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flashes of lightning, together with torrents of rain, In the action of the 1st of June, there were BOOK XVIJ.) combined altogether to form a scene awful and twenty-six sail of the line (including the Audasublime beyond description. It seemed as if cious) in action, with about 17,000 men ; of these, Caap. VI. heaven itself was determined to pour down bis 281 were killed, and 797 wounded.-Total, 1078.

1816. vengeance, and exterminate these savage barba- In Lord Bridport's action, 230 June, 1795, rians. At half-past one, a. m. we anchored, there were fourteen sail, with about 10,000 inen; with our only remaining anchor, the rest being of whom only 31 were killed, and 113 wounded. left behind, and after giving our wearied lads a Total, 144. few hours rest, we furped them up to clear the In the action off Cape St. Vincent there were decks and repair damages. In the morning the fifteen sail of the line, with about 10,000 men ; admiral sent in a flay of truce, and the dey of whom there were 73 killed, and 227 wounded. returned word by the Swedish consul that be Total, 300. would comply with any terms. The day before In Lord Duncan's action, 11th of October, he had told his principal officers that he would 1797, there were sixteen sail of the line (includbave as to whitewash his walls in less than half ing two fifties) engaged, with about 8,000 men; an hour after the commencement of the action !! of whom 191 were killed, and 560 wounded. But what could withstand a squadron led on by Total, 751. Exmouth, and supported by justice and humanity, In the battle of the Nile, Ist of August, 1798, and in an inspiring cause, well worthy of British there were fourteen sail of the line engaged, with seamen? At one, p. mn. on the 28th, we turned about 8,000 men ; of whom 218 were killed, and the hands up and read the admiral's thanks for 677 wounded.Total, 895. their noble and gallant behaviour, and told them lo Lord Nelson's attack on Copenhagen, 2d of that peace had been signed with the enemy on April, 1801, there were eleven sail of the line and our own terms. Our tars received the welcome five frigates engaged, with about 7,000 men; of intelligence with three cheers, and then resumed wbom 234 were killed, and 641 wounded.-Total, their duty with that ready cheerfulness wbich 875. ever characterizes the British sailor."

In the battle of Trafalgar, 21st of October, 1805, The enemy were not very nice in their use of there were twenty-seven sail of the line engaged, missiles. Broken glass, old nails, spikes, and with about 17,000 men; of whom 412 were killed, other articles of a similar nature, were fired in and 1,112 wounded.--Total, 1,524. profusion and did no little mischief. The number In the attack on Algier there appear to have of the enemy's guns amounted to 1,001, of different been five sail of the line and five frigates engaged, calibres, one of them with seven bores on the the crews of which may be computed at about Mole-gateway, while that of the attacking squa- 5,000 men; of whom 128 were killed, and 690 dron, exclusive of six Dutch frigates, four bombs, wounded.—Total, 818. If the Dutch frigates and five gun-boats, was only 702.

were added, they may be taken at about 1,500; By inquiries as to the amount of loss on the of whom 13 were killed, and 32 wounded; so that part of the Algerines, it appeared, that in killed the totals would be, of 6,500 men, 141 killed, and only, 5,000 Janissaries and from five to 6,000 722 wounded.—Total, 863. Arabs fell, besides women and children. A shell Our readers will see that the proportion, therethrown from one of the bombs burst in a house, fore, of the killed and wounded in this action, where nine children were assembled, and un- exceeds the proportion in any of our former vichappily killed the whole; and there was scarcely tories. a house in the city, but what had suffered more The severity of the action, indeed, may be or less injury from the bombardment.

judged from the havoc which was made in all An interesting event occurred on the beach, the ships engaged, one of which we shall here while the treaty with the dey was pending. Mr. notice. Aitcheson, a marine-artillery officer, bappening The Impregnable was almost riddled on the starto meet a Frenchman, who had been in captivity board side, having large shot in the hull, 233 ; for fifteen years, asked him if he would like to foremast, 6; bowsprit, 3; foreyard, 1 ; jib-boom, return to France in the French ship which lay 2; main-yard, 2; main-top-mast, 3; main-topin the bay? He indignantly replied, that be felt gallant-mast, 1 ; crotchet-yard, 1; gaff

, 1; mainashamed of his country, but would go any where mast, 15. Total, 268. None less than a 24. with the brave English, who had so kindly libe- pounder. A considerable number of grape-shot rated bim.

were found sticking in different parts of the ship, The Algerines, it would seem, have been much all her rigging entirely shot away, and the sails undervalued as to their skill in gunnery; this very

much cut. The muzzle of one of the guns, action against them, our readers will be surprised and the arm of another, were knocked off ; and to hear, was the bloodiest which has been fought eight or ten others, with their carriages, broken.. of late years, in comparison with the numbers The Impregnable expended 400 barrels, or

