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BOOK XI.

CH. VIII.

1813.

The motion was seconded by Earl Stanhope. who, after his failure at Boulogne, made a com

Lord Melville then rose and said, that though promise with him for a considerable sum, with the conduct, and not the grounds of the war was which he went to America. Earl S. said, be had the matter now to be considered, yet there was given a plan to the admiralty for preventing the one circumstance connected with the declaration effect of his inventions, which he thought of a of it on which it was necessary to say a few formidable nature. words. Although the government of the United The Earl of Galloway entered into some proStates had for some time before been in such a fessional remarks respecting the naval disasters frame of mind as ultimately led to hostilities, yet oi the American war, which he attributed very a general opinion prevailed, that the revocation much to the power of the enemy to man their few of the orders in council would have pacified it. large frigates with prime sailors; whereas the He protested against the noble earl's proposition, great demand for men in our navy had rendered that it was the duty of ministers always to have it necessary to admit a large proportion of an inkept there a fleet sufficient to blockade all the ferior class. He touched upon the propensity of ports in America. There were other important our seamen to desert, which he thought might be branches of the service to which their attention best obviated by an increase of petty officers was called, and our force on other stations was made from the best among them, and by more no more than sufficient, the blockading force in liberal remuneration. He was also of opinion, in many places being less than the force blockaded. opposition to Lord Melville, that ships of preHe had never met with a naval officer who enter cisely the same kind with those of the Americans tained the opinion of the noble mover respecting should be built, in order to contend with them. the possibility of completely blockading the Ame- He asserted that he should have approved of the rican ports. As to what he had said relative to motion had its object been not censure, but inthe ships which had been opposed to the Ameri- quiry. cans, Lord M.

ille observed, that we were not Earl Grey began with adverting to the contract to alter the classes of ships in the British navy of the admiralty with Mr. Fulton, and the commerely because there were three American ships promise which he himself bad negociated, in the of unusual dimensions. All naval officers agreed conviction that his invention would not prove of in the opinion that it was not proper to multiply the smallest utility. He confessed, however, that the classes of vessels; and it was far better to such was his dislike to this mode of warfare, that send out seventy-four's than to set about building be had passed many uneasy nights from the idea ships only fit to cope with the American navy. of its impracticability. He theu made a number The advice to diminish the number of small ves of remarks relative to the expediency of an in. sels was one in which no experienced person quiry on the present occasion, not only on accould concur, since these were peculiarly requi- count of our naval disasters, but the whole masite to protect our trade against the enemy's pri- nagement of the American war. vateers. The balance of capture was so far from ticularly on the neglect in protecting the trade of being in favor of the Americans, that it was the the West Indies and of the coast of South Amereverse. With respect to not sooner issuing letters rica, and on the superiority of force which the of marque, the delay was for the purpose of know Americans had been suffered to construct on the ing the reception given by the Americans to our Canadian lakes. proposals of accommodation. As to the charge Earl Bathurst defended the conduct of minis. of mismanagement in the dock-yards, measures ters upon similar grounds with those taken by had been taken to remedy defects. Some of our Lord Melville. ships, it was true, bad undergone a rapid decay, Lord Grenville said, that the doctrine advanced through haste in the building ; but it was neces by Lord Galloway, that inquiry implied censure, sary that our exertions should keep pace with would lead to the abdication of all the functions those of the enemy.-For all these reasons he of parliament; for no inquiry could be instituted, should give his vote against the motion.

in that case, without incurring the guilt of conEarl Stanhope made a speech chiefly relative demning the parties unheard. He recapitulated to his own plans for the improvement of naval some of the charges against ministry which had architecture. The most remarkable part was his been already urged in support of the motion. reference to the contrivances of Mr. Fulton for After the Earl of Liverpool had spoken in deblowing up ships under water, whose offers, he fence of the ministers, and the noble mover had said, had been rejected by Bonaparte, but had briefly replied, the house divided, for the motion been accepted by Mr. Pitt and Lord Melville, 59; against it, 125. Majority, 66.

He dwelt par

CHAPTER IX.

Dollars.

