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BOOK XI. will be found in that spirit which has long un the British nation, his royal bighness confidently

happily actuated the councils of the United States: looks forward to a successful issue to the contest Crap. VII. their marked partiality in palliating and assisting in which he has thus been compelled most reluc

the aggressive tyranny of France; their systematic tantly to engage. 1813.

endeavours to enflame the people against the " Westminster, Jan. 9, 1813."
defensive measures of Great Britain; their unge-
nerous conduct towards Spain, the intimate ally of James Madison having been chosen president,
Great Britain; and their unwortby desertion of and Eddridge Gerry, vice-president of the
the cause of other neutral nations. It is through United States for the ensuing four years, from
the prevalence of such councils that America has the 4th of March, 1813; the former having at-
been associated in policy with France, and com tended, at twelve o'clock on the above day, the
mitted in war against Great Britain.

capitol, for the purpose of taking the oath of
“And under what conduct, on the part of France, office, delivered to the vast concourse of people
has the government of the United States thus assembled on tbe occasion, the following speech:
lent itself to the enemy? The contemptuous vio “ About to add the solemnity of an oath to the
lation of the commercial treaty of the year 1800 obligations imposed by a second call to the sta-
between France and the United States; the tion in which my country has here before placed
treacherous seizure of all American vessels and me, I find, in the presence of this respectable
cargoes in every barbour subject to the contrcul assembly, an opportunity of publicly repeating
of the French arms: the tyrannical principles of my profound sense of so distinguished a confi-
the Berlin and Milan decrees, and the confiscations dence, and of the responsibility united with it.
under them; the subsequent condemnations under The impressions on me are strengthened by such
the Rambouillet decree, antedated or concealed to an evidence, that my faithful endeavours to dis-
render it the more effectual; the French commer- charge my duties have been favorably estimated;
cial regulations which render the traffic of the and by a consideration on the momentous period.
United States with France almost illusory; the at which the trust has been renewed. From the
burning of their merchant-ships at sea, long after weight and magnitude now belonging to it, I
the alleged repeal of the French decrees-all should be compelled to sink if I had less reliance
these acts of violence, on the part of France, on the support of an enlightened and generous-
produce from the government of the United States, people, and feel less deeply a convictioir that the
only such complaints as end in acquiescence and war with a powerful nation, which forms so pro-
submission, or are accompanied by suggestions for minent a feature in our situation, is stamped with
enabling France to give the semblance of a legal that justice which invites the smiles of heaven on
form to her usurpations, by converting them into the means of conducting it to a successful termi.
municipal regulations.

nation. “ This disposition of the government of the * May we not cherish this sentiment without United States—this complete subserviency to the presumption, when we reflect on the characters ruler of France--this hostile temper towards by wbich this war is distinguished ! Great Britain are evident in almost every page “ It was not declared on the part of the United: of the official correspondence of the American States until it had been long made on them in with the French government.

reality, though not in name; until arguments and “ Against this course of conduct, the real cause expostulations had been exhausted; until a posiof the present war, the prince-regent_solemnly tive declaration had been received that the wrongs protests. Whilst contending against France, in provoking it would not be discontinued, nor until, defence not only of the liberties of Great Bri this appeal could no longer be delayed without tain but of the world, his royal highness was en breaking down the spirit of the nation, destroytitled to look for a far different result. From ing all confidence in itself and in its political intheir common origin, from their common interest, stitutions; and either perpetuating a state of disfrom their professed principles of freedom and graceful suffering, or regaining, by more costly independence, the United States were the last sacrifices, and more severe struggles, our lost power in which Great Britain could have ex. rank and respect among the independent powers. pected to find a willing instrument and abettor « On the issue of the war are staked our national of French tyranny.

sovereignty on the high seas, and security of an Disappointed in this, his just expectation, the important class of citizens, whose occupations prince-regent will still pursue the policy which give the proper value to those of every other the British government has so long and invaria- class.. Not to contend for such a stake, is to sur bly maintained, in repelling injustice, and in sup- render our equality with other powers on the porting the general rights of nations; and, under element common to all; and to violate the sacred the favor of Providence, relying on the justice of title which every member of the society has to his cause, and the tried loyalty and firmness of its protection.

