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BOOK XIV, the slightest difficulty on the part of the Austrian such as the allies expected ; but he thought that
government till the treaty was ratified in the way if the question rested solely on the opinion of that Murat desired; there was no suggestion of Lord William Bentinck, it would not form a jus
alarm, so far as the Austrian government was tifiable cause of breaking with Murat, Wbile be 1815.
concerned. It was not enough, however, to say was at Paris, hovever, he had an opportunity of that the opinion given by Lord William Bentinck, having a communication with a person, which on the 21st of March, it was not fair to say, that amounted to a moral conviction that Murat had it referred to transactions at the time of the rati not bonorably fulfilled the engagement on his fication of the treaty. Lord William Bentinck part.
part. He certainly bad taken the earliest opporcommunicated to Marshal Bellegarde what bis iunity after his arrival at London, to inform slie opinion was how Murat had executed his part of Neapolitan agent, that the conduct of Murat apthe engagement. He evidently meant to qualify peared to bim to have been inconsistent with bis the conduct of the British government, and said, engagements. He stated the same thing expressly that they did not know the conduct of Murat to the Duke of Campocbiaro at Vienna, and told when that authority was transmitted. On the bim, that on that account the question of Naples 25th of March, long after the treaty had been ra. must be left free and open for the discussion of tified, and when Murat might bave destroyed Congress. At the meeting of the Congress there those unfavorable opinions which Lord William were two sets of ambassadors, each appearing in Bentinck had formed, that noble lord made use the character of representatives of the King of of the following language : “ It is now necessary the two Sicilies. He would agree with the hoto consider the conduct of Murat. Has he ful. porable gentleman, that if nothing had occurred filled his engagements with Austria ? Has be to shake the good faith of Murat in the performnot acted rather as a friend to Bonaparte? Was ance of his engagements, then it would have been it pot the policy of a deserter to throw his whole the duiy of this country to uphold the right of force into the scale? He could expect no favor Murat io the kingdom of Naples. He, however, from Bonaparte : but is it not the language of all conceived his pretensions to have been completely bis officers, that Italy should be united, and that merged, and that the whole question should be be should be the head? Finally, is there any reserved for the consideration of the Congress . man in Italy, or any in the Austrian army south It was a question altogether of the utmost diffiof the Po, who has any confidence in him? He culty to determine ; and the only point that all is only waiting to place bimself on the strongest the ministers could agree upon was, that this side." Sucb was the opinion of Lord William question should be reserved for the last point Bentinck on the 25th of March. The honorable which the Congress were to determine. In point gentleman had stated, that it was the true policy of fact, vo act of Congress had taken place on of this country to resist all suspicions between this subject up to the period of Murat's aggresMurat and the allies. At Chatillon, he consented sion. He had always fairly stated to Prioce that Murat should remain at Naples, and he hoped Talleyrand, as well as the otber ministers
, that the honorable gentleman would feel, that through the British goverument held itself free upon this out this transaction there was no disposition to point. He thought it very probable that it was entertain improper jealousies of the conduct of
in consequence of his staiing frankly and expliMurat. In his letier of the 3d of April, from citly to the Neapolitan minister, that he conceiv
. Dijon, he endeavoured to argue down all the ed the claim of Murat to be anvulled by bis consuspicions of Lord William Bentinck, because he duct, that that minister communicated to bima felt that if we were not prepared to break with very detailed memorandum, endeavouring to Murat, we should inspire him with more confi- justify the conduct of Murat. This document dence. But Lord William Bentinck, who was did not at all shake the moral conviction in his nearer the scene of action, was better able to mind of the duplicity and had faith of Murat judge of his intensions. He (Lord C.) thought, Altbough he was himself possessed of sufficient however, that it was better to exercise an excess documents to support his opinion, yet be referred of confidence, than an excess of jealousy; and all this document to an officer who had commanded his arguments were thrown into the scale in favor the advanced-guard of his army, and who had of Murat. The house might be assured, there still better opportunities of judging of his conduct fore, that there bad been no failure of exertion on than he had.' The officer to whom he alluded his part. It was towards the close of the month was General Nugent, who had so much distin
. of March that the allies entered Paris. The guished himself in the present war, as well as in noble lord arrived thither in the beginning of the last. He was a man of the bighest honor and April, and he was not sure whether the letter of character, and of such consummate judgment in the 23d of March reached him there, or at Dijon. military matters, that he expected from him not It made, however, a considerable impression on merely an opinion but a detailed and reasoned his mind, that the conduct of Murat had not been opinion. He was not disappointed in his espec
