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“The Melpomene frigate has been attacked and to the man who, almost without means, confiding BOOK XV. aken in the Mediterranean, after a sanguinary in the sentiments of the nation, landed alone on iction with an English vessel of seventy-four the 1st of March, to rescue us from slavery and Chap. IV. guns.

Blood has been shed in the time of the feudal system ? I demand, therefore, that you peace. declare him. The Saviour of the Country.' (Cries

1815 “Our enemies rely upon our internal divisions. from all quarters for the order of the day.)-I deThey excite and foment civil war. Risings have maná that, at the same time, you publish an adaken place. Communications are held with Ghent, dress to the French people.” (Here the uproar s with Coblentz in 1792. Legislative measures became so violent that the president was obliged re indispensable. I place unreserved confidence to ring bis bell several times.)

your patriotism, your wisdom, and your attach M. Dupin.—“Yes, you are here to preserve, to hent to my person.

assist our legitimate emperor, by all the means in “ The liberty of the press is inherent in the ex. your power, but would you şuffer the poisoned sting constitution. No change can be made in breath of flattery to find its way already within hat respect without altering the whole of our po- these walls ?" tical system; but some restrictions are necessary; The president.-" Though the assembly manizore especially in the actual state of the nation. fests a desire to avoid the discussion of the pro

recommend this important subject to your se posal that has been just made, I am obliged to ous consideration.

pat it to the vote.” My ministers will acquaint you with the situa-. On this the whole assembly rose to pass to the on of our affairs.

order of the day. “ The finances would be in a satisfactory state From what we have related of the proceedings ut for the increased expenditure rendered requi- of the chamber of representatives, it is evident that te by existing circumstances.

they were strongly opposed to Bonaparte's resump6. Nevertheless, all might be met, if the re tion of his former power. Some of the members eipts comprised in the budget could all be re went much farther, and indicated, in pretty plain

zed within the year ; my minister will direct language, that in their opinion all titles ought to bur attention to the means of arriving at this be abolished, and the government brought as sult.

near as possible to the simplicity of a republic: “ It is possible that the first duty of a prince these, however, were by no means prevailing senay soon call me at the head of the children of tbe timents. a tion to combat for the country. The army and In the sitting of the 13th of June, the exposiself will do our duty.

tion of the minister of the interior was laid be«• Do you, peers and representatives! give the fore the chamber of representatives by Count a tion the example of confidence, energy, and pa. Regnault de St. Jean D'Angely. This is a cui otism; and, like the senate of the great people rious and interesting document, as pointing out F antiquity, resolve to die rather than survive the the hopes of Bonaparte, and the measures is honor and degradation of France. The sacred. which he had adopted, as proofs of his altered a use of the country ehall triumph!!!"

principles and conduct, and as conducive to renA committee was afterwards appointed by the der him popular. In this view of it we shall hamber for the purpose of drawing up an address notice the most prominent and important parts. In reply to the emperor.

presenting the report, Count Regnault de St. Jean The feelings of the chamber of representatives D'Angely made the following observations:wards Bonaparte were marked in a decided Among all the objects of the emperor's solianner in the sitting of the 8th of June.

citude," said he “ the first, after his solemn acB. Felix Lepelletier.-" I am about to propose ceptance of the constitution, has been to make h act of national equity and justice. Tbere is known to the nation, through the medium of its bt one of us but considers the Ist of March as

representatives, the true situation in which it is le day of the salvation of the country. In vain placed. Three months have scarcely elapsed le monarchs of Europe pretend to change our since bis majesty quitted the rock to which cir. ntiments, as if a nation were not its own master. cumstances had for a moment banished him, in ut, gentlemen, before the departure of the em order to deliver France from the enslaving yoke eror, you will assure bim, that you will unite all of a worn-out dynasty, which managed the rebur efforts, all those of the French people, to bis sources of our fine country merely for the profit enerous exertions for the salvation of the country; of foreigners The enthusiasm which served as hd, since adulation and flattery have decreed to a an escort to his majesty from the period of his rince, who was neither invited nor expected by landing, sufficiently proved on what side lay the le French nation, the fair title of The Desired, national wishes. It proves, that if the deposed o not you think it but just to decree also a title family should ever re-enter France with the aid of

BOOK Xv. foreigners, it would soon be expelled anew. Its their ambition. That ambition is sufficiently de.

prejudices, its engagements with the old privi, monstrated by the senseless declarations of the Cuap. IV. leged castes, are all in opposition to the liberal Congress of Vienna, by the assemblages of our ideas in which the existing generation has been frontiers, by hostilities commenced in full peace

, 1815.

