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(Wellesley) was welcome to make the most of this prepared to vindicate the principles of the nego- BOOK XIV.
fact. The objection had been made that Elba ciations; and, above all, if the poble lord,
was conveniently situated for keeping up an inter- (Wellesley) supposed ministers not to have acted Chap. VI.
course with Italy, but none had been made against on the occasion alluded to 'upon the principles of
its situation as to France : and as to his removal the great man who bad been held up as a model,

to England, though he (Lord Liverpool) had he could assure him that he was under a complete
by no means the idea that his presence here could misapprehension. As to the noble lord's second
have worked any consequences, yet what could pre motion of enquiry, whether information had been
vent his carrying on a correspondence with France, received by government respecting the design of
and escaping when he pleased, still recollec tng Bonaparte's escape, be could say, tbat government
the freedom of his person ? As to watching him had received none of such intention or design
in Elba, what could prevent his escape? We previous to their knowledge of bis actual escape.
had not the right to search so much as a fishivg The noble marquis had said, that the noble earl
vessel, the right of search was merely a bellige- had, on a former occasion, looked forward to the
rent right. Bu: even if a search were to be revival of war on the continent. What he said
made among those, it could not extend to an was, that after so great a convulsion, no prudent
armed vessel, unless, indeed, we had particular man could so divest hiniself of all idea of the
grounds for suspicion. The question, after all, chances of a revulsion, as to preclude the neces-
came to this-were we to treat him as a prisoner, sity of keeping the country in a state to meet all
or to allow him his personal freedom! As to occurrences. In the interior of France he always
treating with Bonaparte, the subject was not admitted, that after the restoration of the Bourbons
perfectly understood when it was put on this ther would be a considerable degree of discon-
single footing, --it was also treating with his tent; many would be dissatisfied with the very
officers. From the papers on the table, it would state of peace; but he by no means believed
appear that the provisional government declared there was that great body which there had been
that this treaty would satisfy the marshals; and asserted to be. He did not subscribe to the
it was of no slight importance that the Bourbons opinion, that the numbers of military persons in
should come in, not by the apparent influence France were greater than in any other country.
of the allies, but by that of the French themselves. In France, it was true, the military was the
In evidence of this, the arrangement had been most, perhaps the only favored profession, and he
signed by two of the most distinguished among the admitted that the army had considerable influence
marshals. As to the subsequent breach of this in it: he admitted, also, that there were other
arrangement, he had looked over Bonaparte's bodies of men there, who, from the part they
proclamations on his landing, and had not found took in the scenes of the revolution, would be
a single word in them complaining of that breach: hostile to the government of the Bourbons: but
they ialked only of conquest and glory, and the those were not the constitutionalists of France;
restoration of the French dominion, but not one their opinion, he believed, was the reverse of
syllable on the non-fulfilment of the treaty. As hostile to that government. The opinion of that
to the pecuniary stipulation, it still seemed a class of men were in favor of a free government,
perfectly fair argument, that the period agreed on and in abhorrence of revolution; and they were
for payment not having arrived, the payment could not hostile to the French king, whose mild and
not have yet been demanded. But what ought wise policy had considerably conciliated them, and
to have been his mode of redress if he had been whose only chance of, and title to, a free govern-
injured? Was he not to bave turned round to the ment, consisted in supporting the government of
allies, who had guaranteed the payment, and tried the Bourbons. The question before the house
whether it would be withheld, before he complain- was, whether, if any blame was imputable to the
ed? But he had not complained. Had one of conduct of the allies in April and May. last, that
the army that went over to him stated this among · blame consisted in any thing else than in not
their grievances ?

Not one. But he (Lord insisting upon the personal restraint of Bonaparte; Liverpool,) knew, and could state from authority, and then came the question whether, under all that on a certain demand of some of the allies, a the circumstances, it was worth while to insist property was actually assigned for the payment upon such personal restraint: if it was not worth of the debts incurred by that treaty. The poble

The noble wbile to insist upon entire restraint, there was no earl did not admit the right to balance any in- contending for a shade between such entire resconvenience which might arise from the escape traint and the liberty which was granted him: of Bonaparte, against the consequences of our vio and the whole reasoning of the noble lords, whom lation of the armistice, the articles and conditions events had made wise, they not being wise before, of which we were bound by. The expediency fell to the ground. or propriety of these articles and conditions he These topics were discussed more or less at should not enter into ; although, whenever au large, but with little variety of argument, by opportunity should occur, he trusted he should be several other speakers, who were chiefly the

