« PreviousContinue »
BOOK XVII. surround the coast; posts are stationed on the the insulated and uninhabited rock of Ascension.
shore within sight of each other, which render During the four months that you have been at Chap. VI. impracticable any communication with the sea. St. Helena, you have, sir, rendered the situation There is only one small town (James Town), of the emperor much worse.
Count Bertrand 1817.
where there is an anchorage, and where vessels has observed to you, that you violate even the
I have the honor to be,
do with the discussion of this point; the table of “ Admiral Malcolm having learnt the utility the emperor is scarcely provided with strict newhich the emperor would derive from a tent in cessaries, and all the provisions are of the worst that situation, caused one to be set up by his quality. You ask of the emperor a fund of sailors, at twenty paces distance, in front of the 12,000l. sterling, as your government will only house, it was the only place in which a shade allow 8,0001. for all the expenses. I have already could be found. The emperor had as much rea bad the honor of informing you, that the emperor son to be satisfied with the spirit that animated had no funds, that for a year past he bad neither the officers and soldiers of the brave 53d regi- written nor received any letter, and that he is ment, as he had been with the crew of the Nor- altogether ignorant of what has passed, or is thumberland.
passing, in Europe. Transported by force to “ The house at Longwood was built to serve as this rock, without being able to write or to receive a barn for the company's farm; the deputy gover- any answer, the emperor is now entirely at the nor of the island had since built some chambers; mercy of English agents. The emperor has it served him for a country-house, but it was not always desired, and is still desirous, to provide in a proper habitable state ; workmen have been himself for all his expenses, of whatever nature, employed at it for a year, and the emperor has and he will do it as soon as you render it possible, been continually subjected to the inconvenience by taking off the interdictions laid upon the merand insalubrity of inhabiting a house in the pro- chants of the island with regard to bis corresgress of building. The chamber in which he pondence, and directing that it should not be subsleeps is too small to contain a bed of ordinary jected to any inquisition on your part, or by any dimensions ; but every alteration at Longwood of your agents. Thenceforth the wants of the prolongs the inconvenience of having workmen emperor would be known in Europe, and those there. There are, however, in this miserable ter persons who interested themselves in his behalf ritory, beautiful situations, presenting fine trees, might send him the funds necessary to provide gardens, and good houses. There is, besides, a plantation-house ; but the positive instructions of « The letter of Lord Bathurst, which you have government forbad
you from giving up this bouse, communicated to me, gives birth to strange ideas. although much expense would thereby have been Are your ininisters then ignorant that the specsaved to your governinent-an expense incurred tacle of a great man in captivity and adversity is in fitting up at Longwood a hut, covered with a most sublime spectacle? Are they ignorant paper, which is already unserviceable.
that Napoleon at Si. Helena, in the midst of per* You have interdicted all correspondence be secutions of every description, to wbich he optween us and the inhabitants of the island; you poses nothing but serenity, is greater, more sacred, bave, in fact, placed the house at Longwood au and more vererable, than when seated upon the secret-you have even prevented any cominuni first throne in the world, where for so long a tine cation with the officers of the garrison ;-it seems, he was the arbiter of kings? Those who, in such therefore, to be your study to deprive us of the a situation, are wanting to Napoleon, are blind to little resource which this miserably territory af- their own character, and that of tbe nation which fords, and we are here just as we should be on they represent.
The narrative of M. Santini contained a variety discontented, the quiet and peace of the rest of BOOK XVII. of interesting particulars; and he endeavoured to Europe cannot be secure. "It perhaps is imposprove that the ex-emperor bad not only been ill sible exactly and fully to point out what line of - Chap. VI. treated in regard to his rank, &c. but that he was conduct Louis ought to pursue, in order to fix absolutely exposed to a state of starvation. “ It his throne on a firm and permanent foundation.