United States of America.--Rapid Increase in Wealth and Population.--Commerce.-Political

Parties.-Character of the Americans.-Number of Inhabitants.-State of the Army and Navy.-
Satire upon American Discipline.Political Life of Mr. Madison.Biographical Sketch, and
Character of Mr. Randolph.— Importance of Canada.-Its Military Force, Population, g'c.

No country, perhaps, ever increased in popula- jealousy ; but the democrats, who may be styled BOOK XI. tion and wealth, or rose into importance, more “ the people,” carry this to the extremity of the rapidly than the United States of America. This most confirmed and rancorous malice; rendered, Chap. IX. may be traced to a variety of causes. During indeed, comparatively impotent by its wildness

1812. the last twenty years, great numbers of British and extravagance; while the federalists, who are subjects, disaffected to the government, or borne in general the opulent, have more just and condown by adverse circumstances, have sought the sistent views. The drinking of toasts at public shores of America. The long continuance of a dinners is a very common method of venting state of war in Europe has also greatly contri- party spleen in America, and of drinking debuted to swell the lists of emigrants, who, car

struction to their enemies. The newspapers pubrying with them their arts and collective expe- lish long lists of these toasts the next day, as so rience, have increased both their numerical force many proofs of patriotism and virtue ; and take a and political importance. To this may be added pride in shewing how brilliantly their partizans the advantages which they derived from neutral can blackguard public characters in their cups. commerce when all Europe were engaged in war.

An able writer has observed, that an obvious Before hostilities commenced, their commerce trait in the American character is vanity. Ostenwas in the most flourishing state. According to tatious and conceited in an eminent degree, the an official document, which was laid before the Americans will allow nothing to be excellent house of representatives in 1808, the exports of or praiseworthy in foreigners. All other men, the United States, from the 1st of October, 1806, Britons not excepted, are regarded by them with to the lst of October, 1807,were valued as follows: contemptuous disdain ; and should one of the The goods, wares and merchandize of

latter reside in America, or join in the society of domestic growth or manufacture 48,699,592 her people, he will be soon informed, to his great Do. of foreign growth or manufacture 59,643,558 surprise, that all British subjects are slaves and

vassals, that tyranny and oppression pervade Total dollars - - 108,343,150 every department of the state, and that their own In this prosperous career, the Americans might happy country, and admirable constitution, is the have proceeded had they pursued a wise policy, only resort for liopeless misery. There, men are and not involved themselves in a war which was all free; there alone the virtues flourish; and foreign to their interests. The establishment of thither, as to a place of refuge, are the arts and their independence has created an evident change sciences destined to flee, when the progress of in their moral as well as political character; and tyranny in Europe shall have banished them from this, no doubt, arises that self-consequence thence. His astonishment would be increased by and conceit in the young American, which gives further bearing that the people of the “ old counsuch an air of rude, licentious liberty to the mass try," meaning Great Britain, are degenerated, of the people. This kind of liberty frequently not only in moral virtue, but in physical power; proves more tyrannical in society than the occa and that they now are larger bodied, more brave, sional abuse of magisterial power in a monar, enlightened, and ingenious. chical government; for a man in the United The Americans, in their commercial transaeStates, if he does not happen to be on the popu- tions, are exceedingly enterprising, which would lar side of the question, is often afraid to speak deserve bigh commendation, were it always conbis sentiments, lest he should be abused and ill- ducted on just and liberal principles ; but the retreated. These political animosities and arbi verse is in general the case : fraud, smuggling, trary conduct extend even to courts of justice, and perjury, are practised with success, and withwhere the judges on the bench too often feel out reserve ; and thus cupidity prevails among their contagious effects.

them to an astonishing degree. An eminent din These political parties are distinguished under vine of Boston thus justly characterized his the titles of federal-republicans and democrats. countrymen from the pulpit, on“ putting away Both parties view this country with considerable the easily besetting sin.”_" There have existed

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The motion was seconded by Earl Stanhope. who, after his failure at Boulogne, made a com