66

“ I Deed not call into view, the uolawfulness wonder, as proceeding from a government which BOOK XI. of the practice by which our mariners are forced, founded the very war in which it has been so long at the will of every cruising officer, from their own engaged, on a charge against the disorganizing Chap. VII. vessels into foreign ones, nor paint the outrages and insurrectional policy of its adversary. inseparable from it. The proofs are in the re “ To render the justice of the war on our part

1813. cords of each successive administration of our go more conspicuous, tbe reluctance to commence it vernment-and the cruel sufferings of that por was followed by the earliest and strongest manifestion of the American people have found their way tations of a disposition to arrest its progress. The to every bosom, not dead to the sympathies of sword was scarcely out of the scabbard before human nature.

the enemy was apprised of the reasonable terins " As the war was just in its origin, and neces on which it would be re-sheathed. Still more sary and poble in its objects, we can reflect with precise advances were repeated, and have been a proud satisfaction, that in carrying it on no prin, received in a spirit forbidding every reliance not ciple of justice or honor, no usage of civilized placed in the military resources of the nation. nations, no precept of courtesy, or humanity, bave “ These resources are amply sufficient to bring been infringed. Th

The war bas been waged on our the war to an honorable issue. Our nation is, in part with scrupulous regard to all these obliga- number, more than half that of the British Isles. tions, and in a spirit of liberality which was ne It is composed of a brave, a free, a virtuous, and ver surpassed.

an intelligent people. Our country abounds in the “ How little has been the effect of this exam necessaries, the arts, and comforts of life. A geneple on the conduct of the enemy? They bave ral prosperity is visible in the public countenance retained, as prisoners of war, citizeus of the United The means employed by the British cabinet States, not liable to be so considered under the to undermine it, have recoiled on themselves; usages of war.

have given to our national faculties a more rapid “ They have refused to consider as prisoners of developement; and, draining or diverting the prewar, and threatened to punish as traitors, and de- cious metals from Britisk circulation and British serters, persons emigrating without restraint to vaults, have poured them into those of the United the United States; incorporated by naturalization States.

States. It is a propitious consideration, that an into our political family, and fighting under the unavoidable war should have tound this seasonable authori!y of their adopted country, in open and facility for the contributions required to support honorable war, for the maintenance of its rights it. When the public voice called for war, all and safety. Such are the avowed principles of a knew, and still know, that without them, it could government which is in the practice of raturaliz not be carried on through the period which it ing, by thousands, citizens of other countries, and might last; and the patriotism, the good sense, not only of permitting, but compelling them to and the manly spirit of our fellow-citizens are fight its battles against their native country, pledges for the cheerfulness with which they will

They bave not, it is true, taken into their own bear each his sbare of the common burden. To hands the hatchet and the knife, devoted to in render the war short, and its success sure, anidiscriminate massacre; but they have let loose mated and systematic exertions alone are necesthe savages armed with these cruel instruments; sary; and the success of our arms now may long have allured them into their service, and carried

preserve our country from the necessity of another them into battle by their sides, eager to glut their resort to them. Already have the gallant exploits savage thirst with the blood of the vanquished, of our naval heroes proved to the world our inand to finish the work of torture and death on berent capacity to maintain our rights on one elemaimed and defenceless captives. And, what ment. If the reputation of our arms has been was never seen before, British commanders have thrown under clouds on the other, presaging extorted victory over the unconquerable valour of flashes of heroic enterprize assure us, that nothing our troops, by presenting to the sympathy of their is wanting to correspondent triumphs there also, chief awaiting massacre from their savage as but the discipline and habits which are in daily sociates.

progress." “ And now we find them, in further contempt This speech was well calculated to excite the of the modes of honorable warfare, supplying the feelings of the vulgar; but all Mr. Madison's place of a conquering force, by attempts to dis arguments had been already, and indeed inconorganize our political society, to dismember our trovertibly, answered by the memorial of about confederated republic. Happily, like others, 1,500 of the inhabitants of the United States, those will recoil on the authors; but they mark extracts of which have been given in the comthe degenerate councils from which they eman mencement of the preceding chapter. The preate, and, if they did not belong to a series of un sident, it seems, bad studied the Bonapartean exampled inconsistencies, might excite the greater style: " they have let loose the savages armed

BOOK XI. with the hatchet and the knife;" but he was not possession of the English: it was originally taken

aware that he was railing at the then French empe- by them in 1628; restored to France, 1631; and Cuap.VII. ror, who had invited Turks, &c. to join him in his again taken September 13, 1759.

ambitious views. Canada was at this time in the 1813

CHAPTER VIII.

