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most odious tyranny wbich ever menaced a great replied. The princess burst into tears. « Will BOOK XIV. nation. I will never submit to Napoleon Bona- you then betray me, and give me up to mine parte; and he who has been bonored with the si- enemies ?”—“ No !" said they, 6 but we do not

Cnap. VII, tuation of president of the representatives of wish for a civil war, and we desire you to quit France, aspires to the honor of being the first France."

1815. victim of the enemy of his king, his country, and Although foiled in her first attempt, the prinliberty.'

cess would not despair. She proceeded to the Encouraged by his spirited assistance, the barracks of the other troops; but her eloquence duchess redoubled her efforts to inspire the Bor- was exerted without effect; her tears flowed in delese with loyalty, and to place the town in a vain. One officer alone yielded to the call of hoposture of defence. A magazine of arms was at “ This is too much !” said be; and sheathlength discovered, and numerous bands of volun- ing his sword he placed bimself by the side of the teers were equipped, who were animated by the duchess and exclaimed, “ 1 will follow you every best spirit, and who loudly expressed their deter- where." mination to defend the city to the last extre- Seeing that resistance would now be unavailmity.

jog, ber next care was to preserve the town from General Clausel, commanding the troops of pillage. She hastily returned to the quay on which Napoleon, now approached. Picquets were sent ihe guards and volunteers were assembled. They out to guard the bridges which were situated on received her with enthusiastic shouts, and eagerly the principal roads; but some of them fled after a demanded to be led against the foe. Silence was short resistance, and the rest went over to the at length procured, when she thus addressed enemy.

them, "Swear all to obey me !"_"We swear," was The duchess summoned the governor in great the unanimous reply. Brave Frenchmen!” she haste, and willing to spare the town from the continued, “ faitblui Bordelese!" I entreat you to horrors of a bombardment or a siege, declared think no longer of defending the city, you are not her resolution to march out at the head of the supported by the troops, and your efforts will be garrison, and attack the fue. Against this the useless." governor warmly remonstrated, assuring her that : The troops of General Clausel were at this mohe could not answer for the fidelity of the troops. ment drawn up on the other side of the river. * Then," replied she, “ the national-guards and The guards and volunteers, as if actuated by one volunteers are sufficient. They are eager for the impulse, fired on them a volley. Fortunately it combat, and on their good resolution I can surely did no execution and was not returned. rely." It was answered, that if the national-guard have sworn to obey me," exclaimed the duchess. and volunteers passed the river, the garrison “ Remain faithful to your oath. If there be any would follow, and placing them between two disgrace it will fall on me. I will be apswerable fires, cut off every man. Tle duchess hesitated. to the king and to France. The sacrifice which " Is it then,” said she, “ impossible to employ, I require of you is as terrible to my heart as to or even to rely on the neutrality of that garrison, yours; but it is the only means of saving the for the fidelity of which you pledged 'yourself so

city.” With difficulty she was allowed to depart, ately?”—“ Impossible." "I will

satisfy myself,” and she returned to the palace. She had no said the heroic princess. Assemble your troops svoner quitted them, than the utmost confusion n their respective barracks." The governor in prevailed, and some of the national-guards, irrivain represented the danger of this proceeding. iated to madness, fired on their officers who they • I did not ask you, sir?” said she,“ if there suspected had betrayed them. Two or three lives would be danger. I only require you to obey my

were now lost. orders."

A herald was immediately dispatched to GeneShe alighted at the barrack of a regiment of ral Clausel, entreating him to suspend bis attack, i nfantry, and placing herself in the centre of the as the princess was preparing to depart. He rea, quare addressed the troops. She painted in dily consented, and guaranteed the safety of the ively colours the character and designs of the city. The duchess prepared for her departure Dvader, and the dangers which thentened France. on the following night. But new alarms sucShe reminded them of the oath which they had ceeded every moment, and the fermentation in aken, and urged them to share with the national. creased among the volunteers. Crowds of people guards in the bonor of combating the rebels. A with green cockades ran through the streets mournful silence suceeeded.

denouncing vengeance against the adherents of Again she addressed them, “Will you not fight Napoleon. The national-guard was ashamed to for the daughter of your king ?”—“No! no!" join in these tumults, but it did not repress them, esounded from every rank. “ Will you then and the troops were prudently confined to their remain neutral if the national-guard and volun- barracks.

