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nistration of its property, the king's private do- ria Josepha, being daughter to the duke of that BOOK XIV, maius, and the endowment of the princes and ancient division of the German empire. Whilst princesses of the royal family. For the latter

For the latter yet a cliild, he was designated by the title of Chap. I. purpose the annual sum of 8,000,000 of france was Count de Provence, which he changed for Monassigned to serve instead of apenage. This law sieur, when the death of his grandfather, Louis

1814. was adopted in the chamber of deputies by a ma XV. left the throne for his elder brother, the late jority of 185 votes to 4.

unfortunate monarch ; and, in consequence of the The same minister appeared before the cham- death of his father, a loss of a most serious nature, ber on the 29th of November, to lay before it a as the dauphin was of the most estimable characstatement of the king's, debts. Those of his ter, both as a man and a parent, he was thrown majesty, and of the princes of his family, with amidst all the blandishments of a voluptuous those left by Louis XVI, amounted to about court, at an age when reason is generally sup30,000,000 of francs, which he justly said was posed to yield to the passions. Notwithstanding no great sum considering the number of years the danger of this situation, those who knew him during which the principal and interest had been best declare that his regard for virtue and religion accumulating. The interest of these debts the was real and permanent, and that his respect for king offered to pay provisionally out of the civil the rights and liberties of his countrymen was list, so that no alteration would he required in the one of his earliest characteristics. Indeed, so budget. The count then alluding to the law conspicuous, yet so unostentatious, was his dewhich restored to the companions of the king's portment in general, that the Duc de Richelieu exile such of their property as was not alienated, is said to have given him the name of the young said, that his majesty only felt the more strongly Cato at an old court; an appellation which, the obligations which it laid upon hire to fulfil whether prompted by admiration or by sarcasm, towards those who had nothing to é ect from was equally honorable to the subject of it. the measures to which the legislatia bdy had Even during his grandfather's life-time, as well been obliged to confine itself. It belonged there. as during the whole reign of his brother, the prefore to him alone to succour the honorable indi- sent French monarch was alike distinguished for gence of these persons; and confiding in the his attention to science and literature, and for his co-operation which the generosity of this body patronage of genius. promised him, he would endeavour to discharge Monsieur appears not to liave taken any active this debt contracted by misfortune. The count part in the politics of his native land until the then read the plan of a law presented to the year 1787, when, in the assembly of the notables, chamber in the name of the king. After stating iben first called together by Calonne, the French the amount of the debt, it proposed a commis- premier, he declared himself hostile to all inter sion to be appointed by his majesty to examine ference with noble and ecclesiastical privileges ; the titles of the creditors, according to whose but; at the same time, he was not forgetful of decision they should be inscribed in the book of the welfare of the people, steadily maintaining the public debt, the interest up to January 1, that there was no necessity for any additional 1816, to be paid out of the civil list, and after taxes to be laid on their industry, and always exthat date to be provided for in the budget. This pressing his conviction that a few years of peace, law being discussed in the chamber on Decem, of economy, and of regularity, would remove ber 15, an amendment, proposed by the central every financial difficulty. committee, was taken into consideration, namely, So anxious was Calonne to have his plan of that it would not be proper to accept his majesty's finance adopted, that he even went so far as to generous offer of paying the interest of the debt use the king's name in its favor, whilst conversing for 1815 out of the civil list; and the law thus with Monsieur upon the subject; but the answer amended passed only with a single negative. of the latter was as rational as it was dignified

We shall now close this chapter with a biogra “ My heart is like my brother's and the people's; phical sketel of Louis Stanislaus Xavier, the but my understanding is my own; for

iny head; XVIIIth, King of France. He was born on the it is the king's." He went much further in con17th of November, 1755, being the second son of versing with Calonne upon the subject ; and it is the then Daupbin of France.

generally believed that the minister was induced, From a long line of ancestors he inherited the by the force of his reasoning, to lay aside much of name of Louis; that of Stanislaus was derived the speculative and visionary part of his plans. from his great grandfather, Stanislaus Duke Calonne, however, went out, and the succeeding of Lorraine and King of Poland, whose only ministers did not choose to pay attention to the daughter, Maria Lesinski, was queen to Louis modest advice of the unostentatious prince, who XV. whilst that of Xavier was taken from the mixed but little either with the gay or the political electoral family of Saxony, his own mother, Ma- world, until he found it necessary, not only to sup




BUOK XIV. port the just rights of the people, but also the decreed that he had forfeited his eventual right

necessary prerogatives of the prince, well con to the regency, if he did not return withiu iwo CRAP. I.