Lred, and which can never retrograde. With the by landings effected on our coasts in order to en princes of that family we should have seen, as courage civil war, and, in fine, by the refusal to indeed we were menaced with, the re-appearance listen to any proposal for the maiutenance of of all the cruel absurdities of feudal government

, peace. All these circumstances must give a preand the degrading slavery of the monastic system. cise idea of the justice and moderation of our In the mean time, it is to re-establish all these enemies: it is the same as in 1792, wlien the institutions that they invite the foreigner into

Duke of Brunswick published the famous mauj. our fine country: but we will never thus abandon festo of which the insolent pretensions converted it; we will rally around the emperor, the pro- the French into a nation of soldiers. tector of liberal ideas, around a prince who, " Representatives of the nation, you know the educated in the revolution, advances with the French people, essentially good and generous, age in which he lives, and wishes to extend the and always ready to contribute to the wants of dominion of mind instead of circumscribing it. the country, provided the whole extent of these Instructed by misfortunes, he will see the con wants be fairly made known to them. You have querors of Austerlitz, of Marengo, and of Jena, already assumed that wise and imposing attitude march anew under the colours which so often led which is the finest guarantee of our liberty and them to victory, and the event will not be doubtful. independence; and you have a right to know,

“ However, his majesty is sincerely desirous of without the least disguise, the state of our wants peace; he has done every thing to preserve it, and resources. The former are, doubtless, great but without inclining to listen for a moment to, but sufficient means exist to provide for them humiliating conditions, which would compromise without oppressing the people; and with the the honor and the dearest interests of France. energy, which you share with the people who All his efforts, however, have been fruitless; elected you, we shall be certain of repelling the already our frontiers are menaced at all points, most unjust aggression against an imdependent already hostilities have been commenced without people, of which the political annals of cabinets any preliminary declaration of war, and, there have ever preserved the recollection. I am seems to remain no other resource for the mainte- charged to present to you the following details on nance of our independence but an appeal to arms. our internal situation : If the emperor were less fortified by the inherent Communes.Under this head Count Regnault strength of his character, he might fear two rocks. stated, that the communal administrations had There has been talk of a royalist party and a re been almost totally abandoned under the govern. publican party, alike enemies of his government. ment of the Bourbons; that the communal funds

, But the former has not known how to defend the so essential to the movement of troops, the princes objects of its affection, for whom it pre- equipment of the national-guard, &c. had been tended a willingness to die; it is far from formid dilapidated by the journies of the princes, by the able. As to the republicans, converted from old restoration of woods to emigrants, and by many errors, of which cruel experience made them feel other malversations; but that the emperor was too severely the effects, they see in the emperor taking pains to restore order in this important only the protector of the liberal ideas which they branch of mal-internal administration. have at all times themselves professed, and which Hospitals. These asylums of suffering hoexcesses alone have prevented them bitherto from manity had, at all times, excited the solicitude of seeing realized. The time has been too short to the emperor. At the commencement of 1814, give to the national constitution all the perfection these establishments had been exposed to consiof which it was susceptible; but the emperor, derable additional expenses, from the number of towards the accomplishment of this essential sick and wounded soldiers. Under the late work, reckons on the intelligence and patriotism vernment, however, they were on the point of of the two chambers. The preparations for war losing one of their principal resources, by the have prevented him from giving to it himself all restitution of property of emigrants, with which the attention which he could have wished; but they had been endowed by solemn laws. The the French territory was threatened. The na emperor had restored it to them. He had also tional character, which essentially rejects every doubled the funds of the maternal society which idea of conquest, should have been a sufficient he founded, which, on this account alone, was guarantee to all the powers of Europe against the neglected.