“ You

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KUOK XIV. ened to the princess and besought her to depart the former commander had exceeded bis powers,

immediately. She acceded to their request, and he would not permit the duke to proceed to the CRAP. VII. at eight o'clock on the same evening embarked place of his destination, and dispatched a courier

on-board a small vessel which the English con- to Paris for instructions. Bonaparte could not 1813. sul had stationed in the river for her use.

refuse to accede to the terms which had been Many of the inhabitants followed her to the granted by General Gilly, without subjecting shore, clinging round ber garments, and urging himself to the utmost opprobricm; but he adroitly her to remain. They then besought ber to bestow seized the opportunity of giving a colour of geneon them some parting token of her regard which rosity to what was merely an act of justice. . He they might treasure up with fond remembrance; wrote the following letter to Grouchy, and with. and they separated, satisfied and thankful, wben out adverting to tbe convention already agreed her sbawl, her ribbands, her feathers, were cut on, acceded to its:substance; but made the further into slireds and distributed among them.

and illegal demand, that bis royal-highness The following proclamation was, on the next should engage to insist on the restitution of the morning, found placarded on the walls:

crown-jewels, which had been carried away by “ Brave Bordelais !_Your fidelity is well Louis. known to me. Your devotion unlimited does not “ Count Grouchy-The ordinance of the king, permit you to foresee any danger; but my attach- dated March 6, and the dedaration signed by ment for you and for every Frenchmen directs me his ministers on the 13th at Vienna, might authoto foresee it. My stay in your city being prolonged rize me to treat the Duke of Angouleme as that might aggravate the circumstances, and bring ordinance and that declaration proposed to treat down upon you the weight of vengeance. I have me and my family ; but adhering to the views not the courage to behold Frenchmen unhappy, which induced me to order that the members of and to be the cause of their :wisfortunes. I leave the Bourbon family should be permitted to leave you, brave Bordelais ! deeply penetrated with the France freely, my intention is, that you should sentiments you have expressed, and assure you give orders for conducting the Duke of Angouthat they shall be faithfully transmitted to the leme to Cette, wbere he shall be embarked, and king. Soon, with God's assistance, and under that you watch over his safety and protect him happier auspices, you shall witness my gratitude from all bad treatment. You will also take care and that of the prince whom you love.

to recover the money which has been removed (Signed) " MARIA THERESA."

from the public chests, and to require of the Duke

of Angouleme to bind himself to the restitution of General Claueel now entered the place without the crown-diamonds which are the property of the opposition. The garrison boisted the tri-coloured nation. You will also make known to him the cockade and received him with acclamations; enactments of the laws of the national-assemblies, the national-guard submitted in silence; and not- which are renewed, and which apply to the memwithstanding the apparently universal feeling, a bers of the family of Bourbon who may enter the few hours before, in favour of the Bourbons, an French territory. You will, in my name, thank immense crowd assembled round the gates and the national-guards for the patriotism and zeal welcomed him with shouts of joy.

which they have manifested, and the attachment The Duke of Angouleme proceeded to the south which they have shewn to me in these important of France, and for a while fortune seemed to smile circumstances. on his expedition. Some regiments of the line

(Signed)

“ NAPOLEON." followed him with apparent fidelity, and his little army increased to more than six thousand men. On the 21 of April, the justificatory manifesto In his first encounter with the troops of Bona- of Napoleon was publisbed. As it is a document parte he met with considerable success; but of the first importance we shall present it to the being betrayed by those in whom he confided, reader. the loyalty of the troops being seduced, and nu- 1. In consequence of the remit which has been merous corps of the enemy approaching him on made to it, the committee, composed of presidente every side, he was constrained to surrender to of sections of the council of state, has examined General Gilly. His force was sufficiently re- the declaration of the 13th of March, the report spectable to ensure honorable conditions. An of the minister of general police, and the docuuniversal amnesty was granted. The lives and ments thereto subjoined. property of his followers were secured, and the 2. The declaration is in a form so unusual, duke received safe convoy to Cette, where he was conceived in terms so strange, expresses ideas so to embark for Spain or England.

anti-social, that the committee was ready to conHe had scarcely set out on his journey when sider it as one of those forgeries by which despi. General Grouchy arrived, and assumed the chief cable men seek to mislead the people, and precommand of Napoleon's troops. Imagining that duce a change in public opinion.