Lord Melville then rose and said, that though promise with him for a considerable sum, with the conduct, and not the grounds of the war was which he went to America. Earl S. said, he had the matter now to be considered, yet there was given a plan to the admiralty for preventing the one circumstance connected with the declaration effect of his inventions, which he thought of a of it on which it was necessary to say a few formidable nature. words. Although the government of the United The Earl of Galloway entered into some proStates had for some time before been in such a fessional remarks respecting the naval disasters frame of mind as ultimately led to hostilities, yet oi the American war, which he attributed very a general opinion prevailed, that the revocation much to the power of the enemy to man their few of the orders in council would have pacified it. large frigates with prime sailors; whereas the He protested against the noble earl's proposition, great demand for men in our navy had rendered that it was the duty of ministers always to have it necessary to admit a large proportion of an inkept there a fleet sufficient to blockade all the ferior class. He touched upon the propensity of ports in America.—There were other important our seamen to desert, wbich' he thought might be branches of the service to which their attention best obviated by an increase of petty officers was called, and our force on other stations was made from the best among them, and by more no more than sufficient, the blockading force in liberal remuneration. He was also of opinion, in many places being less than the force blockaded. opposition to Lord Melville, that ships of preHe had never met with a naval officer who enter- cisely the same kind with those of the Americans tained the opinion of the noble mover respecting should be built, in order to contend with them. the possibility of completely blockading the Ame- He asserted that he should have approved of the rican ports. As to what he had said relative to motion had its object been not censure, but inthe ships which had been opposed to the Ameri- quiry. cans, Lord Melville observed, that we were not Earl Grey began with adverting to the contract to alter the classes of ships in the British navy of the admiralty with Mr. Fulton, and the commerely because there were three American ships proinise which he himself bad negociated, in the of unusual dimensions. All naval officers agreed conviction that his invention would not prove of in the opinion that it was not proper to multiply the smallest utility. He confessed, however, that the classes of vessels; and it was far better to such was his dislike to this mode of warfare, that send out seventy-four's than to set about building he had passed many uneasy nights from the idea ships only fit to cope with the American navy. of its impracticability. He theu made a number The advice to diminish the number of small ves of remarks relative to the expediency of an insels was one in which no experienced person quiry on the present occasion, not only on accould concur, since these were peculiarly requi- count of our naval disasters, but the whole masite to protect our trade against the enemy's pri- nagement of the American war. He dwelt parvateers. The balance of capture was so far from ticularly on the neglect in protecting the trade of beivg in favor of the Americans, that it was the the West Indies and of the coast of South Amereverse. With respect to not sooner issuing letters rica, and on the superiority of force which the of marque, the delay was for the purpose of know Americans had been suffered to construct on the ing the reception given by the Americans to our Canadian lakes. proposals of accommodation. As to the charge Earl Bathurst defended the conduct of minisof mismanagement in the dock-yards, measures ters upon similar grounds with those taken by had been taken to remedy defects. Some of our Lord Melville. ships, it was true, bad undergone a rapid decay, Lord Grenville said, that the doctrine advanced through haste in the building, but it was neces- by Lord Galloway, that inquiry implied censure, sary that our exertions should keep pace with would lead to the abdication of all the functions those of the enemy.--For all these reasons he of parliament; for no inquiry could be instituted, should give his vote against the motion.

in that case, without incurring the guilt of conEarl Stanhope made a speech chiefly relative demoing the parties unheard. He recapitulated to his own plans for the improvement of naval some of the charges against ministry which had architecture. The most remarkable part was his been already urged in support of the motion. reference to the contrivances of Mr. Fulton for After the Earl of Liverpool had spoken in deblowing up ships under water, whose offers, he fence of the ministers, and the noble mover had said, had been rejected by Bonaparte, but had briefly replied, the house divided, for the motion been accepted by Mr. Piti and Lord Melville, 59; against it, 125. Majority, 66.

CHAPTER IX.

Dollars.

United States of America.--Rapid Increase in Wealth and Population.--Commerce.-Political

Parties.-Character of the Americans.Number of Inhabitants.--State of the Army and Navy.-
Satire upon American Discipline. Political Life of Mr. Madison.Biographical Sketch, and
Character of Mr. Randolph.— Importance of Canada.--Its Military Force, Population, fc.