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Remarks. Capture of the Frolic, by the Americans.--Of the Macedonian.-Retreat of General

Dearborn from Champlain.-Repulse of the American General Smyth.-Blockade of the Chesapeake and Delaware by the British.-Capture of the Java by the Constitution.-Defeat and Capture of General Winchester and his Army.-Defeat of the Americans at Ogdenburg.- Capture of York by General Dearborn.-Surrender of Mobile tothe Americans.--Loss of the Peacock.-Blockade of New York, Charleston, &c.—Successes of Admiral Cockburn, in the Bay of Chesapeake. Proceedings in the British Parliament relative to the War with the United States.

The loss and disgrace which the American » dual officer being wounded, and not more than arms sustained in Canada were in some degree twenty of the crew remaining unhurt, the enemy balanced by their continued success on the ele- boarded, and made prize of the brig. Before the ment which had long been the theatre of triumph day closed, however, bis majesty's ship Poictiers to their adversaries. The strength of the navy "coming up, not only recaptured the Frolic, but of the United States consisted in a few frigates, took the Wasp. of the rate corresponding to the largest British; On the 25th of October, a very severe action but in size, weight of metal, and number of men, took place between the Macedonian frigate, Capalmost equal to ships of the line-of-battle. This

This tain Carden, and the United States frigate, Com. difference seems not to have been known, or not modore Decatur, which terminated in the capture attended to, in the British navy, the officers of of the former. The following is Captain Carden's which, with their habitual readiness to meet an account of this action, dated on-board the United enemy, would certainly never decline an encoun States, at sea, 28th of October, 1812. ter when the nominal force was any thing near a “Sir,--It-is with the deepest regret I have to parity. Indeed, the superiority of British skill acquaint you, for the information of my lords comand valour, in engaging with other enemies, had missioners of the admiralty, that his majesty's often compensated the difference of force; but the late ship Macedonian was captured on the 25th American navy were manned by sailors, many of instant by the

United States' ship United States, whom were unfortunately British, and many more Commodore Decatur commander: the detail is had been trained in British service. The Ame as follows: ricans, in manning their navy, not only took care “ A short time after daylight, steering N. W. by to select able seamen, but almost doubled the W. with the wind from the southward, in lat. 29 usual compliment; while the crews of the British deg. N. and long. 29 deg. 30 min. W. in the exewere mostly ordinary seamen.

cution of their lordships' orders, a sail was seen On the 18th of October bis majesty's armed on the lee-beam, which I immediately stood for, brig Frolic, convoying the homeward-bound trade and made her out to be a large frigate under from the bay of Honduras, while in the act of re- American colours: at nine o'clock I closed with pairing damages to her masts and sails received her, and she commenced the action, which we rein a violent gale on the

preceding night, descried turned; but from the enemy keeping two points a vessel which gave chase to the convoy. She off the wind, I was not enabled to get as close to proved to be the United States sloop of war Wasp, her as I could have wished. After an hour's acwhich the Frolic gallantly brought to action, tion, the enemy backed and came to the wind, though in her crippled state, in order to save her and I was then enabled to bring her to close batconvoy. She scon, however, became so unma tle; in this situation I soon found the enemy's nageable, that the Wasp was enabled to take a force too superior to expect success, unless some raking position, wbilst the Frolic could not get a very fortunate chance occurred in our favour; and gun to bear. The result was, that every indivi- with this hope I continued the battle to two hours

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and ten minutes, when, having the mizen-mast loss in killed and wounded I am not aware of, BOOK XI. shot away by the board, topmasts shot away by but I know a lieutenant and six men have been the eaps, main-yard shot in pieces, lower masts thrown overboard.

