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French people, and the character of the indivi- This reasoning, however plausible, however in- BOQK XIV dual at the head of the government, demonstrated teresting, would not beal the yet bleeding wounds that surrounding nations could not be at peace. which Russia, Prussia, and Austria, had received Chap.VIII. The restless ambition and thirst of foreign con- at Friedland, Jena, and Austerlitz. The allies quest, and the disregard for the rights and in- could not trust him. He had no pledges to give, and

1815. dependence of other states, which had charac- without sufficient pledges they were not justified terized Napoleon and his army, exposed the in compromising the peace and security of Europe. whole of Europe to renewed scenes of devastation During fifteen years he had unceasingly and blood. His destruction, as a ruler, was there- aimed at the subjugation of Europe. It had been fore required, not only as an expiation of former the object of his daily meditations, and his nightly crimes, but as a necessary measure of precaution dreams. “ In five years," said he to one of his and security. The unbounded influence which he ministers, at a time when he was at peace with had hitherto exerted over a people so vain-glo- every continental power except Spain, “in five rious, so volatile, and so demoralized as the years I shall be master of the world. Russia alone French, and the calamities in which, by these will remain ; but I will crush it,” added he, with means, he had involved every surrounding a most expressive gesture. “ Paris shall reach country, not only justified those countries in to St. Cloud. I will build fifty vessels every year; uniting, but imperiously called upon them to but I will not send one of them to sea till I bave unite, and prohibit France from again placing 500. I shall then be master of the ocean as well herself at the disposal of a man in whose hands as the land." It was a favorite expression with she must ever be an object of alarm and terror. bim at that time, that in five years he should be

Candour requires the acknowledgment, that master of the world, and that Paris would reach some enlightened men, who had the best oppor

to St. Cloud. tunity for observing him, and who would not A strong attachment to royalty and the Bourbe easily imposed upon, were persuaded that bons still subsisted in Britany and La Vendée ; the intentions of Nopoleon were honest. They and the royalists in those parts at this time took up imagined that he bad seen the folly of his con- arms in defence of the Bourbon cause, and became duct; that he wished to atone for his errors; and masters of the country which they inhabited; but that he had determined to respect the liberties of they were not able to extend themselves towards France and the peace of Europe. His conduct in Paris. There was, indeed, a want of concert the trying scenes that succeeded the battle of and combination in all the efforts of the Bourbon-' Waterloo, when he steadfastly refused to assume ists, which rendered them desultory and ineffecthe dictatorship, when no entreaties of his mis- tual ; and they had little influence in diverting guided friends, or even of his brothers, could in- the attention of the French government from the duce bim to violate the rights of the legislature, means to resist the foreign storm which was rising favors this supposition. Carnot was of this opinion. against it. This danger was so imminent, that

Others, with some degree of plausibility, rea- it was become absolutely necessary no longer to soned thus : The ruling passion of Napoleon is conceal it from the nation, which was to be pre

mbition. That passion is not, never can be, ex- pared for exerting all its powers of resistance, tinct. To excite the adıniration of his cotempo. On the 14th of April, a long report from the miraries, and to become the hero of future annals, is nister of foreign affairs to the emperor was pubthe grand aim of all his actions, the only end for lished at Paris. As this document gives a clear which be appears to live ; for this he will commit and correct view of the state of Europe, and of erime without malignant intention, and practise the preparations of the allies at this period, we virtue without merit.

shall present it to the reader. The same passion which formerly suggested the romantic plan of universal empire, will now

Report to the Emperor. direct and constrain him to adopt an opposite Sire,- If prudence makes it my duty not to course. Public opinion, on which he so much present indiscreetly to your majesty a phantom depends, and which is so necessary to bis exist- of chimerical dangers, it is for me an obligation ence, repels with borror the chains of despotism, not less sacred, not to suffer that vigilance to be even though fabricated of gold, and the palms of lulled into a deceitful security, which is previctory if stained with blood. Opinion, the mis. scribed to me by the care for the preservation of tress of the masters of the world, now exacts from peace, that great interest of France, that primary him peace and liberty; peace founded on justice object of the wishes of your majesty. To see and eemented by good faith, and liberty protected danger where none exists, is sometimes to proand supported by the laws. At this price she voke it, and to cause it to spring up from anobromises him glory and immortality, and at this ther side; to shut our eyes against the indicaprice be will purchase the objects of his most rions which may be the forerunners of it, would Irdent wishes

be an act of inexcusable infatuation.

