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BOOK XI. the territories thereof, and bring the same to authorised to make to the government of the

judgment in any of the courts of admiralty within United States of America-namely, that his Chap. V. his majesty's dominions; and to that end his ma- royal highness, animated by a sincere desire to

jesty's advocate-general, with the advocate of the arrest the calamities of war, has authorised the 1812.

admiralty, are forthwith to prepare the draught of said commander to sign a convention, recalling
a commission, and present the same to bis royal and annulling, from a day to be named, all hostile
higbness the prince-regent, at this board, autho- orders issued by the respective governments, with
rising the commissioners for executing the office a view of restoring, without delay, the relations of
of lord-high-admiral, or any person or persons by amity and commerce between bis majesty and
them empowered and appointed, to issue forth the United States of America.
and grant letters of marque and reprisals to any “ From the court at Carlton-house, the 13th of
of his majesty's subjects, or others whom the said October, 1812.
commissioners shall deem fitly qualified in that

66 CASTLEREAGI.

BATHURST. behalf, for the apprehending, seizing, and taking

N. VANSITTART.

MelviLLE. the ships, vessels, and goods belonging to the

CHARLES Long. SIDMOUTH." government of the United States of America, or

LIVERPOOL. the citizens thereof, or others inhabiting within the countries, territories, or dominions thereof The American government having fitted out (except as aforesaid); and that such powers and a fleet, with all possible dispatch, hostilities were clauses be inserted in the said commission as have commenced by an action with the Belvidera been usual, and are according to former prece- English frigate, which little vessel gallantly redents; and his majesty's advocate-general, with sisted an American squadron. The following the advocate of the admiralty, are also forthwith account of this engagement was written by an to prepare the draught of a commission, and pre- officer on-board his majesty's ship Belvidera, sent the same to his royal highness the prince- dated Halifax, June 27. regent, at this board, authorising the said com “ You will perceive by reports, which doubtless missioners, for executing the office of lord-high- have reached' England, that our little vessel can admiral, to will and require the high court of do something for her country. The event has admiralty of Great Britain, and the lieutenant been fortunate, and a source of joy and happiness and judge of the said court, his surrogate or sur to us.-On the 23d, at day-light, five sail were seen rogates, as also the several courts of admiralty in chase of a merchantman, all standing before the within his majesty's dominions, to take cogni- wind.

wind. We chased, and discovered them to be zance of, and judicially proceed upon, all and all men-of-war. The tables were soon turned, by manner of captures, seizures, prizes, and reprisals our being chased: at twelve o'clock, the head. of all ships and goods that are or shall be taken, most ship, the President, was within gun-shot and and to hear and determine the same; and ac an balf; the United States within two gun-shots ; cording to the course of admiralty, and the laws and the Essex about three gun-shots. At half. of nations, to adjudge and condemn all such past twelve, the President topped his spritsail-yard ships, vessels, and goods, as shall belong to the to windward. We then expected a shot, but all regovernment of the United States of America, or mained quiet; piped to dinner. The President was the citizens thereof, or to others inhabiting within at some distance till three o'clock, when she began the countries, territories, and dominions thereof to draw on us, having got the wind first; the whole (except as aforesaid); and that such powers and of us being before the wind: at about ten minutes clauses be inserted in the said commission as have before four, she then being three cables' length been usual, and are according to former prece- from us, she gave us a shot right through the ruddents; and they are likewise to prepare and lay der coat, which damaged the rudder; two more before his royal highness the prince-regent, at shots were fired, the second of which killed one this board, a draught of such instructions as may man, and wounded several others. This shot be proper to be sent to the courts of admiralty, in being of a bad quality, it split into about fifty his majesty's foreign governments and planta. pieces. One of these men, who died twenty-four tions, for their guidance herein; as also another hours after of his wounds, had his arms amputated draught of instructions, for such ships as shall high up, and would have lived, had not two of his be commissioned for the purpose above-men- ribs been fractured, and driven into his lungs; tioned.

notwithstanding wbich, after his wounds were “ His royal highness the prince-regent is ne dressed, he wanted to go on deck to have another vertheless pleased hereby to declare, in the name shot at the cowards (so he termed them.) The and on the behalf of bis majesty, tbat nothing in rest of the wounded have merely flesh-wounds, this order contained shall be understood to recal except one, who has a large splinter in the knee, or affect the declaration which his majesty's naval but will not lose the limb. Our captain, officers, commander on the American station has been and men, were cool and determined. The fine

fellows asked the captain, if they should give it chigau, and captured an American merchant- BOOK XI. them.