BOOK XVII. of round shot, besides case, cavister, and Strap- Value of the Portuguese frigate and nell shells. One 1816. shot entered her bulwark, ransom of the crew

694,000 CHAP. VI passed through the beast of her main-mast, and Value of seven other ships and cargoes 120,000

went out at the opposite side. A 44-lb. shot lodg- Seventy-five Genoese and Neapolitan 1816. ed in the ship, was slung in the boatswain's slaves

- 187,500 store-room, with the following words painted on it:

Total from Europe 1,818,500 “This was sent by the Dey of Algier on-board

From Africa.
H. M. S. Impregnable, as one of the advocates
for slavery, but without effect, the 27th of August, The Beys of Titterie, Constantine, and

Mascari paid ·

• 300,000 After the action was over, the officers and men

From individuals

. 100,000 in general were so much fatigued, that they were

Bey of Tunis paid 450,000 zec-mabscarcely able to refrain from sleeping. Mr. Bur

boubs, or

ney, a gunder, we hear, lay down in the gun- Total, Europe, 1,818,500
rooin, to take a little repose, and, on waking, he

Total, Africa, 1,100,000
found himself encumbered by a dead body, which
had been placed across bim, under the idea that

2,918,500 piastres, or 728,6251. he was laying there as one of the dead also. The above details shows the rapacity and

The gallant defence which the Algerines made audacity of these barbarians, and places the result in this action, fully confirms the opinion the world of the action in a most important point of view, had already entertained of their bravery. With- Indeed, the events at Algier were truly honourout referring to the days in which they were able to the British character, and afforded another rivals of Malta, Genoa, and Venice, in naval brilliant example of what might be effected by achievements, we need only look back to the 7th that dauntless bravery, and determined intreof May, 1802, when the Dey of Algier fitted out pidity, which have so often been evinced by the eleven corsairs, of different sizes, viz. two frigates British navy. The contest may be reckoned of forty-six; one of thirty-six; four xebecs, two amongst the most arduous wbich, perhaps, ever polacres, two schooners, and one brig. This was contended, and was executed in a truly Nelsquadron made many captures; the most remark- sonian style. But, notwithstanding what has able of all was, that of La Cygne, a Portuguese been so

been so gallantly achieved by the venerable adfrigate, of forty-four guns, and 350 men, at the miral, and his brave companions, and with such entrance of the Straits of Gibraltar, by one of the an immense sacrifice of lives, it is to be much forty-six-gun frigates above-mentioned, with 420 feared, tbat the ultimate object is not yet accommen. The Algerines bore down, under a press plisbed, and that in a few years the civilised of sail, and opened their fire, which was returned world will again have to complain of that odious for a short time, when the pirates carried the fri- system of warfare, which has been allowed so long gate by boarding. The Portuguese loss amount- to exist with impunity. ed to thirty-eight men killed, including the cap- In reverting to the affairs of France, towards tain and one lieutenant; the rest were chained, the close of 1816, we find nothing very particular and sent into the bold, where they remained seven to record. On the 3d of November, the session days without food or clothes; the wounded were of the two chambers of the legislature was opened not attended to, and many of them died in conse- by the king, with a speech from the throne. His quence of their wounds mortifying, from want of majesty congratulated the members on the interdressing. Tbis capture excited the greatest en- nas tranquillity of the country, and its external thusiasm at Algier, and the insolence of the go- peace, guaranteed by the amicable dispositions vernment increased to such a degree, that Euro- of the foreign sovereigns, and the exact observpeans could no longer appear unmolested in the ance of treaties, on the part of France. After streets.

alluding to the marriage of the Duke of Berriz To show to what an extent the Dey of Algier which, as he trusted, would give to the country carried bis exactions, both on European as well new pledges of prosperity, by confirming the as African powers, we have annexed the follow. order of succession, he adverted to the harvest

, ing account of the contributions he levied in which, notwithstanding its lateness, would be 1802.

sufficient for the consumption. His majesty ad

Piastres. mitted the necessity of rigid economy, in every From Holland, Sweden, and Denmark 75,000

department, and declared that it was the deterSpain

165,000 mination of himself and his family to make this England


year the same sacrifice as they had done in the France

235,000 last, towards the exigencies of the state. He Sweden (2d contribution)

50,000 urged the propriety of making a suitable proviDenmark (ditto)

