« PreviousContinue »
actual state, as well as the sea-ports and arse- 8. Staff officers of the allied and Neapolitan BOOK XIV. nals of all kinds, to the armies of the allied armies 'shall be immediately dispatched to the powers, at the periods fixed upon in the follow- different places above-mentioned, in order to make Char. X. ing article, for the purpose of being made over known to the commandants these stipulations, and
1815. bis majesty King Ferdinand the Fourth, except to convey to them the necessary 7. instructions for ing such of them as may before that period have putting them into execution. already been surrendered. The places of Gaeta, 9. After the occupation of the capital, the rePescara, and Ancona, which are already blockmainder of the territory of the kingdom of Naples aded by the land and sea-forces of the allied shall be wholly surrendered to the allies. powers, not being in the line of operations of the 10. His excellency the general-jo-chief, Baron army under the General-in-chief Carascosa, he de Carascosa, engages, until the moment of the declares himself unable to decide upon their entry of the allied army into the capital of Naples, fate, as the officers commanding them are inde- to superintend the preservation of all the public pendent, and not under his orders.
property of the state without exception.. 3. The periods for the surrender of the for- 11. The allied army engages to take measures tresses, and for the march of the Austrian army in order to avoid all kind of civil disorder, and to upon Naples, are fixed as follows:-Capua shall occupy the Neapolitan territory in the inost peacebe given up on the 21st of May, at noon : on able manner. that day the Austrian army will take its position 12. All prisoners of war that have reciprocally on the Canal de Reggi Lagui. On the 22d day been made during this campaign, as well by the of May the Austrian army will occupy a position allied armies as by the Neapolitan army, shall be in the line of Averse, Fragola, Meleto, and Juli- given up on both sides. ano. The Neapolitan troops will march on that day 13. Permission will be granted to all foreigners, upon Salerno, which place they will reach in two or Neapolitans, to leave the kingdom, with ledays, and concentrate their head-quarters in the gal passports, during the space of a month from town and its environs, in order to wait the deci- the present date.
the present date. The sick or wounded must sion of their future destiny. On the 23d of May, make a similar application within the same pethe allied army will take possession of the city, riod. citadel, and all the forts of Naples.
The disturbances which broke out in Naples, 4. All the other fortresses, citadels, and forts caused the possession of it by the allies to be (the above-mentioned excepted), situated within anticipated by one day. By the convention they ihe frontiers of the kingdom of Naples, such as were to bave been placed in possession of it on Scylla, Omandea, Reggio, Brindisi, Manfredo- the 23d; but the popular feeling had so strongly nia, &c. shall be likewise surrendered to the al- manifested itself against the then existing governlied armies, as well as all the depôts of artillery, ment, on the 20th and 21st, that Murat left the arsenals, magazines, and military establishments town in disguise, and his wife sought the security of every kind, from the moment that this conven- wbich bad been assured her on-board a British tion shall reach the said places.
man-of-war. General Carascosa sent to General 5. The garrisons will march out with all the Bianchi, requesting he would prevent the mishonors of war, arms and baggage, clothing of fortunes with which the town was menaced, by enthe several corps, the papers relative to the ad- tering it immediately ; and Madame Murat, by ministration; without artillery. The engineeer the same request to Admiral Lord Exmouth, who and artillery-officers of these places shall make bad arrived in the bay, prevailed upon bim to over to officers of the allied armies, named for this land a body of 500 marines to maintain tran-. purpose, all papers, plans, inventories of effects quillity. belonging to both departments pendent thereon. General Bianchi's cavalry occupied Naples on
6. Particular arrangements will be concluded the night of the 22d; and, on that day, Prince between the respective commandants of the said Leopald, of Sicily, entered at the bead of the Ausplaces, and the generals or officers commanding trian troops in the midst of general acclamations.. the allied troops, as to the manner of evacuating He requested that all the authorities of the kingthe fortified places, as well as for what regards dom, the ministers of state, and the officers of the the sick and wounded, who will be left in the
army, to remain at their posts until they received hospitals, and for the means of transport which the orders of King Ferdinand. Madame Murat will be furnished to them.
sailed in the Tremendous for Gaeta, to receive her 7. The Neapolitan commandants of the said children, who had been sent thither for safety. places are responsible for the preservation of the She was afterwards conveyed into the Austrian nagazines within them, at the moment of their territories.. On the 23d, the English and Sicilian peing made over ; and they shall be given up, in expedition, consisting of about 6,000 troops, under nilitary order, as well as every thing which is con- the command of General Macfarlane, appeared in lained within the fortresses.
the Bay of Naples. King Ferdinand had previa.