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BOOK XIV. 'ords in opposition. On a division, the numbers debate which followed was carried on by all the

were, 'contents twenty-one, non-contents fifty- powers of eloquence on both sides of the house, CHap. VI. tbree.-Majority against the motion, thirty-two. but necessarily by the same arguments as had

The same subject was brought before the been produced in the other house. The result 1815. house of cornmons on the 20th of April, by a mo was a divison, in which the motion was negatived

tion from Mr. Abercrombie, which was a counter by a majority of 149 to 65.
part of that of the Marquis of Wellesley. The


Proceedings of Napoleon, and his Ministers.Address to the Soldiers.--Addresses from the Council

of State, &c. and Napoleon's Answers.---Title of Count conferred on Carnot, who is appointed Minister of the Interior.Biographical Notice of his Life.-Decrees of Napoleon.Reply of Marshal Marmont to Napoleon's Proclamation.-State of the South of France.-Spirited Conduct of the Duchess of Angouleme, at Bourdeaux.Disaffection of the Soldiers.Entrance of General Clauzel into Bourdeaux-Surrender of the Duke of Angouleme.Justificatory Manifesto of Napoleon.Letter of Caulincourt to Lord Castlereagh.Napoleon's Letter to the Princeregent.--Anecdotes of the French Senate, and Prince Talleyrand.

ALTHOUGH Napoleon well knew that he had de- the emperor and his government to the hearts of ceived the French people, by asserting that he was his subjects. supported by the Austrians, he yet hoped that On the day after his entry into Paris, Bona. Austria would ultimately prove his friend. He parte reviewed his troops in the Place du Caroucould not couceive that Maria Louisa and her sel. After having passed through the ranks, and son were not certain pledges of an alliance, noticed every soldier whose person he recollected, which had only been broken by a momentary he formed them into a square, and addressed exasperation. His ministers partook of those then as follows: sentiments, and flattered themselves with the « Soldiers ! I arrived in France with six hun. hope that the disasters of their country was at an dred men, because I calculated upon the love of end; and that they should at length be permitted the people, and on the remembrance of the to enjoy that rational liberty for which they had veteran soldiers. I was not deceived in my contended so long, and sacrificed so much. expectation.

Soldiers ! I thank you. Glory They hoped that the powers of Europe would like that which we are about to acquire is every leave them to choose the government which thing to the people, and to you! My glory is, suited them, provided they remained faithful to that I have known and valued you! the stipulations of the treaty of Paris. On the “ Soldiers ! the throne of the Bourbons was very day, however, on which they entered on the illegitimate, because it was built by the hands of functions of their office, the declaration of the strangers; because it was proscribed by the vow allies (131h of Marcb) arrived at Paris, which of the nation, declared in all our national assemoverwhelmed them with surprise and dismay. blies; because, in short, it offered a guarantee At first tbey doubted its authenticity; but when the only to the interests of a few men, whose arrogant proofs of its genuineness crowded upon them, pretensions were opposed to our rights. Soldiers ! They saw the situation in which they were placed. the imperial throne only can secure the rights of A council was called, and it was immediately the people, and, above all, the first of our interests resolved to publish a vindication of the conduct our glory. Soldiers! we are now to march to of Napoleon in re-seizing the throne ; to state to hunt froin our territories these princes, auxiliaries the world the moderation of his views, and his to strangers; the nation will not only second as determination to abide by the treaties already in our protestations, but will follow our impulse. formed; to transmit direct overtures of conciliation The French people and I calculate upon you. to every European court, and to propose to the We will not interfere with the affairs of foreiga acceptance of the French a constitution which nations, but woe to those who shall interfere would satisfy every friend of liberty, and endear with ours !"