tation--General Nugent bad examined this docu have a search made in the bureau of Paris. A BOOK XIV. ment, paragraph by paragraph, and in his answer diligent search had been made, and very importto it had made out a most complete case, not ant documents had been found. He sbould now Chap. IX. merely of military inactivity on the part of Murat, read to the bouse many extracts of the corres
1815. hut of a most skilful management of his troops to pondence which had been found, that passed at defeat the objects which had been agreed upon that time between the Princess Borghese, Bona. by the allies, and, in one instance, to facilitate the parte, and the King and Queen of Naples. He escape of a considerable body of the enemy. He should also read exiracis to prove the opinion of bad not, however, relied merely on the opinion of the French constituted authorities on his conduct. General Nugent, but had also taken the opinion From the first letter, which was from the Princess of Lord William Bentinck, who, being at that Borghese to Bonaparte, dated Lucca, February time near the spot, had good opportunities of 14th, he read the following extract :-" The King judging. Lord William Bentinck had informed of Naples is in a great agitation. He is astonished bim, by a letter, that he conceived that the object that the viceroy should have retired from the banks of Murat was very clear, " that he wanted to of the Adige, and hopes that he bas not forgotten hold the balance in bis own bands, to keep pos the benefits he had received from your majesty." session of Italy south of the Po, and then to throw The second letter wbich he should read was from his weight into the scale which appeared most Bonaparte to the Queen of Naples, and was dated likely to preponderate." Prince Talleyrand also Nangis, the 17th of February. At the time this lettold him, that he had the clearest proofs that long ter was written, Bonaparte did not despair of his after Murat had been negociating with the allies, fortune, and treated Murat in the stile of a master. he was also in direct negociation with Bonaparte This letter contained the following expressions ; for the possession of Italy south of the Po. "It is “ Your husband is a brave man in the field; but true that Bonaparte, not then thinking so humbly more cowardly than a woman wben he has been a of his fortune, treated his proposal with the ut month from the field. He has no moral courage. most contempt, and talked of Murat as a madman He should know, that what he has he can only and a fool. It appeared that even in the month hold by me, and with me. When be quitted the of February last year, the Queen of Naples was army without orders, and ever since, he has been in direct communication with Bonaparte, and doing me as much mischief as he could. I may, made proposals to him on the part of her busband. however, yet pardon him.
however, yet pardon him. Recal him to a sense As to the merit that was claimed for his not join- of his duty, and let him watch for a favorable i ng
the viceroy, the fact was, that he could not moment to shew me that he is not as ungrateful as join him, as their pretensions were incompatible. he has been pusillanimous” He should next read He, in fact, claimed about balf of bis vice-royalty. an extract from a
ter from Fouche to BonaThe house would now see the cruel situation in parte, dated Lucca, February 18. This letter wbich ministers had been placed. They had stated, “ That the king was sick with grief: that been reviled 'in every corner of the country for he felt thoroughly the circumstances in which he supposed breaches of faith, which the gentlemen was placed, and that the English and 'Auson the other side so confidently charged them trians' reproached him with too much attachment with. He trusted that he had been able to collect
to his imperial majesty.” He then read an exsufficient documents to prove to the house and tract of a letter from Eugene Beauharnois to the country that there had been no breach of Bonaparte, dated the 28th of February. This faith on the part of the British government. He letterexpressed," That the viceroy had the strongadmitted that the honorable gentleman had fairly est hopes that the King of Naples would not add and properly, this night, said that the case was a to the wrongs he had been guilty of towards his prima facie one, and called for some answer or imperial majesty by firing at his troops." He inquiry. He thought, however, that any man next read an extract of a letter from the French who had the least value for the honor and cha- consul at Ancona, which had no date, but was racter of his country, or the government under certainly written about the same time. That letwhich he lived, should, even if there was a prima ter stated the sabstance of the conversation befacie case of breach of faith, suppose that the tween bim and Murat. “ The King of Naples government would be able to give it an answer, told him, that necessity alone compelled him to and justify their conduct. Ministers, however, join the allies. The maritime strength of Enghad been most violently attacked by other gen- land was always threatening his states with invatlemen in that house, upon some loose documents sion, and his people were discontented at the stagthat had got into their hands, and before the time nation of trade.' He said that it was agreed that had arrived when they could go into their justifi- his army was never to fight against Frenchmen.” cation. As he had wished to get possession of The next letter which he had to read was a very what documents he could find respecting the con curious document : it was a letter from Bora
BOOK XIV. sent to Lord Castlereagh. There shall also be talked loudly of his intentions not to hurt Na.