1817. is to be recollected,” says he, “ the governor The military spirit and habits which the people took upon himself the entire charge of the main- of France have acquired, will not soon wear away: tenance of Napoleon and his suite; but the pro- their late disasters,—their country twice conquervisions he furnished were always in too small a ed,-a sovereign twice placed over them by these quantity, and also very often of bad quality. In conquests, will not soon be forgotten; but, undoubts the latter case, when the emperor's house-stewardedly, their oblivion will be accelerated if Louis gains (Cipriani) has found himself' under the necessity over the mass of the population, by securing to them of sending back tbe provisions, the articles were all the benefits which the revolution produced, never replaced by others more fit for use, and it and by protecting them from the evils which it has been necessary to wait until the following day engendered. If, on the contrary, he has not for a fresh supply. It has often happened that, learnt wisdom by experience ; if it be true that on finding himself without any butcher's meathe, as well as the rest of his family, have forgotten for the emperor's table, the steward has sent me nothing which they ought to have forgotten, and to purchase a sheep, for wbich I have paid four have learnt nothing which they ought to have guineas; and often could only procure pork for learnt, during their misfortunes ; then, not all the making soup. Captain Poppleton, of the 53d force of Europe, can, or ought, to keep him on the regiment, appointed to guard the emperor, if he throne of France. But let us bope better things: is the man of honor I believe him to be, will not let us hope that these princes who lived so long fail to bear witness that he has often lent candles in Britain, did not shut their eyes to the facts to lighten this abode of desolation, as well as which there surrounded them ; from which they bread, butter, poultry, and even salt. I was even, might have drawn this lesson--that the most law. from necessity, in the habit of repairing secretly ful, as well as the most happy sovereign, is he to the English camp to purchase butter, eggs, who is powerful and happy in the affections and and bread, of the soldiers' wives, otherwise the happiness of his subjects. emperor would often have been without breakfast, In turning to the affairs of England, it is with and even without dinner.'
regret we have to state, that, notwitbstanding all We have not room to notice any further parti the blood and treasure she had expended in the culars in the statement of Santini; but must defence of Spain, Italy, Germany, and Holland, observe, they were deemed of so much import- those very countries were the first to show their ance that the subject was brought before parlia jealousy, and even hostility, to that greatness to ment by Lord Holland, who made a motion for which she bad exalted herself, by her manufacthe production of certain papers, for the purpose tures and commerce. The journalists of France of shewing whether the statement of Santini was neglected no opportunity of inflaming and keeping true or false. Ministers, however, though they alive this jealousy, and turning it to the account contradicted some of the particulars in Santini's of their own nation, whose commodities were renarration, refused to produce the papers, and the presented as baving gained a decided preference motion in consequence was rejected. Important with Spain and Naples. Indeed, we are conconsequences are, however, likely to occur from vinced, that nothing would give those countries the circumstance of the memorial and the narra greater pleasure, than to see renewed that contion of Santini finding their way into general cir tinental system, as it was called, which proscribed culation on the continent; and the complaints the produce of English industry, although that stated therein may be the means of producing industry was the means of restoring them to a convulsion at a future period. “ Montholon's independence. This spirit was strongly maletter,” says a gentleman residing at Paris, “with nifested at Ghent, on the 22d of July, 1816, the commentary of Santini, has produced a great where a scene, which rivalled any of those that sensation here. The journals have not said a took place under Bonaparte, in the most inve... word respecting them, and the government will terate period of the war. The workmen em
doubtless continue faithful to its system of allow. ployed in the different manufactories, having coli ing nothing to be said in the public papers
apers lected all the articles of English origin, which respecting the situation of Bonaparte and his fa- they could lay their hands on, stripping even mily. Copies, however, of Montholon's letter, passengers of their shawls and handkerchiefs, and translations, are openly circulating in great made a bonfire of them in the public market. . numbers; and that does more harm than if the That this was not a mere ebullition of vulgar journals were allowed to speak of them." prejudice, is proved by the laboured vindication In fact, while the public mind in France is of the act, that afterwards appeared in the Ghent:
BOOK XVII. newspapers, in which the necessity of a general and, consequently, the less enabled to pay his
proscription of English manufactures upon the landlord, and his quota of the public burdens. CHAP. VI. continent was expressly insisted upon. In fact, This depressed state of the farming, the com
the continental sovereigns found it was necessary mercial, and manufacturing interests, threw an 1817.
