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BOOK XIV. wards him who governs at Naples, to guarantee the Neapolitan army was now in movement to.

him from all attack on this side; and if, as we wards the frontier, and it was announced, that CHAP. IX.

are assured, Austria bas only engaged herself for Joachim was immediately to follow, and establish

this (how can it be supposed that the emperor has bis bead-quarters at Ancona. For some days he 1815.

given his guarantee against the rights of a prince appeared to be in a state of great agitation. He at once bis uncle and his father-in-law, to the held frequent interviews with some French of possession of a kingdom which he lost in making ficers at Naples, several of whom he dispatched coinmon cause with Austria), she cannot be em- to France; but he delayed bis own departure barrassed in reconciling with justice, and with the from Naples, and the advance of his troops, which natural sentiments of affection, the engagements was attributed to the news of the failure of Bonainto which extraordinary circumstances made ber parte's attempt to gain possession of Antibes. In enter.

fact, he seems to have been under the impression " It appears to me, therefore, that we may at of all that doubt and fluctuation which naturally one aud ihe same time satisfy all our duties, and attends a man acting a double part, and irresolute all our interests, and all our engagements, by an

which side to take. When, bowever, the news article such as the following:

arrived of Bonaparte's entrance into Lyons, be Europe, united in Congress, recognizes his made known that he considered the cause of Na. majetsy Ferdinand IV. as King of Naples. All poleon as his own, at the same time requiring a the powers engage to one another not to favor, passage through the Ron:an states for two of his nor io support, directly or indirectly, any preten. divisions. The pope protested against this viola sion opposite to the rights which apperiain to tion of his territory, and withdrew to Florence. him in this title; but the troops which the powers On the 19th of March, King Joachiin arrived foreign to Italy and the allies of his said majesty, at Ancona, and put himself at the head of his may march to the support of his cause, cannot troops. He entered the Pope's dominions on the traverse Italy.'

22d, and with his main body proceeded from the I persuade myself, my lord, that Y. E. is suf- Marches to the Legations, where, on the 30th, he ficiently authorised to subscribe such a clause, began hostilities by attacking the imperialists and that you have no need of a more special au- posted at Cesena, who retired before bim. thorization ; but if you should think otherwise, I On the next day he addressed the following shall request of you to require this authority with proclamation to the Italians :out delay, as you have been good enough to per. “ Italians !—The moment is come when great mit me so to do (ainsi qu'elle a bien voulu me le destinies may be accomplished. Providence calls promettre.)

you, at last, to be an i!dependent people. One “ Agree, &c. &c.

cry echoes from the Alps to the Strait of Scylla(Signed) “Le Prince de TALLEYRAND." the independence of Italy! What right base

strangers to rob you of independence, the first It is probable that the King of Naples had re- right and blessing of all people? What right ceived some intimation of the design of the have they to reign in your fertile plains, and to Freneh government, for the Duke of Campo- appropriate to themselves your wealth, for the chiaro, when he presented his note, informed the purpose of transporting it to countries where it Austrian minister, that he was directed to ask for did not originate ? What right have they to carry a passage for 80,000 men into France through off your sons, to make thein serve, langush, and the Austrian dominions in Italy, who should pay die, far from the tombs of your fathers ? Is it that for all which they consurned. This request in- nature bas in vain given you the Alps for a bulduced the emperor's cabinet to take measures for wark, and the invincible discrepancy of your chathe security of Italy, and to reinforce their troops racter, a barrier still more insurmountable ? No! in that country,

no! let every foreign domination disappear from At 'bis period, as already observed, an active the soil of Italy. correspoudence was carrying op hetween Naples “ Formerly inasters of the world, you have exand the isle of Elba; but it may be doubted piated that fatal glory by a servitude of twenty whether Joachim was entrusted with Bonaparte's centuries. Let it now be your glory to have masdesign of landing in France. As soon as the ters no longer. Every people must keep within intelligence of this event reached Naples, be the limits fixed to it by nature! the sea and inaccalled together bis council, and informed them of cessible mountains-these are your frontiers.his cetermination to adhere to his alliance with Never think of passing them; but expel the fothe Emperor of Austria, and to remain faithful to reigner who passes them,, aod force bim to conthe system of the allied powers. An assurance fine himself within his own. Eighty thousand to this purpose was communicated to the imperial Italians at Naples hasten to you under the comambassador at his court, and also to the plenipo- mand of their king; they swear never to rest intiaries at the Congress of Vienna. The whole of til Italy be free; and they have prored, more


