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BOOK XU: never made: it not only contains the seeds of . a war: ainhition being a most predominant feature
future war, but is altogether incompatible with in the American character, in no respect qualified Crip. XI. the true interests of the mother-country and her by any principle of morality, or regard for the law
dependencies. This country is by that event cajoled of nations. 1815. of the right and power to secure from invasion, pro The dangerous and destructive principles of
vinces of incalculable value; the naturally strong French policy are well understood, and suitable
prising that this country could not appoint men It is unfortunately too easy to analyze the thoroughly acquainted with American affairs? No causes that operated to produce this baneful treaty. doubt Lord Gambier, and his worthy coadjutors, It is evident that not only, the nation at large, but acted from the dictates of honor and benevolence; its rulers in particular, are void of perception, as but were they competent to the task of negoci. to the real character of the Americans !: Principles ating with such shrewd, not to say subtle men, as of humanity and forbearance, arising from mis. Bayard and Galatin ? for, as in the treaty of 1783, taken feelings of consanguinity, have repressed so in the present instance, the British delegates our military ardour throughout the late war. The have been foiled: by American sophistry. It is same generous motives have also guided' the much to be regretted, that some native of the procouncils of the nation in the conclusion of peace. vinces was vot added to the list of British negoAmerica will be so elated, as to assume in future ciators, as many gentlemen of superior talents a more lofty tone, and from a conviction of her might bave been readily. obtained. from either of imagined superiority, force a quarrel on the the colonies. Our interests would then have been sligbrest grounds. The proposition stated by ascertained, and as certainly defended. Iguorance, Mr. Madison in his declaration of war, that, “ a and not conscious weakness, swayed our councils pation jealous of its rights, and conscious of its in the signature of the treaty. The spirit of that strength, has no alternative but to exert the one part of it, at least, which relates to the boundaries, in defence of the other," was at that time deserted is founded on the American claiins, established from by the federalists, who much doubted this by, the treaty of 1783. The arrangements made
conscious strength,” and asserted that their sea on the late occasion, relate to surveying this ports, and whole line of coast, had no depen. frontier, and ascertaining with precision its exact dence but on British clemency and magnanimity. geographical limits, in order to prevent disputes But in consequence of continued trains of brilliant in future. In ardinary cases this would be just exploits having in some measure concealed the and equitable on both sides ; but it must be national weakness, vanity will overcome their recollected, tbat although disputes had arisen on belter judgment; they will conceive the idea this subject; it was not even a collateral cause of of having compelled Britain to sign this peace, the war : on the contrary, the United States comand hence a conviction of the power to declare menced hostilities for the real, though concealed, war, combined with the desire of further esta. purpose of wresting Canada from Great Britain blishing the national character, which has al- altogether. It was this circumstance alone that ready gained so much, will make hostilities. po- produced the war-vote in Congress; and therefore pular, even with the federal party. And after sanctioned a departure from. terms of reciprocity, preparing means of defence and aggression, to and the enforcement of measures necessary to the which it will apply itself with the utmost promp: security and repose of those provinces, against tilude, the republic will rather court than decline which the enemy's force was directed. The
ostensible motives assigned by the American go- advantages they possessed, improved the oppor. BOOK XIII. vernment for the declaration of war, such as the tunity, and established numerous settlements, at establishment of sailors' rights and a free trade, &c. points most calculated to annoy the British, in Char. XI. were rather political engines, employed to gain case of war. Detroit, Ogdensburgh, Sacketts popularity, than real cause of hostility. Subjects Harbour, Oswego, Plattsburgh, Blackrock, and
1815. calculated to inflame the public mind were forced Buffalo, all attracted notice during the late coninto notice, and commented on with the utmost test; and the advantages which the enemy gainmalignity and virulence ; false statements, and ed over our fleets, may be primarily attributed to even palpable absurdities, were assiduously pro- their possessing those places. But there are many pagated,' both by newspapers and various other other important out-posts, which have as yet remeans: and it is a fact, worthy the serious consi- mained unnoticed, affording the Americans either deration of Britons, because it developes, in some peculiar facilities for aggression, or for the main. measure, the deadly rancour of the ruling party, tenance of a superior navy on the lakes and and the dangerous principles of American policy, waters of Canada. Cape St. Vincent, situated at that these injurious comments and assertions were the debouchure of Lake Ontario, threatens to cut intended to shake the loyalty of British seamen, off the communications between that lake and whom they designedly hold up as being at present the river St. Lawrence. Kingston Ferry, in its no better than degraded slaves.
vicinity, Chaumont, Bromville, Waterton, HenIs it not then surprising, that the litigated derson, Ellisborough, and Mexico, all near the questions have not been set at rest by an express mouth of the lake, may be powerfully employed article in the treaty, wbere not a word is said re for the same purpose.