to encourage their own manufactures, and, to do immense number of the lower orders out of emSo, they must exclude the English from their ployment; and it was calculated that, at the close markets, which was done, in a great measure, by of 1816, not less than 500,000 families were thrown several severe edicts, issued against the importa- on their parishes for relief. The distress was felt tion of various articles, the produce and manu so much in some districts, and the poor-rates rose facture of Great Britain, These measures were to such an enormous heigbt, that the few farmers soon felt in England; and the commercial and that remained were obliged to abandon their manufacturing interest never experienced such farms, being unable to pay even the rates. The distress, since England was a nation. The little manufacturing towns were in a still worse condi. trade that is left, has not a particle of that confi- tion, and some thousands of artizans and weavers dence and enterprize which formerly charac were compelled to seek, in foreign countries, that terized the English merchant, wherever the traces employment which they despaired of ever finding of his spirit and industry might be found. It is again in their own. In consequence of this gemuch to be regretted, that we scorned the homely, neral distress, complaints and dissatisfaction at
but substantial and peaceful benefits, of being the the measures of government were every where · baberdashers and cutlers of the world : we must, heard ; and meetings were called in all the coun
forsooth, become government and constitution- ties and towns, for the purpose of petitioning the makers to our neighbours; and, wbile we have legislature for retrenchment, and for reform in the been fighting for the shadow, we have evidently commons house of parliament; the people rightly lost the substance. Our policy sacrificed the judging, that if they had been properly representmanufacture of broad.cloths, which would bave ed, the nation would never have been brought in. suited every nation, for the manufacture of laws, to that state of misery in which it was involved. which, notwithstanding all our efforts, we can The British government seem to have been aware never construct, so as to suit any race of people of the distress which would be felt throughout but ourselves, and which every nation upon the country; and, therefore, on the copclusion of whom they have been forced will throw aside the war, they got a parliamentary vote for keepthe very instant a favorable opportunity shall ing a standing army of 150,000 men. They sti present itself. That we have acquired glory, however, did not think themselves secure even there can be no doubt; but, alas! glory is a poor with this force ; for, finding the popular resentsubstitute for our manufactures and commerce. ment so strong against them, they procured an
It must, indeed, prove a matter of the deepest other vote for suspending the Habeas Corpus Act, regret to every lover of his country, when he se and an act was passed for preventing all popular riously reflects on the amazing advantages which meetings, that were not called by the sberiff or we have lost, and feels that it is totally
out of the magistrates. Notwithstanding, the discontent of power of wisdom or strength to recal them. The the country keeps pace with its distresses ; and great decrease of trade has been, from time to while the taxes are so heavy, and our debt so time, more or less observable, according as the great, the interest of which is 44,000,0001, there temporary stimulants of war supplied us with an can be no prospect of better times. As to the confeartificial vigor. A partial elevation of the agri, derated states on the continent, war or peace must cultural interest kept large masses of capital ac be nearly the same to them; or, if there be any tive and afloat; but agriculture is now equally difference, it must be in favor of the former
. depressed with general commerce. Even the dis- They have no national debt grinding them to the tressed state of the agricultural interest may be earth; and that for the bappy reason, that they traced to the long and expensive wars in which have neither our credit nor our credulity. Per we bave been engaged. They have given birth haps, on the whole, it may be fortunate for them to a system of taxation which, pressing heavily on that they have not. We are embarrassing and the superior classes of society, impelled them to impoverishing our posterity, and consigning to raise their rents to such a height, that the farmer them the legacy of our political folly. was scarcely able to gain a scanty subsistence,
ABDALLAH Kezkaori, 1. 191, 193.