BOOK XIV. ously issued the following proclamation to the plete, most extensive, and general amnesty, and Neapolitans :
an eternal oblivion. CRAP. X. " At length I re-ascend the throne of Naples. “ I promise to preserve all individuals
, Neapo Every thing concurs to make my return happy. Jitan and Sicilian, who serve in the armies by 1818.
Your unanimous wishes recall me. The gene- land or sea, all the pay, the rank, and military
** I put myself in march at the head of an army, success!
power. His manners, however void of dignity, bad “ No: you are not made to carry the flame of always ingratiated him with the Neapolitan peorevolt among those who are not your enemies. ple; and the vices of the government were not You are not made to debase yourselves by that attributed to him, who, in fact, took little part in sort of greatness which is born of destruction it. Murat escaped to France, as appears from the and of terror. The bistory of your ancestors is following article, which appeared in the French far more glorious. You, descendants of the Brut
papers soon afterwards :- The King of Naples tians, the Campanians, and the Samnites, you landed at Cannes on the 25th of May. That
prince should cause to tremble those foreign disturbers owes his misfortunes entirely to the cowardice of of your prosperity and your internal tranquillity:
internal tranquillity: the Neapolitan troops. They advanced as long but never could you be the instruments of their am- as the Austrians were not in sufficient force to bition, or the victims of their artifices. Your chil- oppose them; but when victory was to be purdren should not perish in frozen climates. It is chased by efforts, instead of fighting, they led.
alone to enjoy your substances, the fruits Had the king been able to advance into Lom. of your labours, and the produce of your happy bardy, his cause, and that of Italy, would bave climate.
triumphed. The officers and soldiers of Prince Neapolitans, come and throw yourselves into Eugene would have flocked to his standard, and my arms. I was born among you ; I know, I ap- formed the strength of his army: but he had preciate your habits, your character, and your scarcely established himself on the Po, when the manners. I desire only to give to you the most Austrians received reinforcements and resumed striking proofs of my paternal love, and to make the offensive. The Neapolitans being the intithe new period of my government the most for- midated by the presence of an enemy who did tunate epoch of the well-being and happiness of not fly, took to flight themselves. The king could our common country. One single day should dis- not rally the wreck of his army until he reached sipate all the misfortunes of many years. The Macerata. He wished to give battle, and the most sacred, the most invariable pledges of mo- Austrian corps was inferior to that wbich he comderation, of gentleness, of reciprocal confidence, manded; but the Neapolitans fled at the first and of entire union, will be the guarantees of your musket-shot, and dispersed on all sides. None tranquillity:
remained faithful to the king except a battalion “ Neapolitans, second, with all your efforts, an of Italian and French officers, and it was with this enterprise whose object is so great, so just, so be- bandful of brave men that he accomplished bis nevolent, and which enters into the common cause retreat to Naples, constantly followed by the of Europe, of which all enlightened nations have Austrians. On entering his capital, he soon found undertaken the defence with immense forces. it was impossible to maintain himself there. Heleft
“ I promise you that I will not preserve the it on horseback on the 20th of May, and having least recollection of all the faults committed by proceeded along the coast in front of the island of whatever person, without any exception, against Itri, he embarked on-board of a vessel belonging the duties of fidelity towards me, during my ab- to the isle of Elba, which conveyed him in fire sence from this kingdom, at whatever time com- days to Cannes. After his departure from Naples mitted, whether after my first or second departure. the Austrians entered the city and the English An impenetrable and eternal veil shall cover all the port. The queen retired to one of the for . past actions and opinions.
tresses, where she capitulated with the Eng. “ With this view I promise, in the most solemn lish, She embarked on the 21st for Toulon, manner, and on my sacred word, the most com- on-board of an English vessel. Two Italian of.