'vinced that the two must stand or fall together. months : but he knew too well the character of 1814.

Hitherto Monsieur had resided some distance those he had to deal with to trust to their mercy; from Paris ; but no sooner did the horrors of the an opinion too fatally verified in the murder of so revolution commence, in 1789, by the personal many of the other branches of his family. insults to the king obliging him to remove from It is unnecessary to recapitulate the events of the Versailles to the capital, than he gave up his re- period between that and the year 1795, (being altirement, and became a resident in the Luxem- ready recorded in this work) when the death of the bourg palace, where he was, perhaps, of men, the dauphin, or rather of Louis XVII., presented only real friend left to the unhappy Louis, as the vacant but outraged throne to the subject of our Count d'Artois, now Monsieur, was then in Ger. biography-a throne to which he was proclaimed many, whither be had emigrated with several the rightful beir, not only amongst the loyal emi. others of the blood royal.


grants in Germany, but even in La Vendée, in the The conspirators little knew the real spirit and west of France itself. resolution of the late unfortunate monarch; and, Little prospect, however, appeared of his being supposing that the advice of Monsieur alone bad able to recover the throne of his ancestors; and prompted him to the dignified conduct of the mo- accordingly be made no serious attempts for it, ment, they used every means in their power to but resided quietly at the court of Turin, having separate them, or at least to destroy the mutual been for some years married to the daughter of confidence which subsisted between the two bro the Sardinian monarch. But even from this re. thers. For that purpose, it is said La Fayette, and treat he was driven by the advance of the repubhis party, trumped up a plot about a Marquis de lican armies; when he retired, in 1796, to Ve Favres, in which they boldly asserted that Mon- rona, a city in the Venetian territories, where he sieur was implicated.' Favres was tried; and as lived incognito, as the Count de Lille : here, Mousieur knew bis innocence, he actually attend- indeed, his residence was of very short duration

, ed upon his trial to give evidence in his favor: as the insolence of the usurper, then General but the municipal judges paid no attention to his Bonaparte, prompted him to demand his dismisprotestations, and the unfortunate Favres fell a sal from the Venetian protection. To this de. victim to the ambitious plans of La Fayette and mand the senate of that ancient and once powerMirabeau, who, by this first revolutionary measure ful state was obliged to agree; but not until the -this first revolutionary trial and condemnation, unhappy yet spirited monarch had demanded adsucceeded in imposing such a belief on the people mission to the Golden Book of the senate, which as they wished, and raised such an odium against contained the names of all the Venetian nobles, the unfortunate prince, that a regard to bis own In that book bis great-grandfather's grandfather, personal safety, when his exertions could no the gallant Henry IV. had once inscribed bis longer be of use to his brother, forced him to name, and the name of Bourbon, and these the emigrate, which he was only able to do through insulted monarch disdainfully and justly erased the assistance of a friendly Swede, the Count de from their records. Fersen, passing by the way of Valenciennes into Even in his retreat from Verona he seems to Brabant; but not until he had actually heard the have been followed by republican vengeance ; act of accusation against himself and all the Bour- for we have seen it recorded, that in the summer bons publicly cried about, having been printed at of 1797, whilst on his route through Germany, a jacobin press, evidently for the purpose of in a foreign assassin, or a female regicide, watched suring his and their condemnation. Nor did be for bim there, and whilst standing at the window even ihen desert his brother, for the escape of the of an inn in an obscure village, a shot was fired, royal family was at the same time concerted, though which wounded him slightly in the head. His it did not finally succeed.

conduct on this occasion was most magnanimous, No sooner did Monsieur arrive at Coblentz, forbidding all search to be made after the vilwhere he found his now surviving brother, and lain, and saying, that "it must either be a misthe other Bourbon branches, than he immediately take, or a premeditated crime: in the former case, applied himself to the military arrangements de- it would be cruel to pursue ; and, in the latter, as cessary for raising and organizing an emigrant I have done no harm to any human being, the force, under the auspices of the German emperor person who would murder me has punishment and other friendly monarchs—a force which he enough in bis own bosom, and wants my forgivetook under his own immediate command, when ness more than I do his death!" the national assembly thought proper to declare In the contest which Russia had with France, war against the world.

