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BOOK XIII. were incorporated with the nation, and all pay. included several distinguished general officers ;

ments, both real and personal, which owed their while frequent changes in the ministry denoted Char. V. origin to a jurisdictional title, were abolished, the unsetiled state of public affairs, and the im

with the exception of such as proceeded from free becility of the monarch. One of these instances 1814.

contract, in the exercise of right of property; of despotic violence was displayed on November abolishing also the privileges called exclusive, 7, when the king in person repaired to M. de Maprivative, or prohibitive, such as those of the canaz, minister of justice and of the interior, and chase, fishing, ovens, and mills: that, in this putting seals upon all his papers, ordered him to state of things, representations had been made to go to prison. Nothing could more decisively ex. him by various grandees of Spain, and titulars hibit the weakness and petty policy of the king of Castile, jurisdictional lords of townships in or bis ministry, than the importance given to å Arragon, Valencia, and other provinces, com- pamphlet by M. Amoros, entitled “ Representaplaining of the robberies suffered by them under

tion to Ferdinand VII.” The supreme council pretence of the said decree, in the enjoyment of being ordered to take measures for seizing all the the rights and payments reserved to them; de- copies of this work, circulars were sent to all the manding restitution, and some of them praying tribunals, civil and criminal, and to the prelates the pullity of the decree; that the said memo and clergy, enjoining them to carry into effect rials had been referred to the council of state, his majesty's wishes concerning it. In conseand the law-officers of the crown, in consequencé quence, the work was very generally read, and of whose recommendation and advice, his majes: many copies of it were preserved in manuscript

. ty orders that the said jurisdictional lords be im- Conformably to this exercise of the sovereign aumediately replaced in the enjoynient of all the thority, the government made a collection of all rights, emoluments, &c. belonging to their ter the papers which recorded the operations of the ritorial and manorial seignory, and of all the cortes, especially the liberal journals entitled other rights which they enjoyed prior to August

“ l'Albesa," “ el Redactor," "el Conciso," " el 6, 1811, and which do not derive their origin Universal,” &c. and caused them to be conveyed from jurisdiction and exclusive privileges : with- in two carriages to a square in Madrid, where out prejudice to what he may hereafter resolve, they were committed to the flames with all the as to the nullity, continuance, or revocation of formalities formerly practised at an auto da . the said decree of the cortes, abolishing seigno A more important matter, however, had long ries. If the immediate operation of this ordi been under the consideration of the Spanish minance was in many respects to render strict jus- nistry, which was, the fitting out of an expeditice according to existing laws, the bope mani tion, which we shall have occasion to notice festly held out, of a future revocation of the po hereafter, for the reduction of the revolted propular decree of the cortes, was a bait offered to vinces in South America. Various obstacles octhe nobility of the kingdom, to secure their at curred to this undertaking, arising from the ex. tachment to the renewed order of things.

hausted state of the finances, and the public disAnother instance of the prevalent policy in the orders ; but late in the year the preparations apSpanish government, of reverting to old'institu pear to have been nearly completed, and the foltions, was given by re-investing the council of the lowing account was given of its intended conduct Mesta in its former function, by which the flocks and destination. The expedition, under the comof Merino sheep will be permitted, as formerly, mand of General Morilla, was to sail from Cadiz to traverse all Spain, notwithstanding the injury in three divisions, convoyed by a ship of the line, thence accruing to agriculture, which has been two frigates, and a brig, and the island of St. demonstrated by various enlightened writers. Catharine was appointed for the general rendez

On October 14, being the king's birth-day, he From thence the troops were to embark attended the theatre at Madrid, to the great sa for Rio Grande, and having proceeded up that tisfaction of the heroic inhabitants of the capital. river in small vessels as far as it is navigable, The dramatic piece selected for the occasion is they were to march overland, and undertake the entitled “Giles with the Green Breeches,” which siege of Maldonado, a place one hundred miles certainly does not indicate any thing very elevated. to the east of Montevideo, in which the naval On the same day his majesiy published an am force was to co-operate. vesty in favor of all persons detained in prison, In December the sentence upon the state prior fugitives from the kingdom, on account of any soners was made public at Madrid. Twenty-one other crimes than those recited in a copious list, persons were condemned to the gallies for two, including high-treason, divine and human, resist six, or eight years, or to strong castles for longer ance to justice, peculation in the finances, and or shorter periods ; among these were comprised other defaults, which would exclude from the priests, military men, civil officers, literary perbenefit all the subjects of the late arrests. In the