BOOK XIV. I ought not to dissemble, sire, that though no political agents, employed abroad by the royal

positive inforination confirms up to this day, or government, that their functions had expired, Crar. VIII. the part of foreign powers, a resolution formally and to apprise them that your majesty intended adopted, which should lead us to presume upon

to accredit new legations immediately. In your 1815.

a speedy war; yet appearances sufficiently autho- desire to leave no doubt respecting your real sen.
rise a just inquietude-alarming symptoms are timents, your majesty ordered me to enjoin those
manifested on all sides at once. In vain do you agents to be the interpreters of them to the dif-
oppose the composure of reason to the tumult of ferent cabinets. I obeyed that order, by writ-
the passions. The voice of your majesty has noting, on the 30th of March, to the ambassadors,
yet been able to make itself heard-an incom- ministers, and other agents, the subjoined
prehensible system threatens to prevail with the letter. Not content with this first step, your
powers, that of preparing for comhat without ad majesty determined, under these extraordinary
mitting any preliminary explanation with the circumstances, to give to the manifestation of
nation which they seem determined to fight. your pacific dispositions a character still more
By wbatever pretext they pretend to justify so authentic and solemn: you thought that you
unheard-of a proceeding, the conduct of your could not stamp more eclat upon the expression
majesty is its best refutation. The facts speak of them, thao by stating them yourself in a letter
for themselves, they are simple, precise, incon- to the foreigo sovereigns. You directed me, at
testible; and from the mere statement which the same time, to make a similar declaration to
am about to give of these facts, the councils of their ministers.
all the sovereigns of Europe, the governments These two letters, copies of which I aones,
and the nations, may alike pronounce judgment dispatched on the 5th' instant, are a

, a mobuin this important cause.

ment which must for ever attest the bonor Some days since, sire, I found it necessary to and integrity of the intentions of your imperial call your attention to the preparations of the dif- majesty. ferent foreign governments; but the germs of While the moments of your majesty were thus disturbance, which for a moment sprang upon occupied, and as it were absorbed by one single some points of our southern provinces, rendered thought, what was the conduct of the different our situation complicated. Perhaps that very powers? natural feeling which causes us to wish above all In all ages nations have taken a pleasure in things for the repression of every principle of in- promoting the mutual communications between terual dissension, would have prevented me, in their goverments; and cabinets themselves have spite of myself, from considering in so serious a made a point of facilitating these communications, light the menacing dispositions which are mani- In time of peace the object of these relations is fested abroad. The rapid dispersion of the ene- to prolong its duration; in war they tend to the inies of our domestic tranquillity relieves me restoration of peace; in both circumstances they from all delicacy of that kind. The French na- are a benefit to humanity. It was reserved for tion has a right to hear the truth from its govern- the present epoch to behold an association of mo- . ment; and never could its government have, as narche, forbidding simultaneously all connection now, so strong a wish, or so powerful an interest, with a great state, and closing the avenue to its to tell it the whole truth.

amicable assurances. The couriers dispatched You resumed your crown, sire, on the 1st of from Paris, on' the 30th of March, for the different March. There are events so far beyond the cal- courts, have not been able to reach the places of culations of huinan reason, that they escape the

their destination. One could proceed no farther foresight of kings and the sagacity of their mi- tban Strasburg, and the Austrian general who nisters. On the first report of your arrival on commands at Kebl, refused to allow him a pasthe shores of Provence, the inonarchs assembled sage, even upon condition of bis consenting to be at Vienna still considered your majesty as no accompanied by an escort. Another sent off for more than the sovereign of the isle of_Elba, Italy, was obliged to return from Turin, without wben you already reigned again over the French accomplishing the object of bis mission. A tbird, empire. It was only in the palace of the Thuil. destined for Berlin and the North, was appreleries that your majesty learned the existence of hended at Mentz, and ill-treated by the Prussian their declaration. The persons who signed that commandant. His dispatches were seized by the unaccountable document, already understood of Austrian general who commands in chief in that themselves, that your majesty had no occasion to place. make any reply to it.