Ca. VIII. badly wounded, lower rigging all cut to pieces, “Enclosed you will be pleased to receive the

1812. a small proportion only of the foresail left to the names of the killed and wounded on-board the fore-yard, all the guns on the quarter-deck and Macedonian; and have the honour to be, &c. forecastle disabled but two, and filled with wreck,

66 John S. CARDEN.) two also on the main-deck disabled, and several “ To J. W. Croker, Esq. shot between wind and water, a very great pro Admiralty.” portion of the crew killed and wounded, and the enemy comparatively in good order, who had now In these several defeats sustained by the Brishot á-head, and was about to place himself in a tish navy, no honor was lost, since every thing raking position, without our being enabled to re was done in defence that could be effected by turn the fire, being a perfect wreck, and unman courage and conduct against superior force. The ageable log; I deemed it prudent, though a pain- unusual circumstance, however, of English ships ful extremity, to surrender his majesty's ship; nor striking to foreign of a similar class, produced as was this dreadful alternative resorted to till every much mortification on one side as triumph on hope of success was removed even beyond the the other. reach of chance, nor till, I trust, their lordships The American government, notwithstanding its will be aware every effort had been made against failures by land, persisted in its purpose of invadthe enemy by myself, my brave officers and men; ing Canada. On the 10th of November, the por should she have been surrendered whilst a Americans sent out seven sail of armed vessels man lived on-board, had she been manageable. from Sackett's harbour, on Lake Ontario, manI am sorry to say, our loss is very severe: I find, ned by the crew of one of the American frigates

, by this day's muster, thirty-six killed, three of and commanded by some of their naval officers, whom lingered a short time after the battle; having on-board a considerable detachment of thirty-six severely wounded, many of whom can troops, for the purpose of carrying the port of not 'recover; and thirty-two slightly wounded, Kingston by surprise, and of destroying his mawho may all do well:-total, one hundred and jesty's ship Royal George, then lying there. The four.

vigilance and military skill of Colonel Vincent, “ The truly noble and animating conduct of my however, who commanded at Kingston, frustrated officers, and ihe steady bravery of my crew, to the their designs; and after many hours of ineffectual last moment of the battle, must ever render them cannonade, the American flotilla hauled off, and dear to their country.

on the following day returned into port. The “ My first lieutenant, David Hope, was severely British general, Sir George Prevost, having rewounded in the head towards the close of the ceived information of the advance of the enemy battle, and taken below; but was soon again on under General Dearborn with their whole force deck, displaying that greatness of mind and exer of regulars and militia encamped at Plattsburgh, tion, wbicb, though it may be equalled, can never from that place to the village at Champlain, about be excelled; the third lieutenant, John Bulford, six miles from the province line, with the avowed was also wounded, but not obliged to quit his purpose of penetrating to Montreal, directed the quarters : second lieutenant Samuel Mottley, and brigade of troops at Montreal, consisting of two he, deserve my highest acknowledgments. The companies of the royals, seven companies of the cool and steady conduct of Mr. Walker, the mas 8th or king's, four companies of the Montreal ter, was very great during the battle, as also that volunteer militia, and the fifth battalion of the emof Lieutenants Wilson and Magill, of the ma-, bodied Canadian militia, with one troop of volunrines.

teer cavalry, and a brigade of light artillery, the “On being taken on-board the enemy's ship, I whole under the command of Colonel Baynes, to ceased to wonder at the result of the battle. The cross the St. Lawrence and advance to the supUnited States is built with the scantling of a se- port of Major-general De Rottenburgh, whose venty-four gun-ship, mounting thirty long 24. front was threatened by this movement of the pounders (English ship-gung) on her main-deck, enemy: the troops crossed with uncommon expeand twenty-two 42-pounders carronades, with dition on the evening of the 19th, and reached two long 24-pounders on her quarter-deck and La Prairie that night. forecastle, howitzer-guns on her tops, and a tra Immediately upon the alarm being given that velling carronade on her upper-deck, with a com the enemy were advancing, the sedentary militia plement of 478 picked mer.

flocked in from all quarters, with a zeal and ala. “ The enemy has suffered much in her masts, crity which cannot be too much praised. Th rigging, and hull above and below water: her enemy, after their advance to Cbamplain, made

BOOK XI. several reconnoissances beyond the lines into the tain Lambert being dangerously wounded in the

province; one in particular, on the night of the beight of the action, the melancholy task of writCa. VIII. 19th, with a detachment of cavalry, and a body ing the detail devolves on me.

of about 1,000 of their regular infantry, the whole “ On the morning of the 29th instant, at eight, 1812.