112,000 sion for the ininisters of religion, assured tbe

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chambers of his intention to maintain the charter nightly dream, and their daily speculation. This BOOK XVII. inviolate, and recommended unanimity and mu- party," says he,“ at present employ all their actitual confidence to the different branches of the vity to calumniate the past, present, and future

C HAP. VI. legislatare. The sentiments expressed in this conduct of the allies, particularly of England: speech were re-echoed by each of the chambers, they cry down the old nobility of France : they

1817. in its address to his majesty upon the occasion. sometimes say they are extremely attached to the

In the sitting of the chamber of deputies, of Bourbons, but speak ill of each individual of the which Baron Pasquier, minister of justice, had family; and propagate, among the lower ranks, been appointed president, on the 14th of November, falsehoods, known to be such by the higher Count Corvetto, minister of finance, brought for classes. Cameleons, they take all colours; the ward the budget for 1817. Notwithstanding the few who are in the chambers speak guardedly; surprise and admiration which he affected, in his those whom you meet in good company are rather introductory speech, to feel at the prosperous less so; and this reserve goes on diminishing, till state of the revenue, it was obvious that a cousi- you arrive at the anonymous pamphlets; which, derable defalcation had occurred in the receipts being intended for the populace, speak without of the present year, which, together with the false reserve, either in opinion or language.” estimates of 1815, rendered it necessary to make About this time, M. Santini, one of Bonanarte's the budget of 1817 exceed the last, by nearly domestics, arrived in England from St. IIelena, 300 millions of francs. Some new taxes were when be immediately published a pamphlet, conproposed, with a loan of thirty millions, to meet taining a parrative of the ill-treatment which, he the deficit, so that the whole annual expenditure, said, his master had received, siuce bis arriv.:) including the charges of the foreign arıny and on that island. In this narrative, which he esicontributions, would amount to 1,088,294,957 titled, “ An appeal to the British nation, on the francs, or about 45,346,0001. sterling.

treatment experienced by Napoleon Bonaparte, To make up the deficiency in the revenue, in the island of St. Helena," was an official ine.. the French ministry were obliged to bave re- morial (dictated by Napoleon,) from Count Moncourse to a loan; but some time elapsed before tholon to Sir Hudson Lowe, the governor of the they were enabled to get even that, so reluctant island. As this memorial is very interesting, and were the monied men to trust the French govern- its authenticity being acknowledged by the Briment. At length, however, after a tedious nego. tish government, we shall lay it before our ciation, the bouse of Baring and Co. London, in readers. conjunction with Lafitte, of Paris, Hope of Am- Letter, by order of the Emperor Napoleon, adsterdam, and a banking-house at Hamburgb,

dressed, by General Count Montholon, to Sir agreed to advance 12,000,0001. sterling ; but on

Hudson Lowe, British Governor of the Island terms very disadvantageous to the French go

of St. Helena. vernment. As a means also of lessening the difficulties of the French government, and to ren

« General,- I have received the treaty of the 3d der it somewhat popular to the nation, the allied of August, 1815, concluded between his Britanpowers agreed to withdraw 30,000 of their troops pic majesty, the Emperor of Austria, the Emfrom the country, which was accordingly done in peror of Russia, and the King of Prussia, which the spring of the following year. Several inci- accompanied your letter of the 23d of July. dents, however, though trivial in themselves, “ The Emperor Napoleon protests agajost ibe which took place about the close of this, and the contents of that treaty; he is not the prisoner of commencement of the next year, served to show England. After having placed his abdication in the state of the public mind, which was by no the bands of the representatives of the nation, for means in favor of the stability of the French go- the advantage of the constitution adopted by the vernment. A gentleman, in a letter, dated Paris, French people, and in favour of his son, he re. March 20, says, “ The constant theme of the revo- paired voluntarily and freely to England, with a lutionary party here is, that it would not be im. view of living there, as a private individual, under possible, if a fresh revolutionary movement took the protection of the British laws. The violation place, to drive the allies out of France, and even of every law cannot constitute a right. The perto extend the territory to the Rhine: they dis. son of the

Emperor Napoleon is actually in the claim this latter project, but continue to prove power of England; but he neither bas been, nor that it would be feasible, if wished for. They is, in the power of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, talk continually of the advantages of a national either in fact or of right, even according to the war against regular troops. It is true, that in laws and customs of England, which never ingeneral these projects are veiled with ifs — if we cluded, in the exchange of prisoners, Russians, should be forced,' if it should become neces- Prussiaus, Austrians, Spaniards, or Portuguese, sary,' &c. &c.; but all these veils are too transpa- though united to these powers by treaties of allirent for a by-stander not to see that it is their ance, and making war conjointly with them.



u The convention of the 2d of August, con- thereon by his Britannic majesty, who takes cluded fifteen days after the emperor was in

himself the charge of fulfilling every obligation

, Cuap. VI. England, cannot have, of right, any effect. It These princes bave reproached the Emperor Na.

exhibits only a spectacle of the coalition of the poleon with baving preferred the protection of 1817. four greatest powers of Europe, for the oppression the English laws to theirs.