I hereto subjoin the documents relative to the Meanwhile all the proclamations, all the ex- refusals of a passage which these couriers anet pressions of your majesty, loudly attested the with in their different directions. sincerity of your wishes for the maintenance of I have already learned, that among the coupeace. It was my duty to inform the French riers dispatched on the 5th instant, those destined for Germany and Italy were unable to pass the and if not explained in a satisfactory manner; BOOK XIV. frontiers. I have no account of those who were but our present accounts exhibit no character sent off for the North and for England.

which would lead us to attach much importance Crap. VIII. When an almost impenetrable barrier is thus to those incidents. set up between the French ministry and its agents In Austria, in Russia, in Prussia, in all parts

1815, abroad, between the cabinet of your majesty and of Germany, in Italy, in short every where, is to , those of other sovereigos, your minister, sire, be seen a general arming. has no other ineans than the public acts of fo- Austria.-At Vienna, the recal of the land. reign governments of judging of their intentions. webr, lately disbanded, the opening of a new loan,

England.—The constitution of England im- the daily increasing progression of the discredit poses on the monarch fixed obligations towards of the paper-money, all announce the intention or the nation which he governs. As it is not in his the fear of war. power to act without its concurrence, he is obliged Strong Austrian columns are on their march to to communicate to it, if not bis formal, at lease reinforce the numerous corps already assembled bis probable, resolutions. The message trans- in Italy: It may be doubted whether they are mitted to parliament on the 5th instant, by the destined for aggressive operations, or are merely prince-regent, is not calculated to excite any very intended to keep in obedience Piedmont, Genoa, extensive confidence in the friends of peace. 1 and the other parts of the Italian territory, where have the honor to submit this piece to your ma- the clashing of interests may excite apprehenjesty.

sions of discontent. A first remark must painfully affect those who Naples.--Amidst these preparations of Austria are acquainted with the rights of nations, and are on the side of Italy, the King of Naples could anxious to see them respected by kings. The not remain motionless. This prince, whose asonly motive alleged by the prince-regent to jus. sistance the allies had on a preceding occasion tify the measures which he announces the inten- invoked, whose legitimacy they had acknow. tion of adopting is, that events have occured in ledged, and whose existence they bad guaranFrance contrary to the engagements contracted teed, could not be ignorant that their policy, since by the allied powers with one another; and this modified by different circumstances, would have sovereign of a free dation seems not even to pay endangered his throne, if, too intelligent to trust the least attention to the wishes of the great na- to their promises, he had not known how to tion

among whom these events have taken place. strengthen himself on better foundations. PruIt seems that, in 1815, England and her princes dence has enjoined him to advance a few steps, have no recollection of 1688! It seems that the to watch events more closely, and the necessity allied powers, because they obtained a momen- of covering his kingdom has obliged him to take tary advartage over the French people, have up military positions in the Roman states. presumed, in regard to an internal act whic

Prussia. - The movements of Prussia are not nearly concerns its whole existence, to stipulate less active. Every where the corps are complelfor it, and without it, in contempt of the most ing. Officers on half-pay are ordered to join sacred of its rights!

their corps : to accelerate their march they grant The prince-regent declares, tbat he is giving them free posting; and this sacrifice, slight in orders for the increase of the British forces both appearance, but made by a calculating governby land and sea. Thus the French nation, of ment, is not a small proof of the interest which wbich he takes so little account, must be upon its it attaches to the rapidity of its preparations. guard on all sides : it has to fear a continental Sardinia.--The first moment after your majesaggression, and at the same time must watch the ty's return, a commandant of the British troops, in whole extent of its coast against the possibility concert with the governor of the county of Nice, of a descent. It is, says the prince-regent, to took possession of Monaco. By ancient treaties, render the security of Europe permanent, that he renewed by the treaty of Paris, France alone claims the support of the Euglish nation. Aod bas a right to place a garrison in that fortress. how can he have occasion for this support when The time of this occupation by the commandant that security is not threatened ?

of the English troops, sufficiently shows that he For the rest, the relations between the two did this of bimself, and without previous instruccountries have not suffered any alteration worthy tions from his government. France must' deof notice. On some points, particular facts prove mand satisfaction for this affair from the courts of that the English are solicitous to maintain the re- London and Turin. She must require the evalations established by the peace. On others, dif- cnation of Monaco, and its being given up to a ferent circumstances would lead to a contrary French garrison conformably to treaties ; but belief. Letters from Rochefort, of the 7ıb inst., your majesty will, doubtless, be of opinou, that mention some incidents which would be of an this affair can only become a subject of explana