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3. But the verification of legal minutes drawn siastic when their object is threatened or attacked COOK XIV. up at Metz, and of the examinations of couriers, by a great injustice; and the assassination to has left no ground for doubt that the transmission which the declaration of the 13th of March in- CRAP. VII. of this declaration was made by the members of cites, will find an arm for its execution neither the French legation at Vienna, and it must,

1815. among the 25,000,000 of Frenchmen, the matherefore, be regarded as adopted and signed by jority of whom followed, guarded, protected Nathem.

poleon from the Mediterranean to the capital, 4. It was in this first point of view that the nor among the 18,000,000 of Italians, the 6,000,000 committee thought it their duty to examine, in of Belgians and Rbenish, nor the numerous the first instance, this production, which is with- nations of Germany, wbo, at this solemn crisis, out precedent in the annals of diplomacy, and in have not pronounced his name but with respectful which Frenchmen, men invested with a public recollections; nor amidst the indignant English character the most respectable, begin by a sort nation, whose honorable sentiments disavow the of placing without the law, or, to speak more language which has been audaciously put into the precisely, by an incitement to the assassioation of moutbs of sovereigns. the Emperor Napoleon.

12. The nations of Europe are enlightened ; 5. We

say

with the minister of police that this they judge the rights of Napoleon, the rights of declaration is the work of the French plenipoten- the allied princes, and those of the Bourbons. tiaries; because those of Austria, Russia, Prussia, 13. They know that the convention of Fon. and England, could not have signed a deed which tainebleau was a treaty among sovereigns; its the sovereigns and the nations to which they be- violation, the entrance of Napoleon on the French long will hasten to disavow.

territory, like every infraction of a diplomatic act, 6. For in the first place these plenipotentiaries, like every hostile invasion, could only lead to an most of whom co-operated in the treaty of Paris, ordinary war, the result of which can only be, in know that Napoleon was there recognised as re- respect of persons, that of being conqueror or taining the title of emperor, and as sovereign of conquered, free or a prisoner of war; in respect the isle of Elba : they would bave designated him of possessions, that of their being either preserved by these titles, nor would have departed, either or lost, increased or diminished; and that every in substance or form, from the respectful notice thought, every threat, every attempt against the which they impose.

life of a prince at war with another, is a thing 7. They would bave felt that, according to the unheard of in the history of nations and the cabilaw of nations, the prince least powerful from the nets of Europe. extent or population of his states, enjoys, in 14. In the violence, the rage, the oblivion of regard to his political and civil character, the principles which characterise the declaration of rights belonging to every sovereign prince equally the 13th of March, we recognize the envoys of with the most powerful monarch; and Napoleon, the same prince, the organs of the same councils, recognised under the title of emperor, and as a which, by the ordinance of the Ith of March, also sovereign prince by all the powers, was no more placed Napoleon without the law, also invited than any one triable by the Congress of Vienna. against him the poniards of assassins, and pro

8. An oblivion of those principles, which it is mised a reward to the bringer of his head. impossible to ascribe to plenipotentiaries who 15. What, however, did Napoleon do? He weigh the rights of nations with deliberation and did honor by bis confidence to the men of all prudence, has in it nothing astonishing when it is nations, insulied by the infamous mission to which displayed by some French ministers, whose con- it was wished to invite them: he sbewed bimself sciences reproach them with more than one act of moderale, generous, the protector even of those treason, in whom fear has produced rage, and who had devoted hiin to death. whom remorse deprives of reason.

16. When he spoke to General Excelmans, 9. Such persons might bave risked the fabrica- marching towards the column which closely fol. tion, the publication of a document like the pre- lowed Louis Stanislaus Xavier; to Count D'Érlon, tended declaration of the 13th of March, in the who had to receive him at Lille; to General hope of stopping the progress of Napoleon, and Clausel, who went to Bourdeaux, where was the misleading the French people as to the true prin- Duchess D'Angouleme; to General Grouchy, ciples of foreign powers.

dispatched to put a period to the civil dissensions 10. Būt such men are not qualified, like the excited by the Duke D'Angouleme,-every where, latter, to judge of the merit of a nation which in short, orders were given by the emperor that they have inisconceived, betrayed, delivered up to persons should be protected and sheltered from the arms of foreigners.

every attack, every danger, every violence, while 11. That nation, brave and generous, revolts on the French territory, and when they quitted it. against every thing bearing the character of base- 17. Nations and posterity will judge on which ness and oppression; its affections become eatbu- side, at this great conjuncture, has been respect

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BOOK XIV. for the rights of the people and of sovereigns, for at the instance, by the intrigues of the Priuce of

the laws of war, the principles of civilization, the Benevent, that Maria-Louisa and her son bare CHAP. VII. maxinis of laws civil and religious. They will been plandered.

decide between Napoleon and the house of Bour- 23. 4thly. There should have been given to the 1815. bon.