Michillimackinac, in the specting the right of search and impressment, points narrows between Lakes Huron and Michigan, which affect the vital interests of Britain, and that equally guards both, and prevents all communicaought to have been made the basis of the whole ; tion from one to the other. Fort St. Josepb,
while some objects of comparatively insignificant river of the same name, which flows into Lake i importance are carefully inserted ! It is under- Michigan, affords security for the building of ves
stood, that a secret article of the treaty exists, by sels; Miami Bay, Sandusky, and Cunningham Iswhich the above questions are decided? If so, all lands, with several capes along the streights of Erie, may be well: but if the questions are waived, gene. obstruct the passage from Lake St. Clair to Lake rally and verbally, by the respective plenipotentia. Erie. The Miami river, flowing through Indiaries, without a written document, what pledge can. na, gives facility to an irruption from that part of this country bave from such vague proceedings, the United States territory given to the soldiery. that they will not again disturb the repose of both Detroit is well situated, either to command Lake nations?
St. Clair, and the water communications between It may be asked, was this a subject proper for the that lake and Erie, or to make an incursion into decision of a friendly power such a measure Essex, against the posts of Sandwich, Amherstbeing contemplated by the Americans prior to the burgh, and Malden ; and Fort St. Clair comappointment of commissioners, with assurance of mands the river of that name, running from Lake an issue favorable to the states, since it was well St. Clair to Lake Huron. In the river St. Law. knowo there existed not one friendly power, wborence, abundance of stations, either are or may in this particular was not biassed against Great be taken up, for the purpose of destroying the Britain. In this it appears American policy was small craft employed thereon, and cutting off foiled; but the adverse decision of an uinpire all communication between Montreal and the would hardly have had a worse effect than the Upper Province, St. Regis, Massena, Louisville, adopted mode of a tacit connivance, or mutual eva Madrid, Ogdensburgh, Morriston, Oswegatche, sion. And notwithstanding what may have been and Alexandria, with several islands affording pretended by the American plenipotentiaries, either strong military positions, or posts of anmany are clearly of opinion, that the old ground noyance. will be again taken by the people of the states ; On Lake Champlain, are Champlain to guard and that by omitting to make the decision of the the entrance, Plattsburgh, Peru, Wilsborough, contested rights a prominent article in the treaty Crown Point, Ticonderago, Skeensborough, Fairof Ghent, tbis a uniry has given Ameriea an op. haven, Benson, Orwell, Bridport, Burlington, &c. portunity to insinuate, that these indisputably be, while tbe British have only, to defend the water long to her. This opinion will be fostered with care, communication, Forts Chambly and William till the smothered Aame rekindles, and flags bear. Henry; the former about midway, the latter at the ing political mottos are again displayed on the confluence with the St. Lawrence. ocean.
On an attentive perusal of the above summary, We now proceed to examine the Canadian and examination of the map, it will be clearly frontier, most exposed to the ill effects of this seen, that Canada can never be really safe, while degrading treaty. The Americans well knew the the United States possess these frontiers, founded
BOOK Xin, on the treaty of 1783, and guaranteed by the late Whatever may have been the motives that in
disgraceful one at Ghent. It will also be appa- duced the British plenipotentiaries at Ghent to CBar. XI. rent, that the American territories of Ohio, ratify the treaty of 1783, and amuse themselves
Michigan, and ladiana, are most advantageously and the Americans with proofs of a scrupu1815.
situated to command Lakes Superior, Michigan, lous regard to the laws of nations, they were very Huron, and Erie; while Lake Ontario and the ill-timed. If the attack on Copenhagen is vindi. river St. Lawrence, running from thence three cated on the plea of necessity, surely a departure parts of the way to Montreal, are completely from the precepts of the civilian would have been lined with settlements and ports which tempt the justifiable in the pacific negociations with Ame. enemy to make incursions, and render it almost rica. Denmark was at peace; the United States impossible, in the present state of the two fron at war with us, and for the real purpose of postiers, to guard sufficiently against them. It would sessing Canada. Her finances were inadequate to be easy for an enemy, holding Sacketts Harbour, prolong the struggle, and Britain should have exOgdensburg, and St. Regis, to descend upon torted the cession of a line of demarcation, necesMontreal, but to send a reiuforcement up the sary to the security of that country, against which river, from Montreal to Kingston, would be a work the force of the enemy bad been directed. If she of great labour and difficulty. The evils of this bad not obtained the whole line of coast along the were severely felt several times during the late lakes, the principal posts, such as Oswego, Sac.