under the command of Lieut-col. Pike, who was a. m. off St. Salvador, (coast of Brazil,) the wind esteemed, in the United States, an able officer; at north-east, we perceived a strange sail; made but falling in unexpectedly with a small part of all sail in chase, and soon made her out to be a voyageurs and Indians, one of the British ad- large frigate; at noon prepared for action, the vanced-pickets, by whom they were fired upon, chase not answering our private signals, and tackthey were thrown into the greatest confusion, and ing towards us under easy sail; when about four commenced a fire upon each other, which was miles distant she made a signal, and immediately attended with a loss of about fifty of their men in tacked and made all sail away upon the wind. killed and wounded, when they dispersed. The We soon found we had the advantage of her in picket made good their retreat unmolested, and sailing, and came up with her fast, when she hoistwithout a man being hurt.

ed American colours; she then bore about three Nothing more occurred in this quarter during points on our lee-bow. At fifty minutes past one, the remainder of the year. General Dearborn, p. m. the enemy shortened sail, upon which we seeing the vigorous preparations of Sir George bore down upon her; at ten minutes past two, Prevost to receive him, was afraid to advance any when about half a mile distant, she opened her further; and, on the 22d of November, he com fire, giving us a larboard-broadside, which was menced a retreat with bis whole army, which he not returned till we were close on her weatherconducted upon Plattsburg, Burlington, and Al bow. Both ships now manoeuvred to obtain adbany, where he took up his winter-quarters. vantageous positions, our opponent evidently

On the 28th of November a partial action took avoiding close action, and firing high to disable place, in which the main body of the Americans, our masts, in which he succeeded too well, baving under Brigadier-general Smyth, was repulsed with shot away the head of our bowsprit with the jibloss, in an attempt to force the Niagara frontier, boom, and our running rigging so much cut as to between Chippawa and fort Erie, by a small divi- prevent our preserving the weather-gage. sion of British, under Lieutenant-colonel Bishopp. * At five minutes past three, finding the enemy's

On the 26th of December a public notice was raking-fire extremely heavy, Captain Lambert issued by the prince-regent, that the ports and ordered the ship to be laid on-board, in which we harbours of the Chesapeake and Delaware were should have succeeded, had not our fore-mast placed in a state of blockade.

been shot away at this moment, the remains of our Before the year closed, the Americans obtained bowsprit passing over his taffrail; shortly after another triumph over the British navy, in the this the main-top-mast went, leaving the ship tocapture of bis majesty's frigate Java, Captain tally unmanageable, with most of our starboard Lambert, on the 29th of December. The Java guns rendered useless from the wreck lying over was bound to the East Indies, and off the coast them. of Brazil met with the American frigate Consti “At half-past three our gallant captain received tution, where a very severe action ensued, in the a dangerous wound in the breast, and was carried course of which Captain Lambert having received below; from this time we could not fire more than a mortal wound, and the ship being rendered two or three guns until a quarter past four, when quite unmanageable, from the damages she had our mizen-mast was shot away; the ship then fell sustained in her masts and rigging, Mr. Chads, off a little, and brought many of our starboard the first lieutenant, who succeeded to the com guns to bear; the enemy's rigging was so much mand, was under the disagreeable necessity of cut that he could not now avoid shooting a-head, striking his colours. This unfortunate event was which brought us fairly broadside and broadside. communicated to the admiralty, by Mr. Chade, in Our main-yard now went into the slings, both the following manner :

ships continued engaged in this manner till thirty

five minutes past four, we frequently on fire in United States Frigate Constitution, off St. Sal. consequence of the wreck lying on the side envador, Dec. 31, 1812.

gaged. Our opponent now made sail a-head

out of gun-shot, where he remained an hour re“ Sir. - It is with deep regret that I write you, pairing his damages, leaving us an unmanageable for the information of the lords commissioners of wreck, with only the main-mast left, and that totthe admiralty, that his majesty's ship Java is no tering. Every exertion was made by us during more, after sustaining an action, on the 29th in- this interval to place the ship in a state to renew stant, for several hours, with the American frigate the action. We succeeded in clearing the wreck Constitution, which resulted in the capture and of our masts from our guns, a sail was set on the ultimate destruction of his majesty's ship. Cap. stumps of the fore-mast and bowsprit, the weather

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