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been fresh in the recollection of the forces em that day, the American troops, under Brigadie.. BOOK XI. ployed on that occasion, and would have justified general M-Clure, being about to evacuate Fort à retaliation on their part, their forbearance was George, which they could no longer retain, by an Chap. XI. strongly manifested, and the directions his excel act of inhumanity disgraceful to themselves and lency had given to the commander of that expe to the nation to which they belong, set fire to up

1813. dition so scrupulously obeyed, that scarcely can wards of 150. houses, composing the beautiful vil. another instance be shewn in which, during a lage of Newark, and burned them to the ground; state of war, and under similar circumstances, an leaving, without covering or shelter, those innoenemy so completely under the power, and at the cent, unfortunate, and distressed inhabitants,' mercy of their adversaries, had so little cause of whom that officer, by his proclamation, had


viously engaged to protect. " During the course of the same summer, forts “ His excellency would have ill-consulted the Schlosser and Black-rock were surprised and honor of his couniry, and the justice due to his taken by a part of the forces under the command majesty's injured and insulted 'subjects, had he of Major-general de Rottenburgh, on the Niagara permitted an act of such needless cruelty to pass frontier, at both of which places personal property unpunished, or had he failed to visit, whenever was respected, and the public buildings were the opportunity arrived, upon the inhabitants of alone destroyed.

the neighbouring American frontier the calami" It was certainly matter of just and reasonable ties thus inflicted upon those of our own. expectation, that the humane and liberal course “ The opportunity bas occurred, and a full meaof conduct pursued by his excellency on these sure of retaliation has taken place, such as it is different occasions would have had its due weight boped will teach the enemy to respect, in future, with the American government, and would have the laws of war, and recall him to a sense of what led it to have abstained, in the further prosecution is due to himself as well as to us. of the war, from any acts of wantonness or vio “ In the further prosecution of the contest, to lence, which could only tend, unnecessarily, to which so extraordinary a character has been add to its ordinary calamities, and to bring down given, his excellency must be guided by the upon their own unoffending citizens, a retaliation, course of conduct which the enemy shall herewhich, though distant, they must have known after pursue. Lamenting, as bis excellency does, would await and certainly followed such conduct. the necessity imposed upon him of retaliating

“ Undeterred, however, by his excellency's ex- upon the subjects of America the iniseries inflictample of moderation, or by any of the consequen- ed on the inhabitants of Newark, it is not bis inces to be apprehended from the adoption of such tention to pursue further a system of warfare so barbarous measures, the American forces at Fort revolting to his own feelings, and so little congeGeorge, acting, as there is every reason to believe, nial to the British character, unless the future under the orders, or with the approbation of their measure of the enemy should compel him again government, for some time previous to their eva to resort to it. cuation of that fortress, under various pretences “ To those possessions of the enemy along the burned and destroyed the farm-houses and build- whole line of the frontier which have hitherto ings of many of the respectable and peaceable remained undisturbed, and which are now within inhabitants of that neighbourhood. But the full bis excellency's reach, and at the mercy of the measure of this species of barbarity remained to troops under his command, his excellency bas be completed at a season when all its horrors determined to extend the same forbearance and, might be more fully and keenly felt by those who the same freedom from rapine and murder which were to become the wretched victims of it.

they have hitherto experienced; and from this "It will hardly be credited by those who shall determination, the future conduct of the Amerihereafter read it in the page of history, that in the can government shall alone induce bis excellency enlightened era of the nineteenth century, and in to depart

. the inclemency of a Canadian winter, the troops u The inhabitants of these provinces will, in the of a nation, calling itself civilized and Christian, mean time, be prepared to resist, with firmness had wantonly, and without the sbadow of a pre- and courage, whatever attempts the resentment text, forced 400 helpless women and children to of the enemy, arising from their disgrace and quit their dwellings, and to be the mournful spec their merited sufferings, may lead them to make; tators of the conflagration and total destruction of well assured that they will be powerfully assisted, all that belonged to them.

at all points, by the troops under his excellency's “ Yet such was the fate of Newark on the 10th of command, and that prompt and signal vengeance December, a day which the inhabitants of Upper will be taken for every fresh departure, by the Canada can never forget, and the recollection of enemy, from that system of warfare which ought which cannot but nerve their arms when again, alone to subsist between enlightened and civilized

BOOK XI. It is with regret that we are obliged to con dent, which is a most important and interesting

clude our account of the American campaign document. CHAP. XI. with the notice of some retaliatory measures, in

