in different parts of Spain; pitch the animosity and hatred of two neighwhilst, on the contrary, General Mina is not less bouring nations, whose mutual interest it is to estimable for his loyalty and old-fashioned frank maintain a good understanding with one anotber. ness, than worthy of admiration for his military All that can tend to perpetuate this disposition, achievements; and, in spite of the fabricators of ought to be carefully avoided; and nothing, in false news, there is not a more quiet country in my opinion, will contribute more to exasperate Europe than Spain. Yes, gentlemen, the most my countrymen than the continuation of the

sysa perfect tranquillity' prevails in my native land; tem which most of the journalists and other

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BOOK XIII. writers of your nation have long and invariably ferior, were forbidden to make use of the torture

pursued. Every piece of false intelligence relative towards criminals or witnesses in order to force CHAP. V.

to Spain, every invective is a disservice rendered confession. At the same time, the king directed to your own countrymen.

that in the construction of prisons, attention should 1814.

I hope that you will be pleased to publish this be paid to healthfulness as well as security, that the contradiction in your paper.

persons confined might not undergoan anticipated « P. Gomez LABRADOR. punishment. The arrested members of the cortes Paris, July 25, 1814."

were at this period still detained in prison, and

were said to bear their fate with a great appeatNotwithstanding this letter of the Spanish am ance of fortitude. The pope's nuncio, who had bassador, it was manifest that great discontents been banished the kingdoin by the cortes in still existed in Spain, and which kept the go- 1813, for his resistance to the abolition of the inveroment in alarm. This appeared not only from quisition, had, as might be expected, been revarious accounts transmitted from the different called, and was enjoying the highest degree of provinces, but especially from a general order court favor. The abolition of the tribunal of the and proclamation, issued at Cadiz, by Villava. 'inquisition by the cortes certainly created them a cienzo, the captain-general. “My former procla- vast number of enemies, and was probably the mations,” he says, “ bave produced no effect. cause of their downfal on the return of Ferdi. Traitors and disturbers of the public repose con nand. As it may not be uninteresting to our tinue to mislead the people, who are always readers we will briefly revert to the proceedings fickle and credulous. These offences can no of that body in 1813, relative to their dispute longer remain unpunished. Justice shall in fu with the Spanish clergy and the pope's nuncio op ture be executed with the celerity which circum

that subject. stances demand. I declare that considering my Among the difficulties which the cortes had to self as in a state of war, a military commission is encounter, one of the most serious arose from that about to be immediately appointed, which shall bigotry which has for so many ages been characdecide within the period of three days at farthest teristic of the Spanish nation, and has enslaved according to military forms; and I will cause to its clergy to the most obnoxious maxims of the be brought before it every individual accused of church of Rome. Although religious toleration having, directly or indirectly, spoken against the could obtain no admission into the new constitusovereignty of Ferdinand VII. or who is suspect- tion, yet the more liberal members of the cortes ed of any other maneuvre to mislead public opi- had been able to carry a decree for the abolition nion.” A measure so violent and arbitrary as that of the odious tribunal of the inquisition, and had here declared, must have proceeded either from passed an injunction for reading the decree in the some very urgent danger, or from the despotic churches at the celebration of high mass. This character of the man; and, if it did not effec was very galling to the clerical body; and at a tually intimidate, must certainly have augmented sitting of the cortes on March 8th, 1813, a letter the force of disaffection. It afterwards appeared was read, transmitted by order of the regency, that this proclamation had been preceded by party which conveyed three memorials relative to this tumults, and that several executions were the subject, from the vicar-general of the diocese of result.

Cadiz, the parochial clergy of the city and subIn the mean time, the policy of strengthening urbs, and the chapter of the diocese. That of the power of the crown by that of the church the vicar-general set forth his reasons for not was pursued without intermission. By a royal obeying the order of the cortes, the substance of decree, the tribunal of the rota of the apostolic which was, that it would be matter of scandal to nuncio was installed on the 22d of August, on read resolutions purely civil in a sacred place and which occasion its members, by the mouth of the in the middle of the sacrifice of the mass, and that 'dean of the tribunal, made a very loyal address it bad not been usual to publish laws in that manto the king. Enumerating the advantages which ner. The clergy went so far as to impugn the would accrue from the re-establishment of this spirit of the decree for abolishing the inquisition, court, they observed, that “concord between the saying that it contained doctrines contrary to what priesthood and the government being thus se they had always preached to their parishioners. cured, the bases of the tranquillity and safety of The Spanish regency, in the letter 'accompany. the state can no longer be shaken; for the philo. ing these memorials, informed the cortes that sophers of the day have obstinately sought to dis- they had not chosen to take severe measures on turb that concord, only the better to succeed in over the occasion, for fear of disturbing the public whelming successively the altar and the throne." tranquillity; and recommended the business to