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As Napoleon was about to conclude his ha- all for France. That is my motto.-Myself and BOOK XIV. rangue, General Cambronne, and the officers of family, whom that great people have raised to the guards of the battalion of the isle of Elba, the throne of the French, and whom they have chap. VII appeared, with the ancient eagles of the guard. maintained there, notwithstanding political storms Napoleon continued, and said to the soldiers, and vicissitudes, we desire, we deserve, we elain 1815. « These are the officers of the battalion that have no other title." accompanied me in my misfortunes. Every man The address of the council of state was is my friend. They are dear to my beart! remarkable for the independence of its language, Every time I beheld them, they brought before the caution which it gives Napoleon for the my eyes the different regiments of the army, for regulation of his future conduct, and the condiamong these 600 brave fellows are men from every tions on which alone it pledges itself to supregiment. They have recalled to my meinory port him.. The council of state, in resuming those glorious days of which even the memory is iheir functions, conceived it a duty to make known so dear, for they are all covered with honorable the principles which form the rule of their scars, gained in memorable battles. In loving opinious, and of their conduct. The sorereignty them it was you, soldiers! the whole French rests in the people. The people are the only army that I loved. They bring you back your source of legitimate power. The emperor Is eagles. Let them serve as a rallying-point. called to guarantee anew, by fresh institutions, In giving them to the guards I give them for which he has pledged himself in his proclato the whole army: Treason and unfortunate mations to the army and to the nation, all the events had covered them with a melancholy liberal principles, individual liberty, and the veil; but, thanks to the French people and equality of rights, the liberty of the press, the to you! they now re-appear, resplendant in abolition of the censorship, the freedom of worall their glory. Swear that they shall always be ship, the voting of taxes and laws by the reprepresent wherever the interests of the country sentatives of the nation freely elected, the inviola. shall require them, and that traitors, and those bility of national property of every origin, the inwho would wish to invade our territory, shall dependence and irremovability of the tribunals, never endure their sight.”—“We swear it!” ex the responsibility of the ministers, and of all the claimed the soldiers.

agents of power. For the better conservation of In the meantime, the new revolution was the rights and obligations of the people and of strengthening itself in different parts of France, the monarch, the national institutions shall be the greatest part of which seemed to adopt with en viewed in a grand assembly of the representatives, thusiasm the tri-coloured flag and the sovereignty already announced by the emperor. of Napoleon; but the latter only under the form Napoleon answered, “ Princes are the first ciof the head to a popular government. This idea, tizens of the state. Their authority is more or was explicitly declared in the different addresses less extended according to the interests of the presented to Bonaparte, in his imperial capacity, nations whom they govern. The sovereignty itat the Thuilleries, on the 27th of March. That of self is only hereditary, because the welfare of the ministers led the way. The whole strain of the people requires it. Departing from this printhis address corresponds to the following passage: ciple I'know no legitimacy. I have renounced “ The cause of the people, the only legitimate the idea of the grand empire, of which, during cause, bas triumphed. Your majesty is restored fifteen years, I had but founded the basis. Henceto the wishes of the French: you have resumed forth the happiness and the consolidation of the the reins of government amidst the blessings French empire shall be all my thoughts,” of your people and your army.

France, M. Seguier, the president of the court of cas. sire, bas for the guarantee of this, its will, sation, having refused to present the address of and its dearest interests. She has also the ex that court to Napoleon, he was sent for on the , pressions of your majesty, uttered amidst the next day, to the Thuilleries, and the emperor in tbrongs that crowded around you on your jour- the public levée reproached him for bis conduct. pey." They proceeed to mention the maxims “ General,” replied M. Seguier, “ I cannot serve which he had announced as those by which the two masters. "I belong to my king.” Napoleon nation was in future to be governed.

was offended at the title of general, and required to have no foreign war, unless to repel unjust that he should be addressed as sire ; but to this aggression: do internal reaction; no arbitrary Seguier could not be induced to consent. acts. Personal security, protection of property, dismiss you from the bench," at length exclaimed the free utterance of thought, such are the prin- Napoleon in a rage, “and order you to leave Paris ciples which your majesty has pledged to us. this very day.”—“ You only hasten my departure To addresses like these Bonaparte" was obliged, by twenty-four hours,” replied the magistrate at this juncture, to return corresponding answers. " for I had made preparations for departing toTo his ministers he replied, "The sentiments morrow to my estates.'

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BOOK XIV. in' forming his ministry, to bave rallied round him should terminate, or any reverses attend the

the various political parties into which France French arms. CHAP. VII. was divided.'