ficers, who left Naples at the same time as the compelling him to live in perpetual captivity BOOK XIV. queen,
arrived on the 29th of May at Toulon, under the arbitrary laws of a despotic governGeneral Belliard and the Prince of Rocca Ro- ment; that this was not the respect due to an
Chap. X. mana, on-board of an Elbese pink. unfortunate monarch, who had been formerly
1815. Murat afterwards fixed his residence at Tou- acknowledged by all Europe, and who, in a Jon, where he continued till the restoration of the most critical period, had undertaken the camBourbons, when he was persecuted and proscribed. paign of 1814 in favor of those very powers that He had bired a vessel at Toulon on the intelli- now, contrary to their own interests, conspired to gence of their arrival, by wbich be might effect crush him ;-that England and Austria' would his escape, but the ship sailed without him, car- have nothing to fear from him ;-that he would rying away all his effects and attendants. He not have driven the Austrians beyond the Po, was left completely destitute, and wandered about had he not known that it was their determination more than a fortnight in the woods, subsisting on to attack bim;-that it could not now be attria few pieces of brown bread, which he obtained buted to him, that he would unite himself with from the humanity of the neighbouring shepherds. Napoleon, who was an exile on the rocks of St. He at length threw himself on the mercy of the Helena ;---that England and Austria might ex. inmates of a small villa near Toulon, where he pect from him many advantages, for which they remained concealed more than a month, indebted would in vain look from the person by whom be for his daily food to the benevolence of two naval was supplanted ;-that the majority of his subofficers. While he remained in concealment he jects ardently expected his return, and that he wrote repeatedly and ineffectually to some friends was resolved to place bimself at their head ;-that at Paris, claiming their interference and protec- he had often exposed himself to death in its most tion. His letters were either intercepted or neglect- frightful forms, and that he was not afraid once ed. The place of his retreat was now discovered. more to defy it in the attempt to regain his rigbts, A band of more than sixty armed men surrounded and deliver himself from undeserved oppression; the house, and he had scarcely time to escape to -and that his only fears were for his beloved an adjoining vineyard, carrying with bim two family.” brace of pistols, and resolved to sell his life as He disposed of all his jewels and effects, and dearly as possible, and to die rather than fallo purchasing six gondolas, set sail from Bastia, into the power of his enemies. They passed him, September 28th, 1815, with two hundred soldiers threatening vengeance, as he lay concealed in the and thirty officers. On the night of the 30th a viothick foliage. The search was continued several lent tempest arose, and dispersed the little fleet; days without success, and a reward was set upon and, on the 5th of October, rejoining another of his head. He tremblingly stole from his retreat his vessels, he was compelled to land at Pizzo, on every night, and received some scanty and pre- the coast of Calabria, with fifty men. Few troops carious subsistence from the officers who would were quartered on this part of the coast, but no not even now desert him; and, at length, he was preparation had been made for his reception. He enabled, by their means, to escape to Bastia in immediately proceeded to the great square, assemCorsica. They were immediately cashiered, and bled the people, reminded them of the benefits thrown into prison.
wbich they had received from him, and the fidelity From Bastia he removed to Ajaccio, where he which they had expressed ; and told them that, was joined by many of his friends. An offer was recalled by the affection of his countrymen, he here made, by the court of Austria, to grant him was come to resume possession of his throne. A an honorable and safe retreat in any part of the few voices joined his officers in shouting “ Long Austrian dominions, on condition of his renounc- live King Joachim;" but the population of the ing for ever the Neapolitan throne. To this he neighbouring villages hastily collecting, armed pretended to consent, that he might better con- themselves and attacked him, and, after a despeceal his real intentions. He had been informed rate resistance, routed his little army, and took of the unpopularity of Ferdinand; he knew that bim prisoner. A court-martial was immediately he was beloved by every class of bis former sub- assembled; he was brought before it, and tried jects, and he had received many invitations to on one of his own laws, which decreed that any return, and resume his kingdom. In vain his person landing in the country with an intent of confidential friends endeavoured to dissuade him disturbing the public tranquillity should be shot. from the rash enterprize; in vain they represented Ferdinand at first refused to sign the warrant for the improbability of bis first success, and the total his death, but being at length prevailed on by bis impossibility of resisting the overwhelming force ministers, orders were given for the immediate which Austria and England would bring upon execution of the prisoner. When Murat was inhim. He replied, that “ he could not submit to formed that his fate was decided, he expressed he humiliating conditions imposed upon him ; some surprise and indignation, but immediately
300K XIV. to cut off his hair, in order to send it to his wife, have rested content, and bad not suffered bimself
but this was cruelly refused. He then intreated to have been made the tool of Bonaparte, it is Chap. X. that he might be shot by the small detachment highly probable, not only that he would have been
of his guard which was at Pizzo; this was also suffered to retain the throne of Naples, but that refused. His request that the execution might he would have affected a great reform in the cha. take place in the Great Hall of the Commandant racter of the Neapolitans. Britain had no reason of Pizzo was acceded to. Twelve Sicilian soldiers to exert herself in favor of the old dynasty
, were then placed close to the door of the apart- since the conduct of the Queen of Naples in s . ment. Murat bid farewell to the priest who ac- cily had for many years been hostile to the views companied him, entered resolutely the ball, un- of Britain, and most strongly favorable to Bona. covered his breast, gave the word “ Fire," and parte; and, there was reason to believe, that even immediately fell, pierced by eight balls.