Prince Eugene, adopted son of the emperor, who 18. If, after, having examined the pretended has done honor to France, which gave him birth, declaration of the Congress under this first view, and who has conquered the affection of Italy, it is discussed in its relations to diplomatic con- which adopted bim, a suitable establishment out ventions, and to the treaty of Fontainebleau, of of France, and he has obtained nothing. the llib of April, 1814, ratified by the French 24. 5thly. The emperor had (art. 9. of the government, it will be found that its violation is treaty) stipulated in favor of the heroes of the only imputable to the very persons who reproach army, for the preservation of their endowments Napoleon therewith.

on ihe Monte Napoleone: he had reserved 19. The treaty of Fontainebleau has been vio- the extraordinary domains, apd on the funds of Jated by the allied powers and the house of the civil-list, means of recompensing his servants, Bourbon, in what regards the Emperor Napoleon of paying the soldiers who attacbed themselves to and his family, in what regards the interests and his destiny: all was carried away and kept back the rights of the French nation.

by the ministers of the Bourbons. An agent for 20. Ist. The Empress Maria-Louisa and her the French military, M. Bresson, went in vain to son ought to have obtained passports, and au Vienna to claim for them the most sacred of proescort to repair to the emperor; and, far from perties-the price of their courage and blood executing this promise, they separated violently 25. 6thly. The preservation of the goods, morethe wife from the husband, the son from the able and immoveable, of the family of the emfather, and that during distressing circumstances, peror, is stipulated by the same treaty (art. 6): when the firmest soul has need of looking for con- and they have been plundered of one and of the solation and support to the bosom of its family, and orber; that is to say, by main force in France by domestic affections.

commissioned brigands; in Italy, by the violence 21. 2dly. The safety of Napoleon, of his impe- of military chiefs; in the two countries

, by sequesrial family, and of their attendants, was guaran- trations, and by seizures solemnly decreed

. teed (141h article of treaty), by all the powers; 26. 7thly. The Emperor Napoleon was to have and bands of assassins have been organised in received 2,000,000, and his family 2,500,000 francs France, under the eyes of the French government, per annum, according to the arrangement estaand even by its orders, as will soon be proved by blished in the 6th article of the treaty; and the the solemn process against the Sieur Demont- French government has constantly refused to breuil, for the purpose of attacking the emperor fulfil this engagement, and Napoleon would soon and his brothers and their wives : in default of have been reduced to dismiss his faithful guard the success which was expected from this first for want of means to secure their pay, if he had branch of the plot, a commotion bad been planned not found, in the grateful recollections of the at Orgon, on the emperor's road, to attempt an bankers and merchants of Genoa and of Italy, the attack on his life by the hands of soine brigands: honorable resource of a loan of 12,000,000 which ibey sent as governor to Corsica an assassin of was offered to him. George's, the Sieur Brulart, raised purposely to 27. 8thly. In short, it was not without a reason the rank of marshal-de-camp, known in Britany, that they wished by all means to separate from in Anjou, in Normandy, in La Vendée, in ali Napoleon those companions of his glory, models England, by the blood which he had sbed, that of devotedness and constancy, the unshaken guan he might prepare and make sure the crime: and, rantees of bis safety and of his life. The island in fact, several isolated assassins attempted, in of Elba was secured to him in full property (art

. the isle of Elba, to gain by the murder of Napo- 3, of the treaty) and the resolution to spoil bim leon the guilty and disgraceful salary which was of it, wbich was desired by the Bourbons

, and promised to them.

solicited by tbeir agents, had been taken at the 22. 3dly. The duchies of Parnia and Placentia Congress. were given in full property to Maria-Louisa for 28. And if providence had not in its justice herself, ber son, and ber descendants; and after provided for him, Europe would bare seen as long refusals to put ber in possession, they gave attack made on the person, on the liberty of Napo. the finish to their injustice by an absolute spolia. leon, banished for the future to the mercy of his tion, under the delusive pretext of a change, enemies, far from his family, and separated from without valuation, without proportion, without his servants, either to Saint Lucia, or St. Heleu, sovereignty, without consent: and documents which was intended for his prison. existing in the foreign-office, which have been sub- 29. And when the allied powers, yielding mitted to us, prove that it was on the solicitations, the jmprudent wishes, to the cruel importunitiei