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than once, that they know how to keep their When the 'news arrived at Vienna of the attack BOOK XIV. . oaths.

upon the Austrian troops by the Neapolitans, the *** Italians of all countries! Second their mag. emperor issued the following declaration of Chap. IX. nanimous efforts. Let those who have borug war: arms resume them: let the raw youth accustom


“ After the campaign of 1812, the King of Nathemselves to handle them; let all citizens, friends ples left the French army, in which he had comof their country, raise a generous voice for liberty; manded a corps. He had scarcely arrived in his let the whole force of the nation be drawn forth in capital, when he caused overtures to be made to all its energy, and in every form. The question the Austrian court respecting his intention of comto be decided is, wbether italy shall be free, or bining his future political proceedings with those shall remain for ages bent under the yoke of sla- of the Austrian cabinet. Shortly after the camvery? Let the struggle be decisive, and we shall paign of 1813 commenced, on the first appearhave established, to a distant period, the happiness ance of a favorable prospect for Napoleon, King of our fine country-that country which, though Joachim left Naples, and again took a command still torn and bleeding, is full of ardour and in the French army; at the same time he pristrength to conquer its independence. The en- vately proposed to the Austrian cabinet, bis medilightened men of all countries, the nations which ation between the allies and the French emperor. are worthy of a liberal government, the princes The glorious 18th of October decided the fall of who are distinguished by the greatness of their the French empire, the king returned to his docharacter, will rejoice in your enterprise, will ap- minions, and immediately renewed the negociation plaud you triumphs. England--can she refuse that had been broken off, respecting his accession you her suffrage ?- that nation which holds out to to the European alliance. He caused his army all others the model of a national and constitu- to advance, and proposed to Austria the partition tional government; that free people, whose finest of Italy. The Po was to be the limit of the two title to glory is to have shed its blood and trea- statės ; some months elapsed in continued negociasures for the independence and liberty of na- tions with the allies, and in a no less frequent cortions.

respondence with the commander-in-chief of the " Italians ! Having long invited and urged French Italian army. The Neapolitan army did us by your wishes, you were surprised at our in- not side with either party.

Neither could count
action; but the propitious moment was not come ; upon it, but neither had to combat it. For Aus-
I had not yet received proofs of the perfidy of tria, this state of things was the least detrimental.
your enemies.
It was necessary


should It could direct its chief force against the, com-
be convinced, by recent experience, how false was mon enemy without attending to Italy.
the liberality of your present masters, how de- “ On the Ilth of January, 1814, the treaty be-
ceitful and lying their promises. Fatal and de- tween Naples and Austria was at length signed ;
plorable experience! I call you to witness, brave yet the Neapolitan army remained long inactive,
and unfortunate Italians of Milan, Bologna, Tu- under the pretext that the ratifications were not
rin, Venice, Brescia, Modena, Reggio, and so yet exchanged. Written proofs which fell into
many other famous cities, how many of your brave the hands of the allies left no doubt that the king's
warriors and virtuous patriots have beeu torn from secret connections with the enemy still continued :
their native soil! how many groan in dungeons! they shewed chiefly his intentions of deceiving the
how many are victims of unbeard-of exactions and French emperor respecting the accession of the

king to the alliance of the powers which had al“ Italians ! You must put a period to so many ready taken place. The victories obtained in calamities; arise, and march in the closest union. France itself decided the part of the king. Paris At the same time that your courage shall assert was in the hands of the allies, and the Neapolitan your external independence, let a government of army began its campaign. The convention of the your choice, a true national representation, a con- Ilth of April, 1814, had ended the war against stitution worthy of you and the age, guarantee Napoleon, the negociations at Paris fixed the reciyour internal liberty and protect your property. procal relations between France and its late eneI invite all brave men to come and combat with mies ; all the armies began their retreat; the me; I invite all brave men, who have reflected Neapolitans retired into the papal marshes, to on the wants of their country, that, in the silence which the king pretends by the treaty of the 11th of the passions, they prepare the constitution and April (should this be January 11?) The relations laws which must in future govern happy and in- between all the powers to be fixed at the Congress dependent Italy.

at Vienna. The branches of the house of Bour6 JOACHIM NAPOLEON. bon declared against the recognition of King * By the king,

Joachim ; the situation of the latter was yet much 66 MILLET DE VILLENEUVE, changed by the return of the ancient royal fa