vessel. * Poor Captain Byron has received a violent General Brock, president of the parliament of Cear. V. contusion in the upper and inside part of the thigh, Upper Canada, acting governor of the province which by the surgeon's account will turn to an and commander-in-chief of his majesty's forces

181 abscess, and will be well in about a fortnight. The in Upper Canada, was early in July at Newark, suPresident's commander is a coward-he might perintending the various defences on the river. . have been alongside of us had he chosen it. He This able and experienced officer came from gave us seven or eight broadsides, independent of Little York soon after hearing the declaration of his bow guns; we tickled him with four, and only war, and it was believed, with a serious intention four stern-chasers, which were well applied to his of attacking Fort Niagara; but, contrary to what bows; they were thrown into confusion, and I bad been reported, be made no demand of a surdoubt not that many of the yankeys have left offrender. messing. Our stern is cut much with their grape, Expecting a descent from the American army, but that did not kill any men. Six shots struck the Canadians had, for several days, been removing our counter; one went through our main-top-mast, their families and effects from the river into the and another through our cross-jack yard, from interior. At Newark, Queenston, and other villages their trying to disable us in our rigging, and we on the river, there were no inhabitants left, except to hull them. The annexed is a statement of our a few civil officers and soldiers. An immense weight of metal, as compared with that of our quantity of specie, plate, &c. from various parts of American antagonists: - Belvidera, twenty-six the province, had also been boxed up, and destined eighteen-pounders, two nine-pounders, fourteen for Quebec. thirty-two-pounders, forty-two guns.-President The British had about six or seven hundred frigate, mounting sixty-four guns, twelve and regular troops stationed between the lakes, from twenty-four-pounders ; Constitution, fifty-four Fort George to Fort Erie. These men were geguns; United States, fifty-four guns; Essex, not nerally those who bad seen service in various certain; Argus, twenty guns."

parts of the world. The militia of the province His majesty's ship

Acasta captured the Ameri were ordered out en masse. can privateer brig Curlew, pierced for twenty The British had more than one hundred pieces guns, but having only sixteen on-board, with a of flying, field, and garrison artillery, in the difcomplement of one hundred and seventy-two men. ferent defences on the Niagara river. Fort Erie The sloop Colibri captured the American ship had been strengthened considerably. There was privateer Catherine, from Boston, out eight days, also a small battery on the point below Chipa beautiful and well-equipped ship, pierced for pawa, mounted with two pieces of heavy artillery, sixteen guns, mounting fourteen long six-poup. calculated to play upon the store-bouse and mills ders, and a complement of eighty-eight men, com of Schlosser. Below the falls there was a small manded by Francis A. Burnham; she had one stone battery, near the bank of the river, where man killed, and one wounded; ber men ran below, the lower ladder formerly stood. A rifleman who which accounts for their suffering so small a loss. bad deserted from the other side, and crossed the The sloop Emulous captured the American pri- river immediately below the falls, on a pine log, vateer brig Gossamer, 'of fourteen carriage-guns, stated, that but a little way from the battery up with one hundred men; she left Boston on the the river, a field-piece was stationed in the bushes 24th of August, had made one capture, the ship in order to fire into Schlosser village. On the Mary Anne of Greenock, from Jamaica bound to hill about half a mile from the stone battery, were Quebec.

placed two eighteen-pounders. The ladders on On the other hand, his majesty's ship Alert was both sides of the river were taken up. During a captured by the American frigate Essex, (Aug. thick foggy morning, four British soldiers, who 13.) The captain of the Essex ingeniously em stood as sentinels on the river, near Fort St. ployed the Alert as a cartel, by which expedient, George, swam over to the American shore: three she was secure from re-capture; otherwise she of them brought over their arms. would probably have been re-taken before she An American force having crossed the river had reached the American port St. John's, New under General Hull, hostilities commenced on foundland.