. The depôts of mendicity, created invasion which they seem so much to fear at pre also by the emperor, were equally abandoned; sent; but that fear is only a vain pretext to cover but these establishments were about to resume

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Dew activity. The hospitals in the departments last government. The emperor was, besides, the BOOK XV. invaded by the enemy bad considerably suffered, only sovereign who, having no further interests to but they were already re-established. arrange with the pope, had in his power to put an

CAAP. IV. Works. Under this head Count Regnault end to those interminable negociations com

1815. enumerated the great monuments founded or menced by the last government withi the court of ordered by his majesty ; they should be continu. Rome, 'and to re-establish, upon the basis of the ed, though they were seen suspended even in time concordat, the liberties of the Gallican church. of peace; but ihey should in future be exclusively Jurisprudence. This article of the report was reserved for France, and if existing circumstances extremely short. The minister merely stated, that did not permit them to receive that extent which those civil judges who felt themselves unworthy were to be wished, they should soon be accele of their functions, had done justice hy abdicating rated by the arms which would be no longer ne their offices; and that as far respected the admicessary for the defence of the country.

nistration of the criminal law, the establishment Works at Paris.—The minister here gave an of the trial by jury every day merited new approaccount of the various constructions which had bation : but that, in the mean time, some orgabeen commenced in the capital, and which should nical institutions were necessary to regulate the be continued.

duties and diminish the labours of these judicial Mines.—This head presented nothing remark citizens. able.

The War Department. It was absolutely imManufactures. -Count Regnault stated, that possible to follow Count Regnault through all the the manufactures were flourishing, and announc

details which he furnished on this important topic. ed that various new manufactures had been im The result was, that on the 1st of April, 1814, the proved, and others introduced ; that the manu army consisted of 450,000 men, exclusive of facture of sugar from the beet root, in spite of all 150,000 prisoners, all veteran soldiers, and of the efforts made to destroy it, promised shortly to 115,000 conscripts, of the levy of 1815, of which render Europe independent of the new world for 45,000 only, out of 160,000, had been raised. The that article; that the indigo of woad, without last government, at once prodigal and avaricious, having reached the same perfection, already ri alarmed at its own strength, and essentially bosvalled that of India ; and that, in fine, a number tile to the army, had taken every possible means of useful discoveries presented new sources of of diminishing it. national prosperity.

The orator tben described the various oppresCommerce.—The report expressed nothing but sions to which the army had been exposed, partihope upon this article, and by the absurd ambi- cularly by the introduction of the emigrants, tion of sovereigns all the nations of Europe were and which had reduced its number to 175,000 placed in the same condition.

Since the 20th of March last, its number Instruction.-Under this title the minister ex had been raised to 375,000 combatants, of every hibited all the vicissitudes to wbich the corps of description; and, before the 1st of August, it would teachers had been subjected. The result of the amount to 500,000, independent of the nationalinquiry shewed, that the number both of colleges guards. and scholars had been diminished, but that the The Imperial Guard. This surest bulwark of university of Paris still numbered under its di the throne in times of war, and its finest ornarection 325,554 pupils, and that the lyceums, ment in time of peace, bad a separate article al-, stimulated by the new encouragement of the em

lotted to it in the official report.

The minister peror, displayed the best spirit.

condemned the injustice with which it was treated Public Worship.-In speaking of the clergy, by the last government, and announced that it the minister did not attempt to disguise the errors already amounted to 40,000 men. they committed under the last government, in Artillery.The losses in this arm had been in giving way, from the lure of a restitution of

a great measure repaired : they were occasioned church property, to the influence of emigrants, in chiefly by treachery, and especially the delivering stigmatizing, as plunderers, the owners of national up of all the strong places, by order of the Count property, whose titles had been recognised as d'Artois, in his capacity of lieutenant-general of legitimate by the pope himself, and in attempting, the kingdom. By this single act France had lost in the name of the Almighty, whose servants they 12,000 pieces of cannon, mostly of brass, the vaare, to light up civil war among men.