The false ideas of a single man!-a coalition which the opinion of which the Emperor Napoleon had formed of the every nation, and all the principles of sound mo- liberality of the laws of England, and of the inrality, equally disavow.

fluence of the opinion of a great, generous, and “ The Emperors of Austria and Russia, and free people over their government, decided bim the King of Prussia, baving, neither in fact, or in to prefer the protection of these laws to that of a right, any claim over the person of the Emperor father-in-law, or an old friend. Napoleon, could decide nothing respecting bim. “ The Einperor Napoleou had it in his power to

“Had the Emperor Napoleon been in the secure, by a diplomatic treaty, wbatever was perpower of the Emperor of Austria, that prince sonal to himself

, by putting himself either at the would have recollected the relations which reli. head of the army of the Loire, or at the head of gion and nature have formed between a father the army at the Gironde, commanded by General and a son-relations which are never violated Clausel; but wisbing, benceforth, for nothing but with impunity.

retirement, and the protection of the laws of a “ He would have recollected that Napoleon free state, either English or American, all stipuhad, four times, restored to bim the throne, viz. lations appeared to him unnecessary. He conat Leoben, in 1797; at Luneville, in 1801, when ceived that the English people were more bound his armies were under the walls of Vienna; at by a conduct which was, on his part, frank, poble, Presburgh, in 1806; and at Vienna, in 1809, and full of confidence, than they would have been when his armies had possession of the capital, by the most solemn treaties. 'He bas been de and three-fourths of the monarchy! That prince ceived; but this error will for ever cause true would have recollected the protestations he made Britons to blush, and will, in the present, as well to Napoleon, at the bivouac, in Moravia, in 1806, as future generations, be a proof of the bad faith and at the interview in Dresden, in 1812.

of the English administratio!). “ Had the person of the Emperor Napoleon

6. Austriao and Prussian commissioners are arbeen in the power of the Emperor Alexandler, he rived at St. Helena. If the object of their miswould have recollected the ties of friendship con- sion be the fulfilment of a part of the duties which tracted at Tilsit, at Erfurth, and during twelve the Emperors of Austria and Russia have conyears of daily correspondence.

tracted by the treaty of the 2d of August, and to “ He would have recollected the conduct of take care that the English agents, in a small cothe Emperor Napoleon, the day after the battle of lony, in the midst of the ocean, do not fail in the Austerlitz, when, though he could have made respect due to a prince connected with these sohim, with the wreck of bis army, prisoner, he con- vereigns by the bonds of relationship, and so many tented himself with taking his parole, and allowed other ties, proofs of the character which belong him to operate bis retreat. He would have re- to these two monarchs will be recognized in this collected the dangers to which the Emperor Na- proceeding; but you, sir, have declared, that these poleon personally exposed himself, in order to commissioners have neither the right nor the extinguish the fire at Moscow, and to preserve power of giving any opinion on what may be that capital for him. Assuredly, that prince passing on this rock! would never have violated the duties of friend- " The English ministers have caused the Emship and gratitude towards a friend in misfortune. peror Napoleon to be transported to St. Helena, at

" Had the person of the Emperor Napoleon the distance of 2,000 leagues from Europe ! This been in the power of the King of Prussia, that rock, situated within the tropics, and 500 leagues sovereign could not have forgotton that it de- from any continent, is subject to the devouring


emperor, after the battle of Fried-, heats of these latitudes. It is covered with clouds land, to place anoiher prince on the throne of and fogs during three-fourths of the year, and is Berlin. 'He would not have forgotten, in the at once the most arid, and the most humid couppresence of a disarmed enemy, the protestations try in the world. Such a climate is most inimical of attachment, and sentiments of gratitude, which to the health of the emperor, and hatred must he testified to him in 1812, at the interviews in bave dictated the choice of this residence, as well Dresden.

as the instructions yiven by the English ministry “ It accordingly appears, from articles two and to the officers cominanding in the island. five, of the treaty of the 2d of August, that these “ They have even been ordered to call the Em princes, being incapable of exercising any influ- peror Napoleon general, as if it were wished to ence over the disposal of the emperor, who was oblige bim to consider hinself as never having not in their power, accede to what may be done reigned in France.