BOOK XIV. Sardinian governor, and especially that of the yond our frontiers ? To mean to re-establish the

English commandant, have been accidental, and . Bourbons once more, would be to declare war on CHAP. VIII.

a sudden effect of the alarm occasioned by extra- the whole French population. When your ma. 1815. ordinary movements.

jesty entered Paris with an escort of a few men; Spain. -News from Spain, and an official letter when Bourdeaux, Toulouse, Marseilles, and all from M. de Laval, of the 28th March, state, that the south are disentangling themselves in one an army is to proceed to the line of the Pyrenees, day from the snares laid for them, is it a military The strength of that army will necessarily de- movement that works these miracles; or rather, pend upon the internal situation of that monarch, is it not a national movement, a movement comand its ulterior movements upon the determina- mon to all French hearts, which mixes in one tions of the other states. France will remark feeling the love of country and the love of the that these orders were given upon the demand of monarch who will know how to defend it? It the Duke and Duchess of Angouleme. Thus, in will then be to restore, to return upon us, a family 1815, as in 1793, it is the French princes that which belongs neither to our age nor our manners; invite foreigners into our territories.

which know neither how to appreciate the eleva. The Netherlands. The assembling of troops tion of our souls, nor to comprehend the extent of different nations in the new kingdom of the of our rights ; it will be to replace on our necks Netherlands, and the numerous debarkations of the triple yoke of absolute monarchy, fanaticism, English troops are known to your majesty; a par- and feudality, that all Europe would appear to ticular fact is added to the doubts which these as- give itself up to an immense rising! One would semblages may give rise to, relative to the dis- say, that France, confined within its ancient limits, positions of the sovereign of that country. I am while the limits of other powers have been proinformed that a convoy of 120 men and twelve of- digiously extended,—that France, free, rich, only ficers, French prisoners from Russia, has been in the great characters which its revolutions have stopped on the side of Turlemont. In waiting to left it, still holds too much space in the map of derive correct information on this point, and to de- the world ! mand, if necessary, redress for such a proceeding, Yes, if, contrary to the dearest wish of your I confine myself now to the statement of it to majesty, foreign powers give the signal of a new your majesty, considering the importance which it war, it is France herself, it is the whole nation receives from its connection with other circum- whom they mean to attack, though they pretend stances which are developed around us.

only to attack its sovereign, though they affect to Upon all parts of Europe at once, they are separate the nation from the emperor. The conarming or marching, or ready to march. And tract of France with your majesty is closer than against whom are these armaments directed ? any that ever united a nation to its prince. The Sire, it is your majesty they name, but it is people and the monarch can only have the same France that is threatened. The least favorable friends and the same enemies. Is the question peace that the powers ever dared to offer you is one of mere personal provocation between one that with which your majesty contents yourself. sovereign and another? That can be nothing Why do they not now wish what they stipulated else but an ordinary duel. What did Francis I. at Chaumont, --what they ratified at Paris ? It in bis rage against Charles V.? He sent bim a is not then against the monarch, it is against the challenge. But to distinguish the chief of a naFrench nation, against the independence of the tion from the nation itself,

to protest that nothing people, against all that is dear to us, all that we is meant but against the person of the prince, have acquired after twenty-five years of suffer. and to march against bim alone a million of men, ing and of glory, against our liberties, our institu- is playing too much with the cruelty of nations. tions, that hostile passions wish to make war: a The sole, the real object which the foreign powers part of the Bourbon family, and some men who can propose to themselves on the hypothesis of a have long ceased to be French, endeavour again new coalition, must be the exhaustion, the degrato raise all the nations of Germany and the North, dation of France; and to attain that object, the in the hope of returning a second time by force of surest means in their view of it will be to impose arms on the soil which disclaims and wishes no upon it a government without force and without longer to receive them. The same appeal has energy. This policy, on their part, is not, resounded for a moment in some countries of besides, a new policy; the example has been the south, and it is from Spanish troops that some given them by great masters. Thus the Ro people are re-demanding the crown of France : maps prescribed such men as Mithridates and it is a family again become private and solitary Nicomedes, while they covered with their haughty which thus implores the assistance of foreigners. protection the Attaluses and the Prusiases, who Where are the public functionaries, the troops priding themselves in the title of their freed-men, of the line, the national-guards, the private inha- acknowledged that they only held from them bitants, who have accompanied it in its flight be their states and their crown. Thus the French nation would be assimilated to those Asiatic na- and France has no cause to complain; if it were BOOK XIV. tions to whom the caprice of Rome gave for otherwise, it is the independence of the French kings, princes whose submission and dependence nation which would be attacked, and France Chap VIII. were secure! In this view, the efforts which the would know how to repel an aggression so allied powers may now attempt to make, would odious.