Ferdinand and his subjects did not feel all the That Murat's character had been deeply mark- gratitude towards Britain which her exertions and ed by cruelty, especially by the massacre of Ma- sacrifices on their behalf justly intitled them to drid, at the beginning of Bonaparte's attempt expect. against the independence of Spain, all must ac- The indifference with which the fate of Murat knowledge. At the same time it is but justice to was viewed, affords a striking proof how soon the him to remark, that, during the short period of his public mind becomes callous, because habituated reign over Naples, he did much to benefit that to great and sudden reverses. Half a century fine portion of Italy. The great faults and vices ago the fate of Theodore, who called himself of the Neapolitan character were extreme indo- King of Corsica, though he merely had the semlence, the want of enterprise and ambition, ex- blance of kingly power over a small and barren cessive ignorance and superstition, and a large island, excited more interest than the fall of Muportion of Italian cowardice and cruelty. To rat did.
rat did. It may be added, however, that the aperadicate these he used all his endeavours, and, proaching war between Bonaparte and the allies by the testimony of travellers who had seen Na- called off public attention and interest from the ples under Ferdinand and under him, he had dethronement of Murat. been tolerably successful. If, therefore, he could
Letter from Lord Clancarty on the views of the allied Sovereigns.— Report of the Committee of the
Congress of Vienna.-Treaties of Accession and Subsidy between Great Britain and the allied
The treaty of the allied powers, which was vereigns. They adhere, and from the commence- BOOK XV. signed at Vienna on the 25th of March, having ment have never ceased to adhere, to their declabeen ratified by the British government, it was ration of the 13th of March, with respect to the ac- CAAP. I. sent back to Vienda; and it appears from the tual ruler of France. They are in a state of hosfollowing official letter, from the Earl of Clan- tility with him and his adherents, not from choice,
1815. carty, the British ambassador there, to Lord but from necessity, because past experience has Castlereagh, that the views and intentions of the shewn, that no faith has been kept by him, and other allied powers were the same as those of that no reliance can be placed on the professions Britain :
of one who has hitherto no longer regarded the Vienna, May 6, 1815. most solemn compacts, than as it may have suited “ My Lord.—Adverting to your lordship’s dis- his own convenience to observe them; whose patch of the 8th ult. and to its inclosures, convey. word, the only assurance he can afford for his ing a proposal made by the existing government in peaceable disposition, is not less in direct opposiFrance, and your lordship's answer thereto, I tion to the tenor of his former life, than it is to have the honor to acquaint you, for the informa- the military position in which he is actually placed. tion of his majesty's government, that at'a confer- They feel that they should neither perform their ence held on the 3d instant, bis bighness Prince duty to themselves, or to the people committed by Metternich acquainted us, that a M. de Strassant, Providence to their charge, if they were now to who had been stopped on his way hither, at listen to those professions of a desire for peace Lintz, from not having been furnished with pro- which have been made, and suffer themselves thus per passports, had addressed a letter to his impe- to be lulled into the supposition that they might rial majesty, and therewith forwarded some uno- now relieve their people from the burthen of suppened letters, which the emperor bad directed porting immense military masses, by diminishing him to unseal in the presence of the plenipoten- their forces to a peace-establishment, convinced as tiaries of the allied powers. These proved to be
These proved to be the several sovereigns are, from past experience, a letter from Bonaparte, addressed to his majesty, that no sooner should they have been disarmed, professing a desire to continue at peace, to observe than advantage would be taken of their want of the stipulations of the treaty of Paris, &c. ; and a preparation, to renew those scenes of aggression letter from M. de Caulincourt to Prince Metter- and bloodshed' from which they had hoped that nich, containing similar professions. After read- the peace so gloriously won at Paris would long ing these papers, it was considered whether any, have secured them. They are at war, then, for and what, answer should be made thereto, when the purpose of obtaining security for their own the general opinion appeared to be, that none independence, and for the re-conquest of that should be returned, and no notice whatever taken
peace and permanent tranquillity for wbich the of the proposal. Upon this, as indeed upon all world has so long panted. They are not even at other occasions subsequent to the resumption of war for the greaier or less proportion of security autbority by Bonaparte, wherein the present state which France can afford them of future tranquilof the continental powers with regard to France lity, but because France, under its present chief, bas come under discussion, but one opinion has is unable to afford them any security whatever. appeared to direct the councils of the several so- In this war, they do not desire to interfere with