Again, the falls of Niagara intercept the ketts Harbour, Detroit, and Buffalo, should have water communication between Montreal and Lakes been insisted on peremptorily; wbile, by express Erie, Huron, and the adjoining districts, which stipulation, the enemy should have been deprived must ever be disturbed in time of war; for while altogether of having a fleet on the lakes, or the Obio and Michigan territories are on their limited as to the force and number of their ships. flank, and hostile fleets scour the Lakes, what pros At the same time they might bave continued to pect have these fertile regions of ever rising in im- enjoy an uninterrupted commerce, and to have portance, so long as the enemy can direct all his covered the lakes with peaceable craft as before, force against them, without their being able to though it would have been wiser, and ultimateobtain reioforcements from Kingston, or Mon- ly more bumane, to shut them out entirely from treal, except very slowly? Hence a British army any participation in the benefits arising from trade stationed there might be soon outnumbered, and on the lakes; since they converted what were defeated before any succour could arrive; and, pro- intended as peaceable depôts of commerce, into vided the enemy commanded Lake Ontario, even military and naval stations. that would be entirely precluded. Thus the If the enemy had refused to treat on such disAmericans could invade at several points, while advantageous terms, Britain should have changed at present the British would be able to reinforce the aspect of the war on the Canadian frontier only at one, and even that a very precarions one. from defensive into the offensive, and attacked Supposing the above-mentioned district included each of the strong holds with an overwhelming in the angle between Lakes Ontario, Erie, and force, which would have ensured success by Huron to be perfectly cleared, and the towns of making resistance useless. London and Oxford populous and extensive, As things now stand, this country inust build a there would be no security for them, so long as large fleet on the Lakes Ontario, Erie, and Hu. America commanded the Lakes: for a combined ron; and not yield to the Americans in exertion, movement might be made on them from the who will strain every nerve to establish a superior four different points of Burlington Bay, in Lake force, and who construct their ships with surprise Ontario, Otter Creek, in Lake Erie, the river ing rapidity. Should we succeed in the superiority Thames, in Lake St. Clair, and the Riviere Du of ships, equal exertions should be made to furnish Sable, in Lake Huron. Such a movement, if well them with men.
It was proved by Sir G. Preconducted, would succeed like Generals Amherst, vost's general order, that there were only fifty Prideaux, and Wolfe's celebrated expedition British seamen on-board the fleet defeated by the against the provinces.
Americans on Lake Erie; the remainder were May not Canada then complain, with justice, British soldiers, Canadian militia-men, and pea. that her interests not being understood, have been santry, who had to contend against one thousand sacrificed, by permitting the means of desolating picked American seamen, sent for the express purher most fertile districts to remain in the power 'pose of manning the hostile fleet. of her enemies, who, if their boast be accom The principal posts should have been obtained plished, will keep the mastery of the Lakes ?-in either by treaty or force of arms, as points, whose wbich case, they will at all times have access to possession would have placed in our hands those the lower provinces, unless large fleets and nume facilities for an invasion of the states which would rous forts are built and maintained at a great ex be caleulated to overawe and deter them from
again disturbing our repose. In particular, the
following should all have been secured: Os Hudson's river. Such is the line of frontier op- BOOK XIII. wego, which commands the routes to New York, posed to the British settlements; and it can never by Liverpool, Albany, or Onandago, Oxford, be sufficiently regretted, that the treaty of Ghent Chap. XI. Rochester, and Hudson's river; to Philadelphia, guarantees the full possession of these to the by Onandago, Jericho, Harmony, Stockport, and United States. Was it supposed that such per 1815. the river Delaware ; and to Baltimore, by Salina, fect reciprocity” would conciliate the affection of Port-Watson, Troga-Point, and the Susquehana the Americans, or convince them that Britain deriver. Crown Point and Ticonderago are keys sired peace from motives of humanity ? Such conto New York, by the route of Sandy Hill, Green- ceptions may exist in an English cabinet, but they wich, Waterford, and Hudson's river. Skeensbo are not suitable to a Transatlantic climate. rough also is the key to the great road on the From a review of the premises advanced, a just eastern bank of Hudson's river, leading to New conclusion may be drawn, that the present peace York. Tbe inhabitants of the provinces, aware is not founded on terms of such perfect reciprocity of the aboye circumstances, and knowing the im as has been represented. It is most decidedly adportance of Oswego, anxiously expected that a verse to Great Britain, since the rival nation enlarge force would have been directed against it, joys all the credit, and profit too. This treaty, that its reduction might have been secured. No moreover, declares to the world, that any nation doubt there must have been cogent reasons for who chooses to insult us, may bope to do it with not making the attempt: these are mysteries not impunity. It has left our provinces in the same to be explored by vulgar eyes ; but certainly con defenceless state it found them: what few advan. siderable diappointment and discontent prevailed tages were gained, are to be given up. And it has in the provinces in consequence.