communicated an original letter from a person poleon, &c. &c. But these letters in general, es. Chap. IX. wbose testimony Lord Castlereagh will not dis-pecially that of Clarke, tend to prove that he was
pute. This letter was written on the 4th of Ja in a state of actual hostility against France ; and 1815.
nuary, 1815, to Count Blacas, by Lord Welling- this was what be ought to have been.
“ Your very faithful and sincere,
On the 19th of May, Mr. Horner called the at its disposal, and which concerned the King of attention of the house of commons to what had Naples ; but then they bad not yet falsified them, been published by the French government; and and Lord Wellington deduced the only conse said, that as the charge of forgery had been made quences from them which the real papers could in the face of Europe, it called for explanation
. present—" I return the papers which I have read: He, therefore, moved for the production of Lord they contain no proof against Murat.” Such an Wellington's letter, and those of Count Blacas, authority leaves us nothing further to say. Lord In reply, Lord Castlereagh said the papers Wellington attests that the papers which we quote moved for should be produeed. With respect to are true, because they contain none of the proofs the letter of Lord Wellington, of the 4th of sought for against the King of Naples, and that January, be allowed it was perfectly correct and those which have been produced by Lord Castle- authentic; but then it applied to papers totally reagh to parliament are false, since they strongly different from those which he (Lord C.) had read inculpate the King of Naples in his conduct to in that house. It was true, however, that papers wards the allies. No one cap refuse this testimony. on that subject were found in the archives at What then happened in the interval between the Paris, before the Duke of Wellington left that 4th of January and the 4th of March, 1815 ? city; but so far as that letter went, it only proved Count Lille, who never ceased to insist, at the that the Duke of Wellington was not disposed to Congress at Vienna, that the Bourbon branch of strain any point with respect to the conduct of Sicily should remount the throne of Naples, saw Murat. It was alleged that certain of the docuthat the powers who had contracted treaties with ments which he (I ord C.) bad read, were either the King of Naples resisted or hesitated. It was wholly fabricated or in part falsified. Now those necessary to find means to overcome their scru documents amounted to eight in number, and of ples, and to justify the violation which was ex five out of those eigbt be would venture to say pected from them, by imputing to the King of that not a doubt could exist in the most incredoNaples anterior violations. The cabinet of Count lous mind as to their being original and authentie. de Lille, in which we are certain that fabrication The remaining three were the only ones that was studied, to serve the passions of that govern- might by possibility be fabricated, and they were ment by falsehoods of all kinds, composed the draughts or minutes of letters from Bonaparte false correspondence in question, and which Lord himself. It was necessary he should state that Castlereagh presented to the parliament of Eng. the whole of them were transmitted officially to land as the basis of the determination whence him by the Count de Blacas, according to the peace or war is to result. The royal falsificators usual forms, and authenticated by that minister as did not suppose that the archives upon which being faithful and correct copies. The official they drew would become again imperial archives, letter of the Count de Blacas, which accompanied that Count Blacas, in a precipitate flight, would them, would be found among the papers, when abandon those of bis master and his most secret they were laid upon the table. Anxious that na papers, and would thus give the means of bring- misrepresentation might arise, and at the same ing into open day, not only the base intrigue time not wholly without apprehension that sorze which we now develope, but so many others that attempt would be made to impeach the authenoecupied so much time and held so great a place ticity of those documents, the Count de Blacas in a reign of a few months."
took the precaution of transmitting the originals
to the Prince of Castelcicala, the ambassador Letter of Lord Wellington.