In the same month, another ordinance was pub- the consideration of the cortes. lished, by which the civil judges, superior and in

The first speakers who arose in the assembly

warmly condemned the regency for declining to gates of the apostolic see, has endeavoured to BOOK XII; exercise their authority in executing the orders of promote, and actually has promoted, under the the cortes; and Senor Arguelles, after observing cloak of religion, the disobedience of some very

CHAP. V. that the remarks of the clergy did not merit their respectable prelates and ecclesiastical bodies, to

1814. attention, and that their sole business was to dis the decrees and orders of the sovereign power." euss the conduct of the government in the observ. After a number of observations on the conduct of ance of the laws, said, that the regency ought to the nuncio, and the necessity of controlling it, be deposed the moment it did not cause the laws the cardinal president declares, that although be to be executed, which duty it had sworn to per-conceived himself fully authorised to exert his form; and concluded with moving that the sit- power by sending the nuncio out of the kingdom, ting be declared permanent till this business was and seizing his temporalities, yet he had confined terminated. This notion was carried by a great himself to ordering that the following royal demajority. He then, after declaring that the cir cree sbould be transmitted to him. The detree cumstances were highly critical, and that a con referred to expressed in strong terms the sense of test between the two depositaries of the authority, the regency of the nuncio's improper conduct ; of government might involve the nation in the and informed him, that it expected that he would greatest calamities, moved that a regency should for the future keep within the limits of his misbe nominated ad interim. This motion occasioned sion, and that all his remonstrances to government a considerable debate; after which, being put to should be made through the medium of the sethe vote, it was carried by eighty-seven against cretary of state ; assuring him, that should be forty-eight. The three councillors of state upon henceforward forget the duties of his charge, the whom, on account of seniority, according to an regency would be under the necessity of exercise article of the constitution, the provisional regencying its power in fulfilling the duties intrusted to it. fell, were the Cardinal Bourbon (Archbishop of This spirited and decisive proceeding, bowever, Toledo), Don P. Agar, and Don Gabriel Ciscar. was ineffectual to restrain the actions of a repre, One deputation was then appointed to dismiss the sentative of that authority which, during so many old regency, and another to wait on the new. The ages, had maintained a successful contest with latter then appeared before the cortes, and was civil governments; and it appeared from a subinstalled in office with a suitable discourse from sequent manifesto of the regeney, that the nuncio the president.

affirmed in a note “ that he could not but believe It was soon discovered that the resistance of that he was under an indispensable obligation to the Spanish clergy to the decree of the cortes was act as he had done, in quality of legate of the supported and fomented by the powerful influence pope, and in fulfilment of the duties of bis mi. of the pope's nuncio, Peter Gravina, Archbishop nistry; that though he wished nothing more than of Nicea, then resident at Cadiz. This was made the peace and tranquillity of the kingdom, and it public by a manifesto of the regency, addressed was contrary to his character to intermeddle in to the prelates and chapters of Spain, and dated other subjects than those belonging to the duties April 23d. In this important paper, the president of bis legation ; yet in ecclesiastical matters be of the regency, Cardinal Bourbon, after alluding was obliged to engage in that correspondence and to the energetic measures which he had been communication which was required of bim by bis obliged to adopt in order to extinguish a fame office.” He added, “ that if bis conduct in corwhich might bave consumed the kingdom, says, responding with the reverend bishops, and acting that among the documents which he had called for as he had before done, gave offence to the cortes, on the occasion from different chapters, there bad they might act as they thought proper relatively appeared a letter from the pope's nuncio to the to himself, as he believed his behaviour would Dean and Chapter of Malaga,' exhorting them to merit the approbation of bis holiness." In a letter delay, and even to oppose, the execution of the of the 9th of May, the nuncio persisted in the decrees concerning the inquisition. By so acting, same sentiments, and said, that the greater part the nuncio says, “they would do an important of the bishops, even those who were resident at service to religion, to the church, and to our most Cadiz, had made known their opinion on this subholy father, whose authority and rights he con- ject, in the hope that, as legate of the pope, he ceives to be wounded, without thereby favoring would take the part which he should judge prothe episcopal power." Letters to the saine pur per; that he had therefore been induced to give pose had been forwarded to the regency, from the his advice and instructions as he had done to the nuncio to the Bishop of Jaen and ihe Chapter of prelates and chapters, and that he should pursue Grenada; “ from which it appears (says the ma the same conduct whenever similar subjects should nifesto) that the said nuncio, trampling on the come in question. Thus, perhaps, very conscienfirst principles of international law, overlooking tiously, did Senor Gravina follow the same tract the limits of his public mission, and abusing the with ihe Beckets of old, in supporting the autho

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CHAP. V.