“ Fellow-citizens of the senate and of the house addition to those mentioned in the above pro- of representatives--Ir meeting you at the pre1813. elamation, which, if they had been persisted sent interesting conjuncture, it would have been

in, would have stamped a character on the war highly satisfactory if I could have communicated highly inconsistent with the supposed improve

a favorable result of the mission charged with ment of the age in the practice of justice and negociations for restoring peace. It was a just humanity. The peculiar circumstances under expectation from the respect due to the distinwhich the United States are placed with respect guished sovereign who had invited them by his to emigrants from foreign countries, on whom offer of mediation, from the readiness with which their population was originally founded, and to the invitation was accepted on the part of the whom they are still indebted for large accessions United States, and from the pledge to be found of useful eitizens, had made them desirous of jo- in an act of their legislature for the liberality troducing a new principle into the code of nations, which their plenipotentiaries would carry into that of the rigbt of individuals to transfer their al- the negociations, that no time would be lost by legiance from the country of their birth to that by the British government in embracing the experiwhich they are adopted, and, in consequence, the ment for hastening a stop to tbe effusion of blood. right of nations to accept and support that trans A prompt and cordial acceptance of the medifer. This maxim being contrary to that of all ation on that side was the less to be doubted, as the European governments, it is evident that fre- it was of a nature not to submit rights or pretenquent disputes must arise from putting it in prac. sions on either side to the decision of an umpire, tice, especially in time of war; and Great Bri- but to afford merely an opportunity, honorable tain being the country from which America de and desirable to both, for discussing, and, if posrives the greatest part of its emigrant population, sible, adjusting them for the interest of both. in every quarrel the two states must be involved * The British cabinet, either mistaking our de in angry contention from this source, until some sire of peace for a dread of British power, or misled common rule of decision is agreed upon between by other fallacious conclusions, has disappointed them. The actual existence of such a difference, this reasonable anticipation. No communication with its lamentable effects, are made known in from our envoys having reached us, no informathe general orders issued by the commander of the tion on the subject has been received from that British forces from Montreal on October the 27th. source; but it is kpown that the mediation was The faets stated are, that' twenty-three soldiers' declined in tbe first instance, and there is no eviof the infantry of the United States, being made dence, notwithstanding the lapse of time, that a prisoners, were sent to England, and held in close change of disposition in the British councils bas confinement as British subjects; that General taken place, or is to be expected. Dearborn had been instructed to put inte similar 4 Under such circumstances, a nation, proud of confinement twenty-three British soldiers as hos its rights, and conscious of its strength, has no tages for the safety of the former; that the prince choice but an exertion of the one in the support of regent had given directions to put in close con the other. finement, forty-six American officers and non

u To this determination, the best encouragecommissioned officers, to answer for the safety of ment is derived from the success with wbieh it the last twenty-three soldiers; and also to apprize has pleased the Almighty to bless our arms, both General Dearborn, that if any of them should on the land and on the water. suffer death in consequence of executing the law “ Whilst proofs have been continued of the of nations upon the first twenty-three confined as enterprise and skill of our eruisers, public and British suhjects, double the number of the confin- private, on the ocean, and a new trophy gained in ed American officers should immediately be se the capture of a British by an American vessel lected for retaliation ; and, moreover, that the of war, after an action givivg celebrity to the commanders of his majesty's armies and fleets name of tbe victorious commander; the great had received orders to prosecute the war with inland waters, op wbich the enemy were also to unmitigated severity against all the cities, towns, be encountered, have presented achievemeuts of and villages of the United States, in case their our paval arms, as brilliant in their character as government sbould persist in their intention of they have been important in their consequences. reialiation. In this dreadful state of mutual « On Lake Erie, the squadron under command menace, affairs remained at the close of the of Captam Perry having met the British squayear.

dron, of superior force, a sanguinary conflict The Congress of the United States met at ended in the capture of the whole. The conduct Washington on the 7th of December, when they of that officer, adroit as it was dating, and which received the following message from the presi was so well seconded by his eomrades, justly en

vage force.

titles them to the admiration and gratitude of against us, no exertions to effect it bave been BOOK XI. their country; and will fill an early page in its spared. On our south-western border, the Creek naval annals, with a victory never surpassed in tribes, who, yielding to our persevering endea- Chap. XI. lustre however it may have been in magnitude. vours were gradually acquiring more civilised