The em

lue of which is estimated at 200,000,000 of francs. peror, however, was always disposed to protect, This loss, however, had been entirely supplied ; and even favor, the ministers of the church, so the arsenals, magazines of powder, and armories, long as they confined themselves within the were in full activity; and after having armed the nabounds of their duty; and had already conferred tional-guard and associations, there would remain on the curates an augmentation of 150 franks, in the magazines 600,000 muskets in reserve.

men.

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CHAP. IV.

BOOK XV. details on this subject were little susceptible of which had not, however, cast any stain upon.ite.

abridgment. The minister, however, asserted honor.
that the necessary funds would be easily provided, The state of foreign relations, and of general
and no new taxes be required.

police, were but slightly touched on, and were 1815.

National-guard.-This article furnished no in to be made the subject of separate reports. formation of wbich the public was not already in

At the close, Count Regnault recommended to possession.

the chamber, in the name of bis majesty, to take The Marine presented considerable resources, the necessary steps for completing the number of otwithstanding the evils produced by treachery, representatives, which was not yet filled

up.

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CHAPTER V.

tate of Europe at this period, and Proceedings of the Congress at Vienna._Union of the Belgian Provinces under the Prince of Orange, rcho is made king.-Erertions of the Allies for the Defence of the Netherlands.- Proclamation. Note of the King of Saxony to the allied PowersMutiny of the Saxon Troops in Blucher's Army.- His Procłumation in Consequence.- Dismemberment of the Kingdom of Saxony.-- Affairs of Wirtemburg, and Prussia.-Poland erected into a Kingdom.-Affairs of Swiizerland and Sweden.--State of Spain.-Refusal of the Portuguese Government to send Troops against France.Vigorous Measures of the Emperor of Russia.Affairs of Great Britain.--State of the Revenne.-Rise and Progress of the National Debt and. Sinking Fund.-- Disturbances on Account of the Corn Bill.

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It may, perhaps, be interesting to take a brief been placed under his sovereignty, with the review of the transactions in other parts of the exception of some portions of the territory of Continent at this period, and also of the proceed - Limburg and Luxemburg. With such an assignings of the Congress at Vienna.

In the new po

ment of territory, the Prince of Orange acquired litical system of Europe which the Congress had the regal title; and, in a speech delivered to the in view, few circumstances are more worthy of at Dutch states-general, on the 16th of March, be tention than the union of the seventeen provinces declared his resolution of taking possession of of the Low Countries under one government. the supreme authority over all the United Ne The last year closed with manifest preparations therlands, and at the saine time of investing himfor such a design. The Prince of Orange had self with royalty. An address was returned by been placed by the allied powers at the head of the states expressive of their entire satisfaction, as the government of the ten catbolic provinces; well with the Belgie union as with the new title and the numerous sirong places

that country

assumed by the sovereign. had been occupied by garrisons composed for The recovery of the supreme power in France the most part of British and Hanoverian troops, hy Bonaparte was an event peculiarly menacing with a mixture of Dutch and Belgic, obvi to the stability of the Belgic throne, since it could ously intended as a protection against French not be doubled, that if he should establish bis auarms and French influence. The final de- thority, the first employment of the French arms velopement of the plan was, bowever, pro would be to regain the influence of that nation fessedly reserved to the termination of the Con in the Low Countries. The most active efforts gress. Long before this period, that assembly were therefore immediately made to place the came to a decision on this momentous subject; frontier on t! e French border in a state of deand a letter from the Prince-sovereign of Hol- ferce. All the British and Hanoverian forces land, to the secretary-of-state at Brussels, dated were collected together, which were strengthened February 23, announced, that by the unanimous hy strong reinforcements from England, and şe. consent of Austria, Russia, England, France, and veral corps from Hesse, Brunswick, and other Prussia, all those parts of Belgium, which for small states in Germaniy; and to these were merly belonged to the first of those powers, had added all the Dutch and Belgian troops. This

army was placed under the command of the Duke these soldiers belong to the national-militia, whom BOOK XV. of Wellington, who was recalled from Vienna for the law forbids to employ out of the country, that purpose. The Prussian army, under Mar- without the express consent of the states-general. Crap. V. shal Blucher, also assembled in this country for It is this consent, bigh and mighty lords, for co-operation.