BOOK XIII. civil government in a country; demonstrating the waiting for orders from the governors of the pro

uniformity of principle by which that vast machine vinces, and establishing in each a permanent of ecclesiastical power is actuated. The regency council of war, by wbich aļl persons arrested were

appears to have been reluctant to come to extre to be immediately tried ; and it was declared, 1814.

mities and declare open hostilities with such a that “ the confronting of witnesses was not necess power; but its reputation and authority were sary, unless the advocate of the accused should compromised ; and at length, on July 7th, after represent it as indispensably requisite for their having heard the opinion of the council of state, vindication. The sentences of this court were to note was sent in its name to the nuncio, acquaint- be communicated to the governor of the

proing him that a passport was sent to him for leav- vince, and unless be disapproved, execution was ing the kingdom, and that his temporalities in it to take place without delay. But in case of re. would be occupied. He was further informed sistance by force, the execution might be ordered that, in consideration of his dignity, and in order by the military commission, without any other au. that he might perform his voyage commodiously, thority. It can scarcely be doubted, that this ara national frigate should be prepared to carry him bitrary rigour was chiefly directed against more whithersoever he might choose to go. The nun formidable insurgents than robbers on the bighcio, however, preferred going to Portugal in a way. vessel provided by bimself, where he remained In the meantime, the political discontents in till his recal by Ferdinand.

the capital kept increasing; and, in the night beAn account was received from Rome, in Sep; tween the 16ih and 17th of September, ninety tember, which stated that the King of Spain had persons were arrested and committed to custody. addressed a long memorial to the pope, in which In the night of the 25th, twenty-six more were it was proposed to abolish the code called Direc- apprehended, for the alleged crimes of freematorium Inquisitorium, and to adopt the following sonry and attachment to the cause of the cortes. rules. Mahometans, Jews, and other infidels, The number of persons arrested at length beno longer to give testimony against Catholics ac came so great, that the prisons were not capacious cused of heresy. Wives, children, relations, enough to contain them all, and the Frauciscan and domestics, not to be admitted as witnesses in convent was converted into a state prison. The the first instance; the torture not to be applied alarm excited by these measures, induced many in any case ; the charges to be so specific, that persons to take refuge in France and other counslight or violent suspicions of heresy cannot suf tries. Two of these having taken refuge in Gifice for ordering the arrest of an individual; the braltar, were demanded by the Spanish governproperty of the condemned in no case to fall to ment, and given up by the British commander. the inquisition; the families of the condemned to One was a retired officer, the other a scholar, tobe admitted to inheritance; the expenses of the tally immersed in his studies, and never mixing supreme council to be defrayed out of the royal in political concerns. They were thrown into

prison;

but, in consequence of the representations A commission was appointed in September for of the British government, they were liberated. the trial of the members of the cortes confined The British commander at Gibraltar was severein the various prisons, and styled, by way of re ly censured for delivering them into the hands of proach, the liberales. Two magistrates, both the Spaniards, and was afterwards recalled. members of the supreme council of Castile, no Among other eminent patriots who had been perminated to form part of this tribunal, immedi secuted and compelled to fly, was the Marquis ately gave in their resignation. It was manifest, Matterosa, one of the most distinguished chamfrom every account wbich was received, that pions of the Spanish independence, who had exSpain was at this time in a most deplorable con- posed bis life and fortunes in the service of bis dition. One of these stated that the guerillas country. He had fled from Madrid into the Asand deserters from the army had formed them turias; bis persecutors had followed him to bis selves into numerous bands of robbers, by which country seat, and had terrified the countess bis the internal quiet of the kingdom was much dis inother so that she died in consequence of turbed; and that the high roads were so much her apprehensions for his safety; he had, bowinfested by these banditti, that several towns bad ever, arrived safe in England. Several members. petitioned governinent to take effectual measures of the cortes were dragged from their homes, for the suppression of this evil. In consequence, and others pursued into different parts of the a force of infantry and cavalry was sent into the country. It was dreadful to consider that Fera provinces of the two Castiles, Estremadura, An dinand had profited so little by his sufferings, as dalusia, Arragon, Valencia, and Catalonia, for to come back to his country, after an exile of five the extermination of the offenders. An official years, and begin his career by injuries to the order was issued at the same time, empowering very men who had been his benefactors. He bad the commanders of these troops to aci without visited them with afflictions far severer than any

treasury

A

which had fallen upon himself. He bad en- people of Navarre, was issued by the bishop and BOOK XIII. joyed free air and exercise, and the free use of two other persons in authority, in order to excite