Examinations and correspondence re Aostria, conduct of, i. 34. War against, 38.
i. 36, 47, 48, 51; wounded, 52; attacks son's complaint, 897. Proceedings of the successful, 54. Forces of, defeated, 114.
congress, 906. Riot and Massacre at Bal. Again takes the field, 115. Assumes the
land, and letters of marque issued by the pleased with Russia, 523. Declares war
Syria, collects an army against the French, gress, 944. Madison re-elected, 948. His occasion, 840. A general arning to de-
962. American discipline, 968. Cap issued by the einperor of, 1376.
tures and losses, 975--980. Attacks, 983 Auteen, bishop of. - See Talleyrand.
rations at, 193. Situation of the French, toessage, 990. Defeats and captures, 1159 Baccum, action at, i. 223.
raised, 195. Retreat of the French, 196. Washington entered by the British ariny, Badajoz, treaty of, i. 685. Action at, 734.
1168. Capture of Alexandria, &c. 1170. Captured by the French, 735. Siege of
Invaded by the British, 11784-1190. De abandoned, 762. Taken by storm, 763.
feated, 1198. Peace signed, 1202. Baden, Margrave of, assists Great Britain,
i. 37. Solicits peace, 104.
Bagration, Prince, i. 471.
Amiens, congress at, and treaty of peace Baillard, General, i. 225.
sigr.ed, i. 361.
Baird, Major-general, i. 333. (Sir David,
Balaguier, fort of, i. 42, 44.
Balgowen, Colonel Graham, i. 634.
Ballasteros, his dismissal, i. 779.
Balloon, used for military purposes, i. 50.
Baltimore, riot and massacre at, ii, 914.
Anglesea, Marquis of, (Earl of Uxbridge,) Attack on, 1172.
Bambecke taken by the French, i. 40.
Baneal arrested, i. 34.
Banda taken by the English, i. 708, 728.
Anselme, General, succeeds Montesquiou, i. Bantry Bay, (Ireland,) arrival of a French
Barcelona, occurrences at, 588.
Bard seized by the French, i. 275.
Barfleur, the, i. 57.
Citizen Joel, i. 26.
Antrim, (Ireland,) insurrection at, i, 150. Barnes, Major-general, ii, 1426.
the French, 169. Again, 214. Capture allies, 33. Congress at, 34. Evacuated sumption, 46. Is accused, 67.
by the allies, 51.
Barrosa, victory at, i. 735.
Basile, Captain, i. 57.
Bassano, battle of, i. 100.
- Duke of, (Maret,) ii. 1298.
Basten, the French driven from, i. 856.
Bastia taken by the English, i. 856.
Bastile, destruction of the, i, 10.
Battles, i. 42, 45, 47, 48, 49, 54, 55, 73, 75,
Armistices. See Conventions, Treaties, &c. Naval History, &c.
Arnheim, i. 52. Taken by the French, 54. Bavaria, contributions in, i. 283.
Baudet, Citizen, i. 253.
Arroy de Molino, the French defeated at, Bautzen, battle of, i. 839,
Bazire, M. defends royalty, i. 21.
Assembly, constituent, i. 66. Legislative or Beaver, Captain Philip, i. 291.
feated by the Russians, 833.
Beaulieu, General, i, 49, 90.
Auckland, Lord, ambassador from England, Beaumont, General, i. 460. ii, 1392.
i, 34. His death, &c. ii, 1195.
Beaupreaux, i. 46.
Becket, Brigadier-major, i. 662.
Bedaux, Major-general, governor of Gero
truydenberg, i. 31.
Rejaz, the enemy repulsed at, i, 811,
Bellegarde, i. 33.
Mulatto general, taken, i. 46.,
· Duke of, (Murat,) i. 596. His procla-
Colonel Le Clerc, i. 30. Again invested,
895. Entered by the Russiaus, i. 821.
806. His victories, 846, 860.
mouriez, i. 21. Arrested, 34.
son, shoots himself, i. 20.
Captain, i. 749.
w, Captain, i. 748.
867. His proclamation, ii. 1372. Bio-
stadt, his gallantry and reward, i. 31.
Joseph, i. 294. Promoted, 438.
light, 620. Hia narrow escape, 699.
the Dutch, 707.
438. ii. 1308.
French army as engineer, i. 49. Ap
pointed to the command of the army of
Passage of the
838. Preparations for the threatened is-