No country, perhaps, ever increased in popula- jealousy; but the democrats, who may be styled BOOK XI. tion and wealth, or rose into importance, more “ the people,” carry this to the extremity of the rapidly than the United States of America. This most confirmed and rancorous malice; rendered, Chap. IX. may be traced to a variety of causes. During indeed, comparatively impotent by its wildness

1812. the last twenty years, great numbers of British and extravagance; while the federalists, who are subjects, disaffected to the government, or borne in general the opulent, have more just and condown by adverse circumstances, have sought the sistent views. The drinking of toasts at public shores of America. The long continuance of a dinners is a very common method of venting state of war in Europe has also greatly contri- party spleen in America, and of drinking debuted to swell the lists of emigrants, who, car

struction to their enemies. The newspapers pubrying with them their arts and collective expe- lish long lists of these toasts the next day, as so rience, have increased both their numerical force many proofs of patriotism and virtue ; and take a and political importance. To this may be added pride in shewing how brilliantly their partizans the advantages which they derived from neutral can blackguard public characters in their cups. commerce when all Europe were engaged in war. An able writer bas observed, that an obvious Before hostilities commenced, their commerce trait in the American character is vanity. Ostenwas in the most flourishing state. According to tatious and conceited in an eminent degree, the an 'official document, which was laid before the Americans will allow nothing to be excellent house of representatives in 1808, the exports of or praiseworthy in foreigners. All other men, the United States, from the 1st of October, 1806, Britons not excepted, are regarded by them with to the 1st of October, 1807,were valued as follows: contemptuous disdain ; and should one of the The goods, wares and merchandize of

latter reside in America, or join in the society of domestic growth or manufacture 48,699,592 her people, he will be soon informed, to his great Do. of foreign growth or manufacture 59,643,558 surprise, that all British subjects are slaves and

vassals, that tyranny and oppression pervade Total dollars 108,343,150 every department of the state, and that their own In this prosperous career, the Americans might happy country, and admirable constitution, is the have proceeded had they pursued a wise policy, only resort for liopeless misery. There, men are and not involved themselves in a war which was all free; there alone the virtues flourish; and foreign to their interests. The establishment of thither, as to a place of refuge, are the arts and their independence has created an evident change sciences destined to flee, when the progress of in their moral as well as political character; and tyranny in Europe shall have banished them from this, no doubt, arises that self-consequence thence. His astonishment would be increased by : and conceit in the young American, which gives further bearing that the people of the “old counsuch an air of rude, licentious liberty to the mass try,” meaning Great Britain, are degenerated, of the people. This kind of liberty frequently not only in moral virtue, but in physical power; proves more tyrannical in society than the occa and that they now are larger bodied, more brave, sional abuse of magisterial power in a monar, enlightened, and ingenious. chical government; for a man in the United The Americans, in their commercial transaeStates, if he does not happen to be on the popu-' tions, are exceedingly enterprising, which would lar side of the question, is often afraid to speak deserve bigh commendation, were it always conhis sentiments, lest he should be abused and ill ducted on just and liberal principles ; but the retreated. These political animosities and arbi- verse is in general the case : fraud, smuggling, trary conduct extend even to courts of justice,

courts of justice, and perjury, are practised with success, and withwhere the judges on the bench too often feel out reserve ; and thus cupidity prevails among their contagious effects.

them to an astonishing degree. An eminent diThese political parties are distinguished under vine of Boston thus justly characterized his the titles of federal-republicans and democrats. countrymen from the pulpit, on “ putting away Both parties view this country with considerable the easily besetting sin."-" There have existed

me.