1815. not have for their precise object to bring us back The Prince-regent of England declares that under a dynasty rejected by public opinion. It · he wishes, before he acts, to come to an underwould not be the Bourbons in particular whom standing with the other powers. All

those powthey would wish to protect; for a long time past, ers are armed, and they deliberate. France, extheir cause, abandoned by themselves, has been cluded from these deliberations, of which it is the 10 by all Europe; and that unfortunate family principal object; France alone deliberates, and has every where been subjected to a disdain but

is not yet armed. too cruel. The choice of the monarch whom In circumstances so important, in the midst of they should place on the throne of France would those uncertainties as to the real dispositions of be of little importance to the allies, provided they foreign powers, dispositions whose exterior acts saw there seated with him weakness and pusilla- are of a nature to authorise just alarms, the sennimity: this would be the most sensible outrage timents and wishes of your majesty for the mainthat could be done to the honor of a magnani- tenance of peace, and of the treaty of Paris, ought mous and generous nation. It is that which has not to prevent legitimate precautions. already most deeply wounded French hearts, and I therefore think it my duty to call the attenof which the renewal would be the most insup- tion of your majesty, and the reflections of your portable.

council, to the measures which the preservation Although, in the latter months of 1813, that of her rights, the safety of her territory, and the famous declaration was published at Frankfort, defence of the national honor, ought to dictate to by which it was solemnly announced that they France. wished France to be great, happy, and free,

The Minister of Foreign Affairs, what was the result of those pompous assurances? (Signed) CAULINCOURT, Duke of Vicenza, At the same moment they violated the Swiss neutrality. When, in short, on the French soil, in Every effort was now made to increase the rein order to cool patriotism, and to disorganise the gular army, and the following energetic proclainterior, they continued to promise to France an mation was published, existence and liberal laws, the events soou shewed “ You earnestly wished for your emperor. He what confidence was due to such engagements. is arrived. You have supported him with all Enlightened by experience, France has its eyes your efforts. Rally with all possible dispatch opened; there is not one of its citizens who does around your standards, that you may be ready to not observe and judge what passes around it: defend your country against enemies who are inclosed within its ancient frontier, when it can- desirous of regulating our national colours, imnot give offence to other governments, every at posing sovereigns upon us, and dictating constitack against its own sovereign is a tendency to tutions. Under these circumstances, it is the interfere in its internal affairs, and will appear duty of every Frenchman, already accustomed to only an attempt to divide its strength by civil war, to join the imperial standard. Let us prewar, and to complete its ruin and dismember- sent a frontier of brass to our enemies, and prove ment.

to them that we are always the same. However, sire, even to this day, all is menace, “ Soldiers!—Whether you have obtained unand as yet there is no hostility. Your majesty limited or limited furloughs, or whether you have will not wish that incidents proceeding from the received your discharge, if your wounds are individual dispositions of particular commanders, healed, and you are in a state fit to serve, come either little scrupulous observers of the orders of and join the army! Honor, your country, your their court, or too ready to anticipate their sup- emperor invites you! With what reproaches posed intentions, should be considered as acts would

you not have cause to overwhelm me, springing from the will of those powers, and as were our fine country again to be ravaged by having broke the state of peace. No official act those soldiers whom you so often vanquished, has proved the determination of a rupture. We and were the foreigner to invade and obliterate are reduced to vague conjectures, to reports per- France from the map of Europe. haps false. It appears certain, that on the 25th

(Signed) • The Prince of ECKMUHL." of March a new agreement was signed, in which the powers consecrated the former alliance of The national-guards were ordered to be em. Chaumont. If the object of it is defensive, it bodied, and distributed among the different fort. enters into the views of your majesty yourself, resses of the country: 3,130 battalions, of 720

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