6 Chief of the staff.” mily to the throne of France and Spain. An equi

BOOK XIV. table policy could not but prescribe to him to li however, far from aeting in a bostile manner,

unit his future views solely to the retaining one of should not disturb the holy father in his capital. CHAP. IX.

the finest kingdoms in the world, and wholly to The pope protested against this violation of his 1915.

renounce all conquests ; and the more since con- territory; and when it took place his boliness
quests could not be made but at the expenre of a left Rome and repaired to Florence.
neighbour, who, in a military point of view, was “On the 8th of April the Neapolitan plenipo-
wholly ivoffensive, and in a political point of view tentiaries at Vienna delivered a note to the
of the highest importance. Moderation and cabinet, which; with assurances of the most
good faiih are, however, words without meaning friendly sentiments of their master, and of his
in the eyes of the princes of the new French unalterable wish never to separate from Austria

announced that his majesty saw himself forced, “ King Joachim, however, instead of thinking on by the altered state of things, and for his own maintaining himself, formed in silence extensive safety, and in agreement with the military meaprospects for the future; he prepared the execu- sures which all the powers thought it necessary tion of them by taking advantage of all the ele- to take, to give, likewise, to his military force a ments of a political and military revolution. None greater developement. This developement should, of his plans, none of his moveinents, escaped the however, be within the line of demarcation which Austrian cabinet. This was not the

way to bring was fixed for the Neapolitan army by the armisover to his side the opinion of the courts who op

tice of 1813. posed the admission of the King of Naples to a “ Meantime the Neapolitan army, without any place among the sovereigns of Europe.

declaration, began, on the 30th of March, hos. “As the burden of military exertions was too great tilities against the Austrian posts in the Legafor the kingdom to bear, the king resolved to tions. take more decisive steps. In the course of the “ His majesty the emperor and king, confiding in month of February be expressed his design of the perfect justice of his cause, and relying on sending an army to France, for which end be re- the valor of his army, on the tried loyalty of his quired nothing less than the passage through people, and on his intimate convections with all Middle and Upper Italy. Such a strauge pro- the powers in Europe, bas caused it to be signiposal was rejected, with a suitable reproof. fied to the Neapolitan government, by an official

“On the 25th and 26th of February, 1815, his note, dated the 10th instant, that his imperial maimperial majesty sent declarations to the French jesty considers the state of war between the two and Neapolitan governments, anuouneing bis ir- states as begun, and leaves the further decision revocable determination never to allow the tran- to the force of arms.' quillity of Middle and Upper Italy to be endan- The imperial general, Bianchi, retired before gered by the marching in or passage of foreign the Neapolitan army, till he reached the Panaro, troops. His imperial majesty gave orders for the where, on April the 4th, he made bead against march of a large reinforcement of troops to his the enemy, on the road to Modena. The result Italian dominions, to support his declaration. This of the action was, that Bianchi continued his redeclaration of Austria was answered on the partreat to Carpi, and afterwards took a strong posiof Fraice, with the assurance that the king had tion on the Po. no such intention. King Joachim kept bis decla- In the meantime, the Austrian forces were colration back; the time for the discovery of his real lecting under Marshal Bellegarde, who, on the views was not yet come.

5th of April, addressed a proclamation to the « On the 5th of March the news of Napoleon's Italians. 'In this be reminds them that Murat escape arrived at Naples. The king immediately was a foreigner; and yet he affects a language sent for bis imperial majesty's ambassador, and towards the Italians which an Alexander Farnese, declared to him that be was and should remain an Andrew Doria, or the great Triniligio, could inviolably faithful to the system of the alliance. scarcely bave held towards them Had it not He renewed the same declaration to the cabinets been for this enterprise of Murat, Italy might of Austria and England. At the same time he bave remained at peace; but he, without declarasent bis aid-de-camp, Count de Beaufremont, to tion of war, for which he was unable to assign any France, with the commission to look for Bona- just motive, against the faith of his treaties with parte, and to assure him of his support. Scarcely Austria, to which alone he owes his political exwas the news of Napoleon's entry into Lyons re- istence, threatens again with his armies the tranceived at Naples, when be formally declared to the quillity of this fine Italy. His promise of Italian court of Rome, " that he considered the cause of independence is represented as quire in unison Napoleon as his own, and would now prove to with all the measures of the revolution. The him that it had never been foreign to him.He proclamation then adverts to the benefits which required at the same time a passage through the the north of Italy had received from the house of Roman states for two of bis divisions, which, Austria : bence it is, that in Lombardy and Tas



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