from his majesty the King of the two Sicilies to “ Paris, January 4, 1815. this country, and obviously the fittest person to “ Count,- I return the papers which you left whom such documents could be confided. He with me, and which I have read. They contain (Lord C.) had seen and examined those original no proof against Murat, they only shew that he that morning, and certainly there did not remain espoused a side against his will (a regret ;) that upon his mind the slightest doubt of their being he every day felt this more and more ; that he authentic. Taking the case, therefore, upon the
five documents only, as applicable to the conduct mitted them to bim, he certainly was not inclined BOOK XIV. of Murat, it would appear most satisfactorily to to believe it, because, even supposing that a mithe house, that instead of affording an active co nister of state could be base enough to forge Chap. IX. operation to the allies, he had balanced between documents of so grave a character, and give them
1815. them and Bonaparte, waiting only for a fit op to the world as original, there was no sufficient portunity to declare for either, as might best suit motive for such a proceeding in the present case; his own ambitious views. The last letter of Bo- for every thing which it was vecessary to prove paparte, in particular, would be found to be un was completely proved by documents unequivoequivocally authentic; and, in fact, the attempt cally authentic, and it would therefore have been now made to represent the whole as fabrications, a gratuitous act of immorality to fabricate papers was only a part of that general system now openly merely to make that clearer which was already acted
upon, of fabricating proclamations for the clear enough. Upon the whole, he did not think Duke of Wellington and Prussian governors, for it necessary for the honorable gentleman to perthe sole purpose of deluding and misleading the severe in his motion, as the object of it would be French nation, in order to make them the blind completely complied with under a former motion instruments for carrying on the projects of its
to wbich the house had agreed. If, however, it present ruler. After those documents had been was thought desirable to produce the letter of officially communicated to him, he immediately Lord Wellington, he should certainly feel no obtransmitted them to the Duke of Wellington, at jection to its production, provided it could be Vienna, and his grace's letter in reply would be found in the foreign office ; at the same time, for laid before the house, in which he stated, that all the purposes of discussion, he was ready to having received from him (Lord C.) the proofs admit its authenticity. of Murat's treachery during the last campaign, Mr. Horner said, the noble lord had argued he had immediately submitted them to the allied that only three out of the eight letters were presovereigns, who were completely satisfied with tended to be false ; but certainly if he found that them, and had determined, in consequence, to of eight documents, coming all from the same commence an attack upon Murat. That indi source, three could be proved to be forgeries, it vidual, bowever, did not wait for the attack; but would create a considerable doubt in his mind as in perfect consistency with bis whole policy, and to the authenticity of the remainder ;. and it in the hope of achieving the great objects of his might be regarded as a fair inference, that the ambition, he had himself begun hostilities. In other five were correct, only because their fabricashort, the whole case of Murat's treachery was tion was not sufficiently made out. He was quite completely made out by the letter of the viceroy sure that if the noble lord himself were to be conalone, the original of which he had seen; and he vinced that three had been so imposed upon bim, believed he himself knew sufficient of that per- he would place no confidence in the remainder. son's hand-writing to pronounce upon it as authen. With regard to the letter of the Duke of Weltic. With regard to the allegation that the other lington, he was certainly desirous to have that three letters were either fabricated or znaterially produced; but the other part of the motion he falsified by the Count de Blacas, before he trans- should withdraw.
Defeat of the Neapolitan Army at Tolentino.—Battle of San Germano.-Flight of the Neapolitans,
and their Army broken up.-Surrender of the Neapolitan Navy and Arsenal at Naples to Captain Campbell.— Termination of the War.-Military Convention. Entrance of the Austrians into Naples.-Escape of Murat in Disguise. His Wife takes Refuge on-board a British Ship of War.- Proclamation of King Ferdinand, and Entrance into the Capital.