the borders of Canada. At this time war was an The British armed ship Queen Charlotte, wbo employment so new to the people of the United had been lying at Fort Erie, left her moorings States, that the humble operations of General Hull soon after the declaration of war was received, and his army were given with the most minute deand proceeded up the Jake; and afterwards lay tail; and the driving in of a few advanced-posts at Fort Maldeo, the great depôt of Indian sup- actually delivered in a tone of triumph not umworphies. His majesty's sloop of war Hunter went thy a German campaign. The American force, up the straits of Mackina, passed into Lake Mi- composed entirely of the neighbouring militia,

BOOK X!. passed the river on the night of the 11th of July, Lingan. About the time the troops assembled, the

at the town of Sandwich, two miles below Detroit; mob bad procured a 4-pounder to fire on the house, CHAP. V. the British out-posts having been withdrawn the but were prevented from using it by the military.

night before. On the 13th, the standard of the The troops had been ordered out for the protec1812.

United States was erected in Canada, and a pro tion of the prison, and to keep the peace of the
clamation published, inviting the Canadian militia city; but, to their disgrace, they refused. The
to retire to their homes, and promising peaceable next day the mob forced the jail, and fell with the
and friendly treatment to the inliabitants on con- fury of cannibals on twenty-six unarmed prisoners,
dition of neutrality. Considerable fear seemed and beat them with clubs until no signs of life
to have been entertained of the junction of the remained, when they left them, thinking they had
Indians with the British; and the proclamation fully completed the bloody deed: providentially
declared, that if they were once brought forward, they all, in a short time, showed signs of life, ex--
no quarter was to be given. The next operation cept General Lingan, who never recovered : be
was to be an attack on Fort Malden, a work re was a man of great influence in his county, hav.
presented as of cousiderable strength. The pas- ing been formerly collector of the customs at
sage of the river gave rise to an affair between Georgetown, to which office he had been appointed
the advance of the Americans, amounting to 300, by General Washington, of whom he was a favo- .
and the British and lodians. On the first sight rite, and who used frequently to visit him. He .
of their enemy, the Indians fled into a wood, and was about seventy years of age when his skull
the British followed them, with the loss of one or was split open.
two killed: but down to the 22d, no movement Mr. Thompson was reserved for a public spec-
appeared to have been made; and General Hull, tacle. After beating him, they put bim into a cart,
by building block-houses, and forming entrenched and rolled him in tar and feathers, set the feathers
camps, seemed to be labouring under some ap in a blaze, and at last lodged him in the watch-
prehensions for his own security.

house. They still kept him confined, with his Great riots were now occasioned by the pub- tar and feathers on him. The mayor and other lication of a journal called the “ Federal Repub- influential characters of the party endeavoured to lican.” A mob was excited to assassinate the pub- get him from them, but without effect. General lisher and editors. About nine o'clock at night, Harry Lee died, and little bopes were entertained an attempt was made to destroy Mr. Hanson's of the lives of others. Mr. Hanson, with three bouse in South Charles-street,

or four others, jumped amongst the mob, in the The editors having anticipated the attack, had lobby of the prison, and escaped. removed all the furniture, and had collected a A general and unbounded indignation at the number of their friends from the federal counties, inhuman murder of General Lingan pervaded among whom were Generals Lee and Lingan, of Montgomery and other parts of the state. The Virginia and Georgetown. The mob could make mangled corpse of this general had been thrown no impression on the house, only breaking the out of prison on the earth, where it lay exposed windows with stones. Every time they attacked till the middle of the next day, when it was obthey were fired upon, and two were killed, and a tained and buried by a relative. Many of the number wounded. Towards morning, about forty citizens put on mourning for him, declaring they infantry, and twenty horsemen, assembled and would not lay it aside until his death was properly lined the street in front of the house, at which time avenged. the greatest part of the noble defeuders of the house At this time Johnson, the Mayor of Baltimore, issued out in the rear, while those more imme- issued a proclamation in the Bonapartean style, diately concerned remained, and told General threatening, “summarily to punish the riotous . Striker and the mayor, that they were willing to and ill-disposed." The following interesting exdeliver themselves up to the civil authority, pro tract of a letter from A. C. Hanson, dated near vided their safety was guaranteed by the general Baltimore, August 3, will best convey to the and the mayor. This was done; and the troops reader's conception the then distracted state of being formed into a hollow square, they opened affairs :the door, and were marched to jail. The following “ Next to the death of General Lingan, whose genilemen went to prison:-Wm. Schroeder, John exit was noble and truly characteristic, the panic. Thompson, General Harry Lee (of Virginia), prevailing among the federalists, in and near BalW. B. Bend, Otho Sprigg, Henry Kennedy, timore, has smitten my heart more severely than Charles Kigore, Henry Nelson, John E. Hall, all the wrongs and sufferings.inflicted by the blind George Winchester, Peregrine Warfield, Alexan and ferocious agents of malignant, cowardly, der C. Hanson (editor), George Richards, Edward blood-thirsty enemies, sheltering themselves for a Gwyon, David Hoffman, Horatio Biglow, Ephraim time behind an irresponsible banditti. — My Gaither, Wm. Gaither, Jacob Schley, Mark U. wounds, it is true, are numerous and severe, but Pringle, Daniel Murray, Richard S. Crabb, James they reach not my mind, nor give a moment's un..