BOOK XI. at all times," said he,“ not only personal and The men kad been notified to meet at nine

peculiar, but also national sins; for instance, o'clock, ó armed and equipped as the law directs,' Chap. IX.

among the ancients the Asiatics were accused of that is to say, with a gun and cartouch-box at

effeminacy, the Carthaginians of perfidy, &c. So least; but, as directed by the law of the United 1912.

among the moderns the French are said to be vo States, with a good firelock, a sufficient bayonet latile and frivolous, the Spaniards proud and cruel, and belt, and pouch with a box to contain not less the English haughty, and evincing too great con than twenty-four sufficient cartridges of powder tempt for strangers; and we, my brethren, of be- and ball.' At twelve o'clock about one-third, ing greedy of gain, and not over scrupulous how perhaps half, the men had collected; and an inwe obtain it.

spector's return of the number present would have In America all are politicians, and every man a stood nearly thus: one captain, one lieutenant, enfederalist or a democrat. The eagerness of the sign none, serjeants two, corporals none, drumpeople for news far surpasses even that of this mers none, fifers none, privates present, twentycountry. Newspapers are not charged with any five, ditto absent, thirty, guns fifteen, gunlocks duty, and seldom cost more than two-pence halitwelve, ramrods ten, rifle pouches three, bayonets penny and about a balfpenny more for the car none, belts none, spare-Alints none, cartridges riage. Hence these vebicles of intelligence and none, horsewhips, walking-canes, and umbrellas, information are accessible to every class of peo- twenty-two. ple in the states; and there is scarcely a poor “ A little before one o'clock, the captain, whom owner of a miserable box hut, who lives on the I shall distinguish by the name of Clodpole, gave borders of the stage-road, but has a newspaper directions for forming the line of parade. In obeleft at bis door. When politics are not the sub dience to this order, one of the serjeants, the ject of conversation, no distinction between a fe- strength of whose lungs had long supplied the deralist or a democrat can be discerned; but the place of a drum and tile, placed himself in front moment it turns upon the conduct of a Jefferson of the house, and began to bawl with great veheor Adams, of the English and French nations, mence, · All Captain Clodpole's company to paopen war immediately commences, not only be- rade there! come, gentlemen, parade here!

patween rival politicians, but between friends and rade here!' says he, and all

rade here!' says he, and all you that hasn't guns, acquaintances.

fall into the lower eend.' He might have bawled Religious toleration is allowed in its fullest ex till this time, with as little success as the Syrens tent in every state of the Union; and people of sung to Ulysses, had he not changed his post to a every sect and form of worship are admitted to a neighbouring shade; there he was immediately share of the government. The population of the joined by all who were then at leisure; the others United States, which, in 1777, was estimated at were at that time engaged either as parties or 1,500,000, is now above 10,000,000. In 1808, spectators at a game of fives, and could not just the navy consisted of ten frigates and eighty-one then attend: however, in less than half an hour sloops and gun-boats; the regular army amounted the game was finished, and the captain was ento no more than 2,000 men. But throughout the abled to form his company, and proceed in the states, every able-bodied white male-citizen, be- duties of the day. tween the age of eighteen and forty-five, is en « Look to the right and dress! rolled in the militia, and free people of colour are They were soon, by the help of the non-comenrolled as pioneers. One-third of the militia missioned officers, placed in a straight line; but as may be marched out of each state by order of the every man was anxious to see how the rest stood, executive of the United States, on particular those on the wings pressed forward for that puremergencies, and under certain conditions; and pose, till the whole line assumed nearly the form treated in every respect the same as the regular of a crescent. • Whero! look at 'em !' says the troops, except that in cases of courts-martial the captain, why, gentlemen, you are all crooking court is to be selected from the militia of the state. here at both eends, so that you will get on to me The militia of the United States, however, is for by and by: come, gentlemen, dress! dress!' the most part badly disciplined. In general, they “ This was accordingly done; but impelled, by meet only to eat, drink, and make merry. The the same motive as before, they soon resumed following excellent satire upon one of those meet their former figure, and so they were permitted to ings may afford our readers some amusement, and remain. Now, gentleinen,' says give them some idea of American tactics :-“I hap • I am going to carry you through the revolutions pened, not long since, to be present at the muster of the manual exercise, and I want you, gentleof a captain's company, in a remote part of one of men, if you please, to pay every particular attenthe counties; and as no general description could tion to the word of command, just exactly as I convey an adequate idea of the achievements of give it out to you. I hope you will have a little that day, I must be permitted to go a little into patience, gentlemen, if you please, and I'll be as the detail, as well as my recollection will serve short as possible; and if I should be a-going

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