sons, and especially the journalists under the mean time these arrests were still going on, and cortes, who supported their system. Two jour


nalists, the editors of the “ Redactor General,” Escurial, exposed them to imprisonment and ex- BOOK XIII. and two professors, were sentenced to the gallies ile under the influence of Godoy. A subsequent at Cartbagena for ten years, under pain of death decree recognized the distinguished merit of Don Caap. VI. on leaving the precincts. Fines and confisca- Pedro Gravina, the pope's nuncio, and Arch

1814. tions were added in some cases.

bishop of Nicea, who signalised himself by his About the same time, the king issued a decree, opposition to the cortes, in their abolition of the granting an honorary decoration to those whose inquisition ; and a canopry of Seville was conattacbment to his person, during his arrest at the ferred on him as a reward.

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Hanover erected into a Kingdom.-Note of Count Munster to the Foreign Ministers at Vienna on

this Occasion.- Remarks.-Prince-regent's Proclamation.Hanoverian Diet assembled. Their Proceedings.-Free Constitution of Nassau.Military Regulations of Prussia.-Congress of Vienna.-Expectations formed of it.-Characters of the Allied Sovereigns.Observations.-Vieros of Prussia on Saxony.Declaration of the King of Saxony.Genoa annexed to the Dominions of the King of Sardinia by the Congress.Military Occupation of the Kingdom of Italy by the Austrians.-Remarks upon the Political Character of the Italians.--Their wish to be independent.-Jealousy of the Austrian Government.The Italian Regiments marched into Germany.Discussions in the Congress respecting Murat.-His critical Situation.Popularity of his Government.Attempt of the Sicilian Court to excite an Insurrection.— Increase of the Neapolitan Army.--Treaty of Alliance between Murat and the Emperor of Austria.-Suspicious Movements of the Neapolitan Forces.-Affairs of Sicily.Return of the Polish Troops to their Country. Anecdote of General Kosciusko.State of St. Domingo.Proceedings of King Henry. Mission of the French General Lavaysse.

As no country in Europe had undergone more ticle of the treaty of peace at Paris, it was agreed changes during the long war, of which it was so " that the States of Germany should remain inoften the seat, than Germany, so in none was the dependent, and join in a federal union.” In conprocess of restoration more tardy, or more ob sequence of this, the title of electoral prince of structed with ditticulties, arising as well from the the holy Roman empire ceased to be suitable to actual state in which it was left at the period of present circumstances. Several of the principal the general peace, as from the complicated na powers, in this point of view, had invited the ture of its political constitution. So much, in prince to renounce the title of elector, and to asfact, was to be done in order reduce it to a sume that of king, by which he would facilitate harmonious and well-balanced system, that the many of the arrangements which the future welyear 1814 elapsed without settling some of the fare of Germany seemed to require; and these most important points relative to the future con considerations alone had induced him to consent. dition of the Germanic states. Some dispositions. The note proceeded to observe, that "the house however, were definitively made, of which it will of Brunswick Luneburg being one of the most be proper to give an account. The first event illustrious and most ancient in Europe, the Hawhich attracted the most attention was the erection noverian branch having filled for more than a of Hanover into a kingdom. Count Munster, century one of the most distinguished thrones, its the Hanoverian minister of state, on the 12th of possessions being among the most considerable October, presented a note to the Austrian minis in Germany; all the ancient electors of Germany ter, and the ministers of the other powers assem the house of Wurtemberg having erected bled at Vienna; in which he gave the reasons their states into kingdoms; and, lastly, as the why the prince-regent bad deemed it proper to prince-regent cannot derogate from the rank assume the title of King of Hanover, in the name which Hanover held before the subversion of the and on the behalf of bis father. By the sixth ar German empire, his royal bighness has resolved,

BOOK XIII. laying aside, in the name of his house, the electo- tives in a speech. After complimenting the Ha.

ral title, to declare by the present note, which noverians upon their firm and loyal attachment to Chap. VI. the undersigned has orders to deliver to his their sovereign, and upon the share which they

highness Prince Metternich, that he erects his had, under "the greatest of commanders," in des 1814.