1

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of the house of Bourbon, had condescended to vacant, and the abdication which alone permitted BOOK XIV. violate the solemn contract, on the faith of which him to asceud it.' Napoleon bad released the Irench nation froin 39. He pretended to have reigned nineteen Cuar. VII, ils oaths; when himself and the members of bis years, thus insulting both the governments which family saw themselves threatened, attacked in had been established in this period, and the

1815. their

persons, in their property, in their affections, people who had consecrated them by its suffrages, in the righ's stipulated in their favor, as princes, and the arıny which bad defended them, and even even in those rights secured by the laws to simple the sovereigns who had recognized them in their citizens, what could Napoleou do?

numerous treaties. 30. Ought he, after baving endured so many 40. A charter digested by the senate, all imaffronts, supported so many injuries, to have con- perfect as it was, was thrown into oblivion. sented to tbe complete violation of the engage- 41. There was imposed on France a pretended ments made with him, and resigning himself per- constitutional law, as easy to elude as to revoke, sonally to the lot which was prepared for him, and in the form of simple royal decrees, without abandon once more his wife, his son, his family, consulting the nation, without hearing even those his faithful servants to their frightful destiny? bodies become illegal, phantoms of the national

31. Such a resolution appears above human representation. strength; and yet Napoleon would have taken it, 42. And as the Bourbons passed ordinances

peace and the happiness of France had been the without right, and promised without guarantee, price of this new sacrifice. He would have de. they eluded without good faith, and executed voted himself again for the French people, of without fidelity. whom, 'as he wishes to declare to Europe, be 43. The violation of the pretended charter was makes it his glory to hold every thing, to whom restrained only by the timidity of their governhe wishes to ascribe every thing, to whom alone ment; the extent of the abuses of power was he wisbes to answer for all his actions, and to de- only confined by its weakness. vote his life.

14. The dislocation of the ariny, the dispersion 32. It was for France alone, and to avert from of its officers, the exile of many of them, the deit the misfortune of civil war, that he abdicated gradation of the soldiers, the suppression of their the crown in 1814. He restored to the French endowments, their deprivation of pay and halfpeople the rights which he held of them: he left pay, the reduction of the salaries of legionaries, it free to choose for ilself a new monarch, and to their being stripped of their bonors, the pre-emiestablish its liberty and its happiness on institu- nence of ibe decorations of the feudal monarchy, tions which might protect both.

the contempt of citizens, designated anew by the 33. He hoped for the nation the preservation third estate, the prepared and already comof all which he had acquired by twenty-five years menced spoliation of the purchasers of national of combats and of glory, the exercise of its sove property, the actual depreciation of that which reignty in the choice of a dynasty, and in the stipu. they were obliged to sell, the return of feudality Jation of tbe conditions on which it would 'be in its titler, its privileges, its lucrative rights, the called upon to reign.

re-establishment of ultramontane principles, the 34. He expected from the new government abolition of the liberties of the Gallican church, respect for the glory of the armies, the rights of the annihilation of the concordat, the restoration the brave, the guarantee of all the new id- of tithes, the intolerance arising from an exclusive terests, of those interests which had arisen and religion, the domination of a handful of nobles been maintained for a quarter of a century, re- a people accustomed to equality, such 'sulting from all the laws political and civil, ob- was what the Bourbons either did or wished to do served, revered during this period, because they for France. were identified with the manners, the habits, the 45. It was under such circumstances that the wants of the nation.

Emperor Napoleon quitted the isle of Elba ; such 35. Far from that, all idea of thesovereignty of were the motives of the determination which lie the people was discarded.

took, and not the consideration of his personal 36. The principle on which all legislation, poli- interests, so weak with him, compared with the tical and civil, since the revolution, liad rested, interests of the nation to which he has consecrated

his existence. was equally discarded.

37. France Las been treated by the Bourbons 46. He did not bring war into the bosom of like a revolted country, reconquered by the arms France ; on the contrary, he extinguished the of its ancient masters, and subjected anew to a war which the proprietors of uational property, feudal dominion.

forming four-fifths of French landbolders, would 38. Louis Stanislaus Xavier did not recognise have been compelled to make on their spoilers;

over

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