given the Americans the opportunity of placing But Sacketts Harbour is still of greater import themselves in a more imposing attitude in future. ance than either of the afore-mentioned places. Under all the circumstances in which it now Its convenience as a naval station has been fully stands, this country should take wise precautions, proved by America ; while its fatal efficacy, in by strengthening the Canadian frontier, many of blockading the entrance to Lake Ontario from the whose strong points should be immediately fortiriver St. Lawrence, has been most painfully expe- fied, such as Long Point, or North Foreland Point, rienced by us. With this peculiar fitness for of Pelé, or South Foreland, and Landguard Point fensive operations, it is likewise a key to New in Lake Erie; Nicholas' Island, St. Peter's Head, York by Harrisburgh, Leyden, and thence eitber Amberst Island, Burlington Point, and Gibraltar by Trenton, Utica, and the Mohawk river ; or Point, in Lake Ontario. else by Renesen, Johnstown, Waterford, and the
State of Parties in France.--Proceedings of the Chambers at the Close of 1814.- Discussion on the
Emigrant Property.--Ordinances of the King.-Civil List.–Biographical Sketch of Louis XVIII. BOOK XIV.
We must now proceed to notice the affairs of a brief review of the proceedings of the French
Europe, and particularly those of France. The chambers at the close of the year, and particuCHAP. I. state of parties in that country towards the close of larly with respect to the emigrant property. One
the year 1814, was such as indicated the existence of the greatest safeguards of the throne of Louis 1814.
of wide differences in opinion and interest among arose from his declaration that property should large classes of the community; and although in be respected : but while this declaration was saa well-established government, and among a peo- tisfactory to those who had purchased estates, it ple of sedate character and temperate feelings, it was of course distressing and unpopular to the is found by experience that such diversities may emigrants. They naturally expected that on the prevail without materially endangering the public restoration of Louis they would be put again in tranquillity, yet, under the rule of a dynasty re- possession of their property. This, however
, stored, after long intermission, in consequence of could not be done completely; and even the proforeign conquest, to the throne of a nation dis- posal to restore the unsold estates created great tinguished by the vehemence and promptitude of alarm and apprehension, as it was imagined by its emotions, there was sufficient reason to appre many that it was a preliminary step to restoring bend that secret discussions could not long sub- all the estates of the emigrants. sist without bursting into a flame. Some trying The first time it was introduced in the chamber questions had been agitated in the legislative of deputies was in a report from the committee chambers, particularly those relative to emigrant of petitions, reciting the substance of a petition, property, and the censorship of the press, which, delivered by a certain Dame Mathea, which though carried in them by decisive majorities in stated, that she had acquired, by purchase, emi. favour of the court, were differently looked upon grant property, which she was peaceably enjoy:
in the political circles of Paris and the provinces. ing, when two publications appeared, one entitled, · But it was in the military class that feelings « A Letter to Louis XVIII. on the Sale of Na. existed the most dangerous to the security of the tional Property,” by M. Falconet, advocate; the Bourbon government. With scarcely any excep- other entitled, “ The Restitution of the Property tions, both officers and soldiers retained a high of Emigrants considered," by M.Dard, advocate; sentimental attachment to the man who so long the effects of which were, to excite doubts as to had led them to glory and victory, and under the validity of her purchase ; and she therefore whose banners, notwithstanding recent disasters, prayed the enactment of a law to clear up this they fondly regarded themselves as destined to uncertainty. The member who gave this report retrieve their own importance, and the honor of (which was probably a contrivance) made a their country. The imperial rank which he had speech to show the dangers that would accrue been still suffered to preserve, maintained bis from any attempt to infringe the laws which had titular dignity; and his position at Elba, sepa- sanctioned and confirmed the sale of confiscated rated only by a narrow space of sea, kept him in property; and concluded with moving a resolu, constant view, and allowed a ready intercourse tion to the effect, that the chamber baving beard with his partizans.
the report on the petition, and considered the Before, however, we proceed to the return of various (recited) laws by which such sales had Napoleon from Elba, it may be interesting to take been confirmed, had decided that the complaints