men.

easiness or grief, but the gloom and despondency The liberty of the press, the security of property BOOK XI. pervading the body of federalists within the sphere and person, the rights, civil and political, belong of Baltimore influence, inflame my very brain, and ing to the meanest citizen, the very principles and Char. V. are as a thousand daggers aimed at my heart. privileges, for the assertion and defence of which

1812. The late scenes in the emporium of Maryland, the war of independence was declared, we had originating demoustrably at Washington, and pledged ourselves to maintain, and at the risk of made by many a party question, I consider merely our lives, and at every extremity not forbidden by the commencement of a long series of struggles, the laws. With the mob and civil authority united to terminate happily or unfortunately for the coun against us, the contest was indeed unequal. try, as men of respectability, property, and talents, However, my situation allows me to add but little. perform the parts assigned them by patriotism. “All my partners in persecution and suffering, If they look ou quietly, or rather fly their posts, whom I have seen or heard from since the massaand permit a hundredth part of the population of any cre, agree in ascribing their injuries to the same given place, and that too composed of pickpockets, The names of the mayor, General Stricker, footpads, foreign vagabonds, and privateermen, to and John Montgomery, are first on the catalogue usurp the government, they may blame themselves of the perfidious, barbarous monsters; and it will when their property, persons, and families, are appear, that the advice of the latter, dictated by disposed of by the same rules of “summary adju- cowardice, produced the catastrophe. dication.'

“ My writing to you is more of an experiment “Of my friends and fellow-martyrs, when I say than otherwise, and I cannot dictate, as no one will they would vie with the picked men of Leonidas, be my amanuensis, the doctors and purses all facts will attest the truth of the assertion. Although uniting in their vows, that I shall not write or talk, they had not slept for thirty-six hours, to the last and I can do neither without danger.. moment, they were cheerful, conversible, and “ I have six wounds on the head, either of sometimes gay. Not even when the forcing of which are sufficiently severe to induce an inflammathe jail-door was announced by the savage yell of tion of the brain, without great care. Both collarthe inob, nor when they came to the door of the bones are hurt. The extremity of the spinal bone apartment in which we were confined, was there a injured, and excessively painful. The breast look, a whisper, or motion of the body, expressive bruised, and now painful. "The fore-finger of the of any thing but cool, collected courage, and con- right hand broken, and the whole band injured, tempi of death. A different conduct was not to having been twice stabbed, once through, with a be expected of men, who had embarked in such a pen-knife; and the nose broken.-These are the cause, with a perfect knowledge of all the conse. injuries I have received, but they do not give me quences, though they never could have anticipated half the pain that the despondency of my political being delivered over to the executioner, through friends infiets.”

" the inhuman treachery of the civil authorities.

CHAPTER VI.

Extracts from a Memorial addressed to the President of the United States.-List of American

Privateers taken and destroyed by his Majesty's Vessels.- Ineffectual Attempts of Commodore
Rodgersupon the Belvidera.Ridiculous Compliments paid to Captain Hull, for the Capture of
La Guerriere.- Honorable Acquittal of Captain Dacres.-Attack on Canada.-Gallantry of the
English.--President's Message to Congress.

ABOUT 1,500 of the inhabitants of the county of present time, tending most obviously, in our view, Rockingham, in New Hampshire, addressed a to the destruction of the commerce of these memorial to the President of the United States on states. the 5th of August, from which the following are “ The alarm excited in our minds by the fa. extracts:

vorite and long-continued “ Restrictive System," “ We have witnessed, with sincere and deep is raised still bigher by the late declaration of regret, a system of policy pursued by the general war against Great Britain; an event which, we government, from the embargo of 1807 to the believe, in the present defenceless circumstances

BOOK XI. of the country, will be productive of evils of in- Nay more--are we to espouse their cause, in opcalculable magnitude.

position to the cause of our native mariners? Char. VI.