provinces forming the country of Hanover into a troying the tyranny of Bonaparte, and restoring kingdom ; and that he shall benceforward assume, independence and tranquillity to Europe; he infor bis sovereign, the title of King of Hanover.” formed them that the prince-regent, one of the

No doubt, before this declaration was made, the race of the Guelphs, who had always been dis. concurrence of the powers, to whose ministers tinguished for justice and mildness, and which this note was addressed, had been fully ascer had produced many fathers of their country, pone tained; and an account, which was soon after who had abused the strength of its subjects,wards received from Vienna, mentioned, that all had given to the German sovereigns, who were to the plenipotentiaries recognised the new dignity form the confederation, the first example of callof the British sovereign. The prince-regenting an assembly, in which the voice of the people afterwards issued a proclamation to the inhabitants might declare itself with freedom, but with order, of Hanover, informing them of this change, and to point out to the prince the means of promoting its motives. One of the necessary consequences his object, which is the good of the country. The of this change in the title of the English monarch first step towards this important object was made will be, that the Hanoverian possessions must now by the union of the states of all the different parts be unalterably annexed to the crown of Great of the country, to which are given the rights of Britain; whereas, before, while they were an granting mouey, and other points of legislation. electorate, as they could not descend to females, One of their principal objects of deliberation they would, in the event of the Princess Charlotte would regard the means of repaying those who, of Wales coming to the throne of Great Britain, in confidence in good faith, lent the public their have passed to the Duke of York, and thus been property to supply the public wants. The princeseparated from England.

regent, for his part, considered the good faith, Independently, however, of the consideration

which the sovereigns of Hanover had never viohow far the interests of Britain were likely to be lated, as so sacred, that he declared his disposiaffected by this change, it must be confessed that tion to contribute even from the revenues of his the people of Hanover will be gainers by it; for domains, that their claims might be fulfilled. The there, as well as in several other parts of Europe, next object was to place Hanover in the most sethe events which produced, as well as those which cure condition against any future attack which contributed to destroy, the French revolution, might be made upon it. Britain, to which Haseemed to have convinced rulers, that their inter nover had already, in common with the rest of est, as well as their duty, lies in benefitting and Europe, been so much indebted, bad generously enlightening their people, and in making them replaced the necessary warlike stores carried off feel their weight in the conduct of public affairs. by the enemy, and this enabled the men, who A proclamation from the prince-regent was pub- could bring 'nothing but their good-will, to join lished at Hanover, in October, in which, after the list of combatants." He concluded by inadverting to the difficulties that had occurred in forming them, that it would be their business to forming an uniform plan of taxation and finance, consider of the changes in the administration of from the separation of the states of the different justice, which the present times rendered necesprovinces, it is decreed, that henceforth all the sary or advisable, and to deliberate on useful ingeneral affairs of the country which may be stitutions for the good of the country. What the brought under discussion with the states, con- regent intended would be communicated to them formably with the subsisting constitution, shall by his counsellors; while he would lend an atten. be submitted to an assembly of the states of all tive ear on other subjects. The list of full powers, the provinces, which shall adopt a general reso- which had been presented and approved, and the lution on such subjects. To effect this purpose, necessary regulation for the order of the states of it is further decreed, that for the present the states the kingdom, would be communicated to them: of all the provinces composing the electorate shall according to these, they were to begin by choosform thesiselves, by means of representatives, in- ing a president. « But first, let us, with united to a general diet, to assemble at Hanover, on the devotion, implore the blessings of the Most High 15th of December, furnished with full powers on on the sacred work of the first assembly of the the part of their constituents.

states of the kingdom of Hanover.” At the end On the day.appointed, the diet was opened with of this speech, his royal-highness repaired in proa solemnity proper for the occasion; and the cession with the whole assembly to the church of Duke of Cambridge, provided with full authority the palace, where the hymn Nun danket alle Gott, from the prince-regent, repaired in state to the “ Now thank all God," was sung, being particuplace of assembly, and addressed the representa- larly chosen, “ because the venerable father of


the royal house, and of the country, his majesty, pied from the British parliament. Although this BOOK XII. George the Third, with his strong sense of piety, was an experiment on a small scale, it was reset a particular value upon it.”