Cuap. V. his limbs: they were confined in dreary dun- 'their loyalty. geons without air, ill fed, without the common The high character formerly sustained by Ge

1814. decent comforts of nature : even the doors of neral Mina cannot fail to interest readers in bis their dungeons were kept closed, that they might fate, notwithstanding bis failure in an enterprize not have the benefit of the refreshing atmosphere. perhaps rashly undertaken, and the precise obIt is worthy of remark, that the judges appoint- ject of which is only matter of conjecture. We ed to try these offenders, were three persons who therefore subjoin the following particulars rehad opposed all the proceedings of the Spaniards specting him, taken from a French account. His froin the outset, and had shewn themselves hos- nephew, a gallant young man, after the miscartile to every measure that bad for its object an riage at Pampeluna, took refuge at Pau, with effectual resistance to the arms of France. One several officers attached to him and his uncle, and of them had been chief judge under Joseph baving presented himself at the police office, adBonaparte.

dressed a memorial to Louis XVIII. In this he The province of Navarre at length became the represented that he had constantly supported the seat of an insurrection which appeared in a truly Bourbon cause in Spain, and that his great object formidable aspect. The famous partizan, Espoz had been to effect their restoration to the Spanish de Mina, who had so much distinguished bimself throne on the basis of a free constitution, that in the war by his enterprize and courage, was at

such a constitution had been acknowledged by the head of a body of troops in that province, and the whole nation, but that Ferdinand, unmindful had fallen under the suspicion of government of the blood which had been shed in his cause, It appeared from a proclamation of the viceroy bad persecuted with the greatest rigour those of Navarre, that an order had been sent from patriots who had most exerted themselves in his court on the 16th of September, signifying that behalf

, and had plunged the nation in the greatMina should be regarded as a retired officer, and est calamities. On this account, be (Mina) with fix his residence in Pampeluna, and that the many of his companions in arms, had made an troops serving under him should be placed at the exertion in support of the constitution, but having disposal of the Captain-general of Arragon, and failed, they now applied to his majesty to grant distributed by him in the towns under bis com them hospitality in France, or to furnish them mand. The viceroy communicated this order to with passports to any other country than Spain. Mina on the 23d, and, at the same time, sent a About this period, Espoz de Mina arrived in dispatch to the Governor of Arragon, stating the Paris with four or five of his officers, and applied, urgent necessity of transferring Mina's troops to under fictitious names, for passports to Count de other quarters. On the 25th, he was informed Casa Flores, the Spanish chargé d'affaires. by the Arragon courier, that he had been stop- Being recognized by one of the legation, notice ped by two horsemen, who had taken away his bag was given to the count, who amused Mina till be of letters. Mina, who had signified to the vice- had obtained from the French commissary of roy bis

purpose of obeying the order, and coming police an order for his arrest. The French mito Pampeluna, approached that city on the night nister for foreign affairs, apprized of the fact, of the 26th, at the head of the first regiment of caused the commissary to be arrested in turn for volunteers, provided with ladders to scale the having violated the laws of France, by obeying ramparts, and having concerted his plan with the the order of a foreigner, who had no authority ehiefs of the 4th regiment in garrison in the whatever in the kingdom. The king was tben place. Accompanied by his nephew, he spent informed of the whole affair, and directly ordered a part of the night upon the ramparts, conferring Mina to be liberated, and dismissed the commiswith his partizans, and expecting movements in sary from his office; and, in consequence of what his favor; but it appears that he had not suffi- subsequently passed, the Spanish chargé d'afciently prepared his own officers for the attempt, faires was ordered to quit the French territory. , for they sent one of their number to inform the Nothing could be more bonorable to Louis and viceroy of the transaction, and to assure him of his ministers than the proceedings on this occatheir fidelity to the government. In conclusion, sion. Mina found it necessary to retire, followed by A royal ordinance issued by Ferdinand on the those who were most attached to him, and take 15th of September, exhibited a further progress the road of Puente la Rayna, where, it is said, in that system of bringing every thing back to there was a great fermentation among his sol its former state, wbich seems to be the leading, diers, a part of whom quitted his standard. The or rather the sole policy of his government. It viceroy published a proclamation, addressed to recites, that by a decree of the general and ex, the deputies of the province, informing them of traordinary cortes, on the 6th of August, 1811, these events; and another proclamation, to the all jurisdictional seignories, of whatever clase,

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