in 1798, the late Emperor Paul found it expediNo sooner was it known that Monsieur had ent to acknowledge Louis XVIII. as the just enigrated, than the new legislative government claimant to the throne of that country; and it was

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his intention to assist him in recovering the throne an example how to bear misfortune, and would BOOK XIV. of bis ancestors: he offered him an asylum at the next day leave Mittau 'with them on foot. Mittau, in Livonia, a proposal which the unhappy However the duchess might venerate the mag- Chap. I. prince gladly accepted, bis health being, consi. nanimity of her uncle, yet she dutifully deterderably impaired by the privations, distresses, fa- mined to save bim, if possible, from personal in

1814. tigues, and even the penury and want, which he convenience, and actually sold to a Jew a valuexperienced in his noble adherence to the unfor- able bow of diamonds, presented to her as a nuptunate loyalists of the Condean army, at whose tial gift by her imperial relations at Vienna; by particular request it was that he was persuaded which means she raised a sum that enabled her to indulge in a temporary repose.

uncle to travel comfortably, and also to provide The conduct of the Emperor Paul was, at first, for the present wants of those unhappy loyalists magnanimous and generous in the extreme, as his who were obliged to remain in the place. royal guest was received and treated with all the In Prussia, Louis was treated rather as an honours which a sovereign in his situation could enemy than as a friend: in fact, the Prussian possibly wish for, having not only a guard of na cabinet were afraid to shew him protection, and it tive Russians appointed to attend upon bim, but was only at length by the forbearance of Napoalso one formed from the French noblesse; be- leon Bonaparte that the King of France was persides being permitted to draw around him as many mitted to reside for some time at Warsaw, in the of his loyal countrymen as he pleased, with whom habitation of a monarch who bad also been driven the generous prince shared, in the most bounteous from his throne. manner, the liberal allowance which Paul had

ap While residing at Warsaw, in 1804, Napoleon propriated to his use.

had the audacity to send several messengers to Indeed, so anxious was the emperor to make him with proposals for a formal abdication of his every arrangement for his comfort and influence, claims to the French crown; but the prudent and at the place of his residence, that the Governor virtuous indignation of Louis guarded him from of Mittau was actually placed under his orders; so mean à compliance: and when · Meyer, the and he was even encouraged to assume so Prussian president, had the audacity to repeat , much of the personal functions of royalty, as the same proposal on the part of the Corsican, it to have regular levees, at which the noblesse has been well observed, that the dignified answer of the neigbbouring provinces were proud to of Louis was sufficient to convince the world, that attend: but such events could not long remain though fortune may desert virtue, and render it unknown to the French republicans, who were distressed or miserable, yet still she is unable to successful, at length, in acquiring an undue degrade or dishonor it. influence over the councils of Paul, whom they After the accession of the present Russian mopersuaded, first, to distress the unhappy mo

narch to the throne of his ancestors, an agreeable narch, by withholding the payment of his pension, change took place in the situation of the French and afterwards to send him orders to depart from king, as ample and liberal allowances were made the Russian dominions; a journey for which they for the support of his household, but of which allowed him only a week's preparation. All this Louis availed himself very sparingly with respect was done at the instigation of that man whose to his own accommodation ; for, as a judicious recent downfall has restored Louis to the throne biographer has observed, there religion was his of his ancestors. With a pride highly honourable only solace, consoling him by its promises, whilst to bimself, the insulted monarch determined not study improved the knowledge of one of the most to remain twenty-four hours longer in the Russian humane and best informed amongst modern princes dominions; be felt not for himself, but he felt a sovereign whose constancy and courage, for those unhappy loyalists whose sole depen during a long and unexampled adversity, have dence was upon his bounty; and as he could not been only surpassed by his modesty and moderelieve them, he resolved to set them a bright ration, when surrounded by every thing that example of resignation to the will of Heaven. made rank illustrious, ambition tempting, and life