Arrival of Murat in France.-Flight to Corsica.—Lands in Calabria.- Is taken Prisoner, and executed.-Remarks. The Neapolitan army, under Murat, continued Bologna through Florence and Foligno, in order
retreat ; and, on the 27th of April, it had fallen to occupy the direct road from Ancona to Naples, ack as far as Pesaro. The Austrian general, and thereby to turn the positions of the NeapoliZianehi, was now marching with celerity from tan army. On the 2d of May he took a position
'BOOK XIV. in front of Tolentino, which rendered it necessary war was now pear to a conclusion, the final close
for Marat to venture a battle for the purpose of of which is thus related by Lord Burghesh se Cap. X. securing a retreat to the Neapolitan frontier. Lord Castlereagh, in ta dispatch, dated Teano ,
Advancing from Macerata, with a much superior May 21 :1815. force, on the same day be attacked the positions
• After the successes obtained by General Nu. of Bianchi, and the contest continued till the ap gent, and stated in my last dispatcb, General proach of night. On the following morning, the Bianchi received, on the 18th, a 'message from attacks were renewed with great vigor, and were
the Duke de Gallo, requesting an interview, to resisted with equal obstinacy, till night again put communicate to bim propositions he was charged an end to the combat. The arrival of Count with from Marshal Murat
. A meeting for elke Niepperg, at Jesi, now obliged the Neapolitans to next day was appointed : on the part of England, commence a precipitate retreat in the direction of General Bianchi requested me to attend it, and Ferino, in order to gain the road along the sea in the absence of the British commanders-in
. coast to Pescara. General Nugent, who bad en- chief, both by sea and land, I consented. I met tered Rome, marched from that capital in the therefore the Duke de Gallo with General Bian
. beginning of May, towards the Neapolitan fron- chi, on the morning of the 19th. The conversa. tier on that side, the enemy retiring before him. tion which ensued with that minister led to me They were at length driven beyond the Garig- other result than in having given the allies an Jiano to San Germano, to which they were fol. opportunity of stating to him the grounds on lowed by the Austrian advanced-guard. On the which alone they would engage to arrest their 14th, Murat arrived at San Germano, and his military movements. Having stated that he had troops being considerably reinforced, he drove no authority to treat on any basis of the nature back the advanced-guard, and afterwards attack 80 announced to him, the Duke de Gallo returned all the Austrian out-posts. On the 15th, he ed to Naples, having received, however, an abegan again to retire, and returning with a small surance, that any propositions General Carras. escort to San Germano, he soon left that place. cosa might wish to make, should, in the course of Nugent, resuming the offensive, advanced against the following day, be received. The meeting the
enemy, who were posted on the banks of the with General Carrascosa took place this morning . Melfa, which they quitted on this approach. They General Niepperg, on the part of Austria, Gene afterwards left Šan Germano to their pursuers ral Colletta, on that of Naples, and myself
, and fell back to Mignano, wbere they drew up in the absence of the British commander-in-chief
, in force. In that position they were attacked and negociated the military convention. On the part put to the rout; and thus the Neapolitan army, of Naples, propositions were at first made totally named that of the interior, was entirely broken inadmissible ; on our part'the abdication of Marup. On the 18th, a junction was formed at the shal Murat was insisted upon. General Colletta Austrian camp, near Calvi, of Bianchi's army wished to secure for that person a safe retreat to with that of Nugent, who had now no opponents France; but, finding that such was totally imposin the field, the wretched remains of the Neapo- 'sible, and baving declared that he had no autholitan army being reduced, chiefly by desertion, rity from Marsbal Murat to treat with regard to to a dispirited band of about 16,000 effective sol- him, the convention, such as your lordship will diers of all kinds.
receive it, was agreed to. It is impossible to Meanwhile, in consequence of arrangements conclude this dispatch without calling your lordmade between Lord Burghesh, the English mi- ship's attention to the manner in which the cannister at Florence, and Captain Campbell, of the paign,
now terminated, has been carried on by Geo Tremendous man-of-war, the latter, in the ben neral Bianchi. The activity with which he has ginning of May, sailed with his ship, accompa. pushed his operations is almost without example
. nied by a frigate and a sloop-of-war, to the Bay The constant successes which have attended his of Naples. On his arrival be declared to the arms are crowned in the satisfaction of his being Neapolitan government, that unless the ships-of- able to re-establish the authority of the legitiwar were surrendered to 'him, he would bom mate sovereign, without those misfortunes to the bard the town. Madame Murat immediately sent country attendant on protracted military operaPrince Carrati to negociate for the surrender. The tions. terms diciated by Captain Campbell were, that
Military Convention. the ships of the line in the bay should be given Art. 1. From the day in which the present up; that the arsenal of Naples should be delivered military convention shall have been signed, there over, and an inventory taken of its actual state, shall be an armistice between the allied troops and that these captures should be at the joint and the Neapolitan troops, in all parts of the disposal of the English
government and of Fer- kingdom of Naples. dinand IV. of Naples. The ships were then taken 2. All fortified places, citadels, and forts of the possession of, and were sent off to Sicily. The kingdom of Naples, shall be given up in their