To effect this purpose he had It has been asked, why he did not renounce selected, as his confidential ministers, the heads of all connexion with these monsters. The question 1815. what was termed the republican party, but who

is difficult to answer. It admits only of this soluhad abandoned their extravagant notions of li tion, that by confining himself strictly to the warberty, and had become friendly to a limited mo department, he was employing lis unrivalled tanarchy. While they formed an efficient part of lents for the benefit of his country. No man poshis ministry he gave an unequivocal pledge that sessed, to such an extent, the confidence of the his government would not be disgraced by any generals, the soldiers, and the people. His adarbitrary or tyrannical measures. When he ar ministration was one uninterrupted career of bril rived at Paris, an interesting interview took place liant victories. Had he resigned, a less able between him and Carnot. In the course of their man would, probaby, have filled his place, and conversation Napoleon acknowledged that he had who would have aided rather than repressed the acted wrong. He deplored the mania of conquest murderous purposes of his colleagues. which had led him into such fatal excesses, and After the fall of Robespierre, he exposed birrenounced the idea of the grand empire, and a self to considerable obloquy, by defending many military government.

He, however, demanded of the agents of that monster's cruelty. He adsome sacrifices from Carnot and his party. He vocated the cause of Billaud Vasennes, Collet required they should relinquish the sternness of d'Herbois, and others, who were a disgrace to the republican character; and that Carnot should human nature. He did this, not because he apaccept a title of nobility, as a proof of their being proved of their conduct, as his enemies insinuated. content with a limited monarcby on a representa He had often publicly and violently accused them. tive basis.

It had been his unceasing aim to unmask their To this Carnot, after consulting with his cbaracters, and burl them from the stations which friends, acquiesced, and the title of count was con they abused. But he now saw that a spirit of ferred upon him. He was afterwards appointed re-action and revenge was abroad. If these men minister of the interior.

fell, thousands would follow.

The bleeding Carnot was the son of a respectable lawyer at wounds of his country would again be torn open, Nolay. He early entered the artillery, and al and the horrible scenes of the worst æra of the though he distinguished himself by several sci revolution would be re-acted. He saved them entific publications, yet such, under the old from the fate which they merited, and having regime, were the obstacles to rising merit, if un identified himself with them, voluntarily shared supported by courtly patronage, that he had at their disgrace. He retired from public life until tained no higher rank than captain at the age of 1795, when he was again appointed director. In thirty-six. In 1791, he was chosen a member of 1797, the party to which he belonged, and who the legislative assembly, and became a zealous would have limited the aggrandisement of France and conscientious republican. In the following to those limits which nature pointed out, was vanyear he voted for the death of the unfortunate quished. Rather than plunge his country in cLouis, and although the injustice of the sentence vil war, or sanction those measures of ambition cannot be doubted, no one ever accused the which he foresaw must be ultimately fatal to honest intentions of Carnot. In 1793, he was France, he exiled himself to Switzerland, though sent as representative of the nation to superintend he was offered the support of the army of his virthe operations of the army of the north. He tuous friend Moreau. there displayed his characterestic decision, by ca When Bonaparte returned from Egypt, ke shiering one of the generals on the field-of-battle, remembered the talents of Caruot, and the many for retiring before the enemy. He then rallied the obligations under which he lay to him, and retroops, placed himself at their head, and turning called him to power. He was once more placed the fortune of the day, led them on to victory. at the head of the war-department, and the cosa He was afterwards appointed a meinber of the quest of Italy and Germany were soon the provés committee of public safety, and became a col of his skilful arraugements. But the ambitios league of the execrable Robespierre. He, how- character of Napoleon then began to be display: ever, confined himself to the duties of his own de. ed. Carnot renionstrated with him in vain, and partment, and directed the movements of the disdaining to be the base instrument of tyranty, armies, without having the least concern or in- again retired to the bosom of his fanily. fuence in the bloody scenes which were acting in Iu 1802, he was chosen member of the trithe interior. When he did interfere it was to bunate. Here he distinguished himself as the soften the ferocious decrees of his colleagues, and fearless opponent of every arbitrary measure. rescue the prey from the destroyer. For this he He voted against the assumption of the consulate incurred the deadly hatred of Robespierre, and for life : and, in 1804, after privately using every was devoted to destruction as soon as the war argument to dissuade Napoleon from his arute

tious purpose, he stood alone in the tribunate, and fence of Antwerp. Carnot soon rendered the BOOK XIV. opposed the motion to confer on Bonaparte the town impregnable, and continued to hold it until imperial dignity. “ Shall we,” said he, " because the complete re-establishment of Louis, when he Csap. VII. this man has restored the peace and prosperity of surrendered it to bim, and adhered to the his country, reward him with the sacrifice of her constitutional charter. Louis offered him a