garded as paving the way to important results. The deputies, after returning to their hall, The leading powers of Germany were too made choice of Count Schulenburg Wolfsburg much engaged with the weighty concerns of the

1814. 1 for their president, who, on the following day, ad- congress at Vienna this year, to occupy themdressed his royal-highness to the following effect

. selves considerably with arrangements in their own He began by stating the obligations which the in- dominions. But as affairs were in an unsettled state, habitants of Hanover were under to the prince- it was thought necessary to keep up a powerful regent for calling the deputies together, and to military force: and Prussia in particular paid the British nation for the decided, persevering, considerable attention to this point. In the and glorious part which she had taken in the con month of Septeniber, an ordinance was publishtest, which had terminated in the triumph of peace ed at Berlin, by wbich all the old laws for the aud order. He next assured his royal-highness, completing of the military establishment were that in all their deliberations and proceedings abolished, and a number of articles were decreed they would use their utmost endeavours to second for the regulation of the armed force of the his good intentions for the prosperity of Hanover; country, under the three heads of the permanent and, he concluded by stating, that they considered army, the landwehr of the first and second rethe presence of his royal-bighness as a pledge of quisition, and the landsturm. It declared, that the gracious regard of their beloved sovereign every individual, born a Prussian subject, and and the prince-regent. The conclusion of the 'having completed his twentieth year, was bound reply of the Duke of Cambridge to this address to defend his country. In order to obviate the deserves to be quoted : “ Assembled deputies of complaint made against the French conscription, the kingdom, the whole country has its eyes on that it deranged all the plans for the education you. From you it looks for deliberations on the of youth, it was here provided that the age


ennew measures which the prince-regent has to take tering the military service should be twenty years in concert with you. You will weigh-the relations complete ; though youths of seventeen offering of all classes, and maintain them in just equili- 'themselves should be accepted, if qualified by brium, having in view the good of the whole, their physical powers. which is founded on the good of the single parts. By the treaty of Paris, it was declared, in geNever forget that the regent feels hinsell' inti- neral terms, that all the powers engaged on both mately connected with his subjects. If the diffi- sides in the late war, should send plenipotencult times require great sacrifices in the increase tiaries to Vienna, for the purpose of regulating of the revendes, consider that the sovereign de- in a general congress the arrangements necessary mands ‘nothing for himself; that we ask only what for completing the enactments of that treaty. Acthe country requires. If some privileges must be cordingly, in the months of August and Septemsacrificed to form a better internal order, remem- 'ber, most of the ministers of the different powers ber that the privce-regent'gives up rights which were assembled at Vienna, and were followed by others consider as an essential part of the royal the Kings of Bavaria, Wirternberg, and Dendignity, by'assembling you here-to be to him, "mark, and the petty princes of Germany. On here, what the parliament is, in the sister king- the 25th of September, the Emperor of Russia dom, Great Britain, the high council of the and King of Prussia made their solemn entry nation.”

into the Austrian capital. They were met at It was not 'in Hanover only that the example some distance by the Emperor of Austria, acwas given of the adoption of a representative go- companied by all the archdukes, and followed by vernment in Germany. In the month of October, his generals and courtiers in all the pomp of miFrederick Augustus, Duke of Nassau, and Fre- 'litary and courtly parade. The preparations derick William, Sovereign Prince of Nassau, is- made for the accommodatiou and entertainment sued a constitutional charter, founded upon the of the sovereigns were in the highest style of most liberal principles. It assured the free exer- costly grandeur; and the intelligence from Vie ise of religious worship, suppressed covéers, enna, during the remainder of the year, chiefly gave admission to the first offices of the state consisted in relations of the festivities and splenvithout any preference of rank or birth, esta- dour attending the presence of so many crowned lished an independent magistracy, and reñounc- heads. d the right of arbitrarily discharging the public · It was hoped that, at the congress of Vienna, anctionaries. It appointed a states-general of where monarchs were to see and judge for themhe duchy, composed of two separate houses, that selves, more regard than usual would be paid to f'nobles and that of deputies, the formation of the dictates of moderation and justice; and this hich, and their powers and privileges, with the hope was strengthened by a reflection on the hole act of legislation, were almost exactly con personal characters and experience of those mo

BOOK XIII narchs. The Emperor Alexander had, more as nearly as possible to the condition in which it

than any of the others, established a character was previous to the French revolution; only al. Caap. VI. for simplicity, moderation, and justice : his whole tering that condition so far as might be deemed

behaviour, not only while he was in England, but necessary to strengthen the inferior states. The 1814.

antecedently during the campaign in France had experience of the French revolution had proved led to the belief that he was far above the ambi- that these inferior states, unable to protect tion of being a mere conqueror; that his object and defend themselves, must necessarily fall was rather to improve the condition of the sub- under the power of their stronger neighbour jects which he already had, than to extend his in the case of another war.