“ The reasons whicb determined him not to as- for the welfare of nations, and not nations for the BOOK XVII. sume ao incognito name, as he might have re- satisfaction of kings. solved to do on leaving France, were these ; first “ It is in the same hateful spirit that orders have CHAP. VI. magistrate for life of the republic, under the title been given that the Emperor Napoleon shall not of first-consul, he concluded the preliminaries of be allowed to write or receive any letters, unless

1817. London and the treaty of Ainiens with the King they are opened and read by the English ininisters of Great Britain ; and received, as ambassadors, and the officers at St. Helena. They have inLord Cornwallis, Mr. Merry, and Lord Whit- terdicted to him the possibility of receiving intel. worth, who resided in that quality at his court. ligence from his wife, his mother, his son, or his

“ He accredited to the King of England, Count brothers; and when, in order to avoid the incon. Otto and General Andreossi, who resided as am- venience of having bis letters read by subaltern bassadors at the court of Windsor. When, after officers, he wished to send letters sealed to the an exchange of letters between the ministers for prince-regent, he was told tbat the order could foreign affairs of the two monarchies, Lurd Lau- not be departed from, and that the letters must derdale came to Paris, invested with full powers pass open, such being the instructions of the mifrom the King of England; he treated with the Distry. This conduct needs no observation; it plenipotentiaries possessing full powers from the gives rise, however, to strange ideas as to the spirit Emperor Napoleon, and remained for several of the administration which could dictate what months at the court of the Thuilleries : when would be disavowed even at Algiers. Letters Lord Castlereagh afterwards signed at Chatillon, have arrived at St. Helena, for the officers in the the ultimatum, which the allied powers presented suit of the emperor ; they were broke open and to the plevipotentiaries of the Emperor Napoleon, transmitted to you, but you have not communi. he recognized by that the fourth dynasty. This cated them, because they did not come through ultimatum was more advantageous than the treaty the channel of the English ministry. Thus they of Paris ; but, in exacting that France should re- had to go back 400 leagues, and these officers nounce Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, bad the grief of knowing, that there was intelliit exacted what was contrary to the propositions gence on the rock, from their wives, their mothers, of Frankfort, and the proclamations of the allied their children, and that they could not know the powers-what was contrary to the oath by which, nature of it for six months--the heart must solace at bis coronation, the einperor swore to maintain itself! the integrity of tbe empire. The emperor, be- “ They could not obtain either The Morning sides, thought that these natural limits were de. Chronicle, The Morning Post, or any French cessary, boib for the security of France, and to journals. Now and then a few stray numbers of preserve the equilibrium of Europe ; he thought 'The Times reached Longwood. In consequence that the French nation, in the situation in wbich of a request made on-board the Northumberland, it was, ought rather to run the bazard of all the some books were sent, but all those relative to the chances of war, than to depart from that policy. affairs of late years have been carefully kept back. France had obtained this integrity, and would He wished to correspond with a bookseller in have preserved it with honor, if treason had not London, in order to have direct the books which arrayed itself in aid of the allies.

he wanted, and those relative to the events of the « The treaty of the 2d of August, and the act day-this was prevented. An English author, of the British parliament, called the emperor Na- having made a tour to France, and having pub. poleon Bonaparte, and gave him only the title of lished an account of it in London, be took the general. The title of General Bonaparte is doubt. trouble to transmit it to you, in order that it might less eminently glorious:

the emperor bore it at be presented to the emperor; you thought proper Lodi, at Castiglione, at Rivoli, ai Arcole, at Leo- not to transmit it, because it was not sent to you ben, at the Pyramids, at Aboukir; but, for seven by the express desire of your government. It is teen years, he has borne that of first consul and said also, that other books sent by their authors emperor, which proves that he has been both first

that he has been both first have not been transmitted, because some of them magistrate of the republic, and sovereign of the were inscribed to the Emperor Napoleon, and fourth dynasty Those who think that nations others to Napoleon the Great. - The English iniare flocks which belong of divine right to certain nistry is not authorised to order any of these vexfamilies, do not belong to the age, nor do they ations ; tbe law, although unique, by which the participate in the spirit of the Euglish legislature, British parliament regards the Emperor Napoleon which has several times changed the order of its as a prisoner of war, has never prohibited pridynasty, because great changes bad taken place soners of war from subscribing to journals, or rein public opinion, in which the reigning princeceiving printed books—such a probibition takes not participating, they became enemies to the place only in the dungeons of the inquisition. welfare of the great majority of the nation, for “ The island of St. Helena is ten leagues in cirkings are only hereditary magistrates, who exist cumference; it is inaccessible every where; brigs

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