“ The impressment of our seamen, which forms “ Fatal, indeed, would it be to the important

the most plausible and popular of the alleged interests of the navigating states, if the conse1812.

causes of war, we believe to have been the sub quence of this war should be, that the American
ject of great misrepresentation. The number of flag shall give the American character to all who
these cases has been extravagantly exaggerated. sail under it, and thus invite thousands of foreign
Every inquiry on the subject strengthens our seamen to enter into our service, and thrust aside
conviction, that the reputed number bear little our own native citizens.
relation to the true number.

We are among

England has always professed a willingness those to whom instances of impressment, if they to adjust this subject by amicable arrangement. did actually exist to any considerable extent, She has repeatedly called on us to do our part must be known; yet we cannot find them out. towards effecting such adjustment. She has reSome of the members of this meeting have been minded us of the facility, we may say the falsity, constantly employed in commercial pursuits, and with which American protections are obtained; have had ships on the ocean from the peace of of the frequent instances in which Irishmen, and 1783, until the ocean became unnavigable, as to even men that cannot speak a word of our lanus, by the embargo of 1807; and yet, during all guage, are found with American protections in that time, have never suffered the loss of one na their pockets. She has expressly and officially tive American seaman by impressment. Other offered to prohibit, by severe laws, all impressmembers of this meeting have, as masters of ves ment from American vessels, if the American gosels, long inhabited, as it were, on the seas, and vernment would enact laws prohibiting American have been visited hundreds of times by British officers from granting protections or certificates ships of war, and never had an American seaman of citizenship to British subjects. She has, also, taken from them by impressment.

through her minister, offered to restore every ma“ If so many of our seafaring fellow-citizens tive seamen that our government could name, as were actually in bondage, they must have been being under impressment. For years preceding taken from the inhabitants of the Atlantic coast. the declaration of war, our government has been, They would be from among our brethren, sons, in a manner, silent on this subject. When the relations, and friends.

arrangement was made with Mr. Erskine, the “ It is well worthy of notice, that the greatest present administration themselves did not consiapparent feeling on this subject of impressments, der any existing difficulties on the subject of imand the greatest disposition to wage war on that pressment as insuperable obstacles to peace. account, are entertained by the representatives of “ The blockade, and orders in council,the those states which have no seamen at all of their other causes of war, bear no better examination own; while those sections of the community, in than the subject of impressment. The blockade, which more than three-fourths of the mariners of now so grievous to be endured, we know was rethe United States bave their homes, are, by great garded, at the time it was laid, as a measure famajorities, against that war, among the professed vourable to our interest. objects of which, the release of impressed seamen the express declaration of Mr. Monroe, then our forms so principal a figure.

minister in England. We have his own words, “ It is well known that England pretends to that it would be regarded “ in a favorable light,” no right of impressing our seainen. She insists and that it “promised to be highly satisfactory to only that she has a right to the service of her own our commercial interests." subjects, in time of war, even though found serv “ By what train of reasoning this favor is now ing on-board the merchant-ships of other nations. turned into an injury of such magnitude as to jusThis claim we suppose to be neither unfounded tify war, we are utterly at a loss to comprehend. nor novel. It is recognized by the public law of “ We are equally unsatisfied with the arguEurope, and of the civilized world. Writers of ments used, to prove that the decrees of France the bighest authority maintain, that the right be were repealed in November, 1810. Against such longs to all nations. For the same reason, say supposed repeal of the French decrees, we have they, that the father of a family in.y demand the the express declaration of the French government aid of his children to defend himself and his itself, as late as March, 1812, alleging that those house, a nation may call home her subjects to her decrees did then exist. We have also had daily defence and protection in time of war.

evidence of their operation, in the destruction of “ But if this were not so, is our nation to plunge our property; and some members of this meeting into a ruinous war, in order to settle a question have convictions of the existence and operation of of relative right between the government of a fo- those decrees, down to the very moment of our reign nation and the subjects of that government? declaration of war; which convictions being proAre we to fight the battles of British seamen? duced by great and repeated personal losses, in

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