This had been territories. While in England, he principally fatally exemplified with respect to the small states employed his time in seeing and examining those of Germany: being contiguous to France, they institutions and improvements in machinery had easily fallen into her power soon after the which might be of service to his own country; commencement of the revolution, and thus conso that it was hoped, by many, that a monarch tributed to render ber more equal to a contest had at last arisen, who would feel more delight with the great states of Europe, even when united in extending the empire of knowledge and civi- against her.

against ber. And as France, from the military lization, than in war and conquest. The King spirit which had been infused into her, and from of Prussia had suffered deeply in his wars with the immense armies she would still possess when Bonaparte; not merely as a sovereign, but as a ber prisoners were resiored-armies composed of husband. He was believed to be of a very do men who were totally indisposed and unqualified mestic babit and turn of mind, and still to feel for the occupations and engagements of peaceful deeply for the death of his queen : these circum- and civil life, was still the great object of susstances, united to what they all had so recently picion and alarm to the rest of the continent of witnessed of the fatal effects of war and ambition, Europe, it became necessary to strengthen the it was hoped would have induced him, at the states which bordered on her territories. On this Congress, to raise his voice and exert his influ- principle Belgium, even by the treaty of Paris

, ence in favor of those schemes alone which had

. for their object the real good of monarchs as well gress of Vienna professed to have greater objects as subjects. Less, perhaps, was expected from in view than even the protection of the smaller the Emperor of Austria than from either the states against the ambition and power of France; King of Prussia or the Emperor of Russia; for, they professed to assemble for the grand and bethough he had suffered dreadfully from his wars nificent object of doing all in their power to with Bonaparte, there appeared to be in his per save Europe from future wars, and of bestowsonal character too much of the monarch ; too ing on its inhabitants a greater portion of national Jittle adaptation to circumstances; too great a and individual security, independence, and bappifondness for parade and ostentation ; too little ness than they had ever enjoyed. The allied mosympathy with the condition of mankind at large. narchs declared that these objects were so near From the other sovereigns who were assembled their hearts, that, in order to secure them, they at Vienna, little was expected; for, whatever would most cheerfully sacrifice their own indivitheir personal characters inight be, they possessed, dual interests, and exhibit themselves no longer comparatively, so little influence, that they would as warlike and ambitious, but as peaceful and pa. be obliged to attach themselves to the views and triotic monarchs. plans of one or other of the three great sove The settlement and concerns of Poland, Saxreigns?

ony, and the smaller states of Germany and Italy, Besides the monarchs who were assembled necessarily came within the professed purpose at the Congress, there were the ministers of and wish of the allied monarchs, and on each of France and England; Lord Castlereagh from these great difficulties arose; difficulties, the exthe latter, and Talleyrand from the former. istence of which too plainly and fatally proved, When business came to be discussed among that the allies were not inclined to act so disinthe ministers of the several powers, it was found terestedly as they had professed and promised. that so much previous Jabour was requisite to The fate of Saxony, indeed, appears to have bring the questions for determination to a due been

fully settled by two of the powers, Russia state of maturity, that a declaration was issued and Prussia, before the Congress commenced its for adjourning the formal opening of the Con- sittings. On the 3d of November, Prince Repgress to the 1st of November. After this period nin, the Russian governor of Dresden, sent a had arrived, every political pen in Germany seems notification to the Saxon authorities, in which he to have been employed in conjectures relative to acquainted them, that by a letter from the minister the great affairs under consideration, and the in of state, Baron de Stein, he had been informed tentions of the leading potentates.

of a convention concluded at Vienna, on the The grand object which the Congress of Vienna '28th of September, in virtue of which the Em. professed to have in view, was to restore Europe peror of Russia, in concert with Austria and

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