1815. which we now apply to you. In no case can the The King of the Netherlands, with the advice propriety of such a measure be less dubious than of his council of state, also resolved to employ the at present; and the campaign which is about to national-inilitia in active service, during the war commence, under such happy auspices, seems to with Napoleon ; but as this could not be done us precisely the proper time to give the necessary without the consent of the states-general, his solidity and completion to a political institution majesty addressed the following message to the which, in its very beginning, has more than anassembly, dated Brussels, May 15, to explain swered all our expectations. the motives which made him resolve on this mea “ We, therefore, do not hesitate to offer to your sure, and requesting the necessary authorisation sanction the annexed decree, praying God to have to employ it both at home and abroad.

your high-mightinesses under his divine proHigh and mighty lords.-It would be super- tection." fluous to unfold to your bigh-mightinesses the The states-general having deliberated on this principles according to which the means of de- proposal for a law, gave their assent to it, and fence of the country have been increased and informed his majesty of it by a message, in which strengthened within some weeks, with indefa- they observed, “ It is become necessary not only tigable energy and zeal, and among others those to embody the national-militia, but it must be caaccording to which the national-militia has been pable of being employed both within and without embodied. Every inhabitant of the United Ne the frontiers of the kingdom. Can we for a therlands, sincerely attached to his country, is moment hesitate to adopt as our own this opiconvinced, by his own feelings, that no watchful- nion of our most beloved and esteemed sovereign, ness can be too strict, no sacrifice too great, when and to sbew our eagerness to concur in taking a it is required to secure a free state against fo- resolution which is to serve to maintain our honor, reign domination.

our safety, and our right to the esteem of the á Bat means of defence for the moment are powers who again combine for the safety of Euinsufficient; our obligations extend farther. That rope ? No, magnanimous sovereign, the wounds we ourselves may live without perpetual and in- inflicted on our country by a late tyranny are not tolerable apprehensions, that we may transmit to yet healed; the remembrance of our shame and following generations the guarantee of the national our misery under the reign of the usurper, who, prosperity and independence, it is necessary that again seated on the throne, will never allow other .. this tyranny be again overthrown, and this system people to enjoy peace, independence, and prospe

of deceit and usurpation, inseparable from the ex- rity, is too recent for us not to see with pleasure istence of the tyrant, be again in his person for the children of the country hasten to the frontiers, ever destroyed.

to take a part in the holy contest with the dis“ The powers to whose efforts so many turber of social order and his perjured adherents, states of Europe owe their re-establishment have and to see them emulate those brave men of every again combined to attain this sacred end.

class who have voluntarily offered their arms for Eagerly answering to their friendly invita our deliverance. And why should we not entrust tion, we have acceded to the treaty concluded at them to the wise dispositions of your majesty! Vienna on the 25th of March last, and wait wby should we not place them, with the hope of hut for the exchange of the ratifications, to lay a happy result, under the orders of your sons, before your bigh-mightinesses its extent and

par ove of whom has performed prodigies of valor ticulars.

in Spain, under the hero of our age; and the « Mean time, to give an irrefragable proof of the other, although young, has fought with glory in sincerity of the good sentiments which animate us, the ranks of our allies; yes, under the immortal we have conferred the command of the armies of Wellington, whom your majesty has placed at the this kingdom upon the Duke of Wellington, whom head of the armies of the United Netherlands." we have at the same time named Field-marshal of Notwithstanding such powerful means of de. the United Netherlands. Led by this great cap- fence, strong suspicions at this time prevailed tain, encouraged by the example of the son of respecting the atfections of the Flemish people their king, animated by that spirit of patriotism to the Dutch government. These suspicions which inspires the whole nation, our warriors will were at length rendered manifest by the followtake an honorable part in this great contest, and ing proclamation from the King of the Netherwill maintain the ancient glory of the standards lands, which was issued at Brussels on the 20th of the United Netherlands. But a great part of of April.

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