1815. best interest»,—the very liberty which we are place of bonor and confidence, but perceiving, grateful to bim for preserving? Shall we re or fancying that he perceived, a determination in place the pride and beroism of the masculine re the court to break the conditions on which the publican virtues, by ridiculous vanity and vile royal family was restored, he declined all conadulation ? Shall freedom then be shewn to nexion with the Bourbons. man that he may never enjoy it? Perpetually On the 22d of March, Napoleon issued the, presented to him, is it a fruit which he may following decree against some of the most distinnever reach?

Has our common nature been so guished characters in France : “ Considering that much a stepmother as to make the most pressing many individuals have betrayed us and the of all our wants that one wbich we must pever empire ; ubat they have called in the stranger, gratify.-No!

I will not consent to regard this and aided bim in his projects for the invasion of greatest good, so universally prized above all

our territory, dismemberment of the empire, and others, except as one without which all others subversion of the imperial throne : are mere illusions. My heart tells me that li “We have decreed, and do decree, as follows:--berty is practicable, and that a free government “A full and entire amnesty is granted,-1. To is more easy and more stable than the gloomy the civil and military functionaries who, by culstillness of despotism.'

pable intelligence or convivance with the stranWhen the tribunate was suppressed, in 1806, ger, called him into France and assisted bis proCarnot once more returned to private life, and jects of invasion :-2. To those who have plotted all intercourse with Napoleon was at an end. or favored the overthrow of the constitution of Eight years were now spent in the pursuit of his the empire and the inperial throne.--Excepting favorite studies, and in the society of his family, from the said amnesty the Sieurs Lynch, De la and those friends who dared to brave the dis- Roche Jacquelin, de Vitroles, Alexis de Noailles, pleasure of the emperor by occasionally visiting Duc de Ragusa, Sosthene de la Rochefoucauld, him. But when tbe fortunes of Napoleon were Bourrienne, Bellart, Prince de Benevent, Comte on the wane, preferring even the government of de Bournonville, Comte de Jaucourt, Duc de the existing tyrant to the horrors of a new revo Dalberg, Abbé de Montesquieu.-They shall lution, be again offered his services, and spoke to be delivered to the tribunals to be tried according him in a language so firm and frank as to astound to law, and undergo, in the event of their condemnall the servile instruments of his unbridled ambi- ation, the penalties determined by the penal code. tion. The letter is short, and is a model for an Their effects, moveable and immoveable, shall honest subject to his sovereign.

be sequestrated by the officers of registration, as “ Sire!-So long as victory crowned your ea soon as the present decree is promulgated. gles, I kept myself to my studies in the closet,

“ By the Emperor, and employed myself in the education of my

“ NAPOLEONchildren. Now that she appears to abandon them, and that you have need of devotion, I When the contents of this decree reached hasten to offer my services. Do not disdain them, Marshal Marmout, at Ghent, be inmediately though they are those of an old soldier, above published a long and interesting reply: “I ain sixty years of age. He can rally round your accused (says the marshal) of having delivered eagles many Frenchmen, uodecided as to the Paris to foreigners, when the defence of that city part which they ought to take. It is yet time, was the object of general astonishment. sire! to obtain an honorable peace, and to regain with some miserable remains that I had to comthe love of the people, which you have lost. bat against all the collected forces of the allied January, 1814.

CARNOT." armies; it was in positions hastily taken, where

no defence had been prepared, and with 8,000 In forwarding this letter, Carnot said to a friend, men, that I resisted for eight hours 45,000, who to whom he shewed it, that it would either send were successively engaged against me; and it is bim to the Chateau de Vincennes, or give him a a military feat of such a sort, so honorable to all mark of the emperor's confidence, which would engaged in it, that has been audaciously charged be auspicious to the return of moderation and as treason ! After the affair at Rheims, Napoleva freedom for France.

operated on the Marne with almost all his forces, Napoleon was pleased with this noble sincerity, and gave himself up to the illusion that bis move and, though he could not immediately bring him ments threatening the communications of the self to receive his former sturdy monitor as bis enemy, the latter would retreat, while, on the confidential minister, intrusted him with the de. contrary, the enemy resolved, after having formed

It was

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