But it was not only for his faithful subjects that desirable. Louis felt anxiety, for part of his own family But even at Warsaw he was not permitted to laimed his attention ; particularly the amiable remain undisturbed; for, in the month of July, Dacbess of Angouleme, his illustrious niece, who 1805, a plot was formed by the pow degraded ad long resided with him at Mittau, accompanied Napoleon, to get rid of those fears which hung '

y her young husband. To her he explained bis aboat his usurped throne-a man of the name of ad situation, and assured her, that, as he had Coulon, the keeper of a billiard-table at that ot the means of travelling as he had formerly place, was offered a large sum if he would take one, and, as the little that he possessed would an opportunity, in consequence of his intimacy e necessary for the daily maintenance of those with the cook of the royal kitchen, to thirow some

BOOK XIV, tail all the particulars of this plot would far ex- political reasons, and the uncertainty of the issue

ceed our limits; but those who are curious about of the war, rendered it prudent that our goveraChap. I. it will find a long and interesting detail in the ment should not ostensibly sanction the Bourbon

third volume of the Revolutionary Plutarch, claims, nor that the princes of that house should 1814. where a system of premeditated murder against be received at court on public days, yet a great

every legitimate prince in Europe is disclosed degree of private friendship has always subsisted
upon authority which can scarcely be doubted : between the princes of two once rival houses.
nay, such was Napoleon's determination to get We have already noticed that Louis XVIII.
rid of all the members of the house of Bourbon, whilst Monsieur, was married to a daughter of
that Coulon was offered additional rewards in the King of Sardinia: a matcb, however, which
case the Duchess of Angouleme and her husband was not blessed with any issue. Since his ma.
should also fall victims to the same treachery! jesty's taking up his residence in this country, he

Subsequent political events rendered it unsafe had the misfortune to lose tbis very estimable
for Louis to reside upon the continent, and his woman, who bore the misfortunes both of ber pa.
only resource was the land of real liberty ; since ternal and maternal family with a degree of for.
wbich period, he always resided in this country, titude honorable to her rank, and to the sex of
gaining the esteem and exciting the admiration which she was an ornament.
of all ranks and parties in the state: for though


Interesting Review of the different Parties in France in 1814, and the Beginning of 1815.—Conduct

of Napoleon at Elba.Disinterment of Louis XVI. and his Queen.-Remarks on the Policy of placing Bonaparte at Elba.Letters of Fouché.Formation of Clubs in France. Signs of tke disaffected.-- Correspondence between Elba and France.- Preparations of Napoleonfor leavingthe Island

The impolitic language of Count Ferraud, one to reject with contempt every offer of what had of the ministers of the king, respecting national been national property, and diligently to propa. property, which we noticed in our last chapter, gate the report that it was the deterinination of produced an immediate and fatal impression. The the court soon to reclaim the estates of all the disaffected eagerly availed themselves of it, and noblesse. Indeed, it must be acknowledged that circulated it through the provinces with a thou various germs of a design to encroach on the sand exaggerations. The two pamphlets, written new order of things had really sprung up, and by Messrs. Dard and Falconnet, which condemned were already visible. It had been whispered the alienation of the property of the emigrants, about by some of the emigrant nobles, that Louis and recommended its restitution, had an extensive only waited till he felt himself secure on bis and almost incredible circulation. The emigrants drone, when he would eject the unlawful occu. hoped that the public mind would be prepared for pants of the national domains, and restore bis a measure which formed the consummation of all faithful followers to the patrimony of their antheir hopes, and the enemies of the Bourbons cestors. Considerable alarm spread among all rightly judged that they could adopt no better the proprietors. Their estates were suddenly and means of exciting general apprehension and dis- strangely depreciated in value. They were not content. The French ministry at length found considered to be worth 'more than two or three it necessary to interfere; and the authors were years' purchase. To alarm, speedily succeeded ordered to be imprisoned; but when it was soon discontent, alienation of affection, and a wish for afterwards announced that they had been released the return of that government under which their without punishment -and without censure, the estates bad been acquired, and under which alone suspicion was too naturally excited, that the court they appeared to be secure. was secretly favorable to the cause which these It was not to be expected, that the king and bis writers advocated. Persons were sent by the dis court could feel much affection for those who owed affected through the departments under the pre- their honors and their wealth to the active part text of purchasing land. They were instructed

They were instructed which they had borne in the various scenes of the

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