“On Lake Ontario, the caution of the British habits, becavie the unfortunate victims of seduc 1813. commander, favored by contingencies, frustrated tion. A war in that quarter has been the consethe efforts of the American commander to bring quence, infuriated by a bloody fanaticisin reon a decisive action. Captain Chauncey was cently propagated among them. able, however, to establish an ascendancy on that “ It was necessary to crush such a war, before important theatre; and to prove, by the manner it could spread among the contiguous tribes, and in which he effected every thing possible, that before it could favor enterprizes of the enemy into opportunities only were wanted for a more shining that vicinity. With this view a force was called display of his own talents and of the gallantry of into the service of the United States, from the those under bis command.

states of Georgia and Tennessee, which, with the “ The success on Lake Erie having opened a nearest regular troops, and other corps from the passage to the territory of the enemy, the officer Mississippi territory, might not only chastise the commanding the north-western army transferred savages into present peace, but make a lasting the war thither; and rapidly pursuing the hostile impression on their fears. troops, fleeing with their savage associates, forced The progress of the expedition, so far as it is a general action, which quickly terminated in the yet known, corresponds with the martial zeal with capture of the British, and dispersion of the sa which it was espoused; and the best hopes of a

satisfactory issue are authorised by the complete * This result is signally honorable to Major- success with which a well-planned enterprise was general Harrison, by whose military talents it was executed against a body of hostile savages, by a prepared; to Colonel Johnson and his mounted detachment of the volunteer militia of Tennessee, volunteers, whose impetuous onset gave a deci under the gallant command of General Coffee; sive blow to the ranks of the enemy; and to the and by a still more important victory over a spirit of the volunteer militia, equally brave and larger body of them, gained under the immediate patriotic, who bore an interesting part in the command of Major-general Jackson ; an officer scene: more especially to the chief magistrate of equally distinguished for his patriotism and his Kentucky at the head of them, whose heroism, military talents. signalised in the war which established the inde “ The systematic perseverance of the enemy in pendence of bis country, sought, at an advanced courting the aid of the savages in all quarters, age, a share in hardships and battles, for main had the natural effect of kindling their ordinary taining its rights and its safety.

propensity to war into a passion, which, even “ The effect of these successes has been to among those best disposed towards the United rescue the inhabitants of Michigan from their op- States, was ready, if not employed on our side, pressions, aggravated by gross infractions of the to be turned against us. A departure from our capitulation which subjected them to a foreign protracted forbearance to accept the services tenpower: to alienate the savages of numerous dered by them has thus been forced upon us. tribes froni the enemy, by whom they were dis- But, in yielding to it, the retaliation has been appointed and abandoned ; and to relieve an ex- mitigated as much as possible, both in its extent tensive region of country from a merciless war and in its character, stopping far short of the exfare, which desolated its frontiers, and imposed ample of the enemy, who owe the advantages they on its citizens the most harassing services. have occasionally gained in battle, chiefly to the “In consequence of our paval superiority on number of their

savage associates; and who have Lake Ontario, and the opportunity afforded by not controlled them either from their usual pracit for concentrating our forces by water, opera- tice of indiscriminate massacre on defenceless intions, which had been previously planned, were habitants, or from scenes of carnage without a set on foot against the possessions of the enemy parallel, on prisoners to the British arms, guarded on the St. Lawrence. Such, however, was the by all the laws of hunanity and honorable war. delay produced, in the first instance, by adverse “ For these enormities, the enemy are equally weather of unusual violence and continuance, responsible, whether, with the power to prevent and such the circumstances attending the final them, they want the will; or, with the knowledge movements of the army, that the prospect, at one of a want of power, they still avail themselves of time so favorable, was not realized. The cruelty such instruments. of the enemy, in enlisting the savages into a war " In other respects the enemy are pursuing a with a nation desirous of mutual emulation in mi course which threatens consequences most afflicttigating its calamities, has not been confined to ing to humanity. any one quarter. Wherever they could be turned. "A standing law of Great Britain naturalizem 67.

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BOOK X, as is well known, all aliens complying with condi- those confined by the enemy; and the British

tions limited to a shorter period than those re. government has been apprised of the determina. Camp. XI.

quired by the United States: and naturalised tion of this government, to retaliate any other

subjects are, in war, employed by her government proceeding against us, contrary to the legitimate 1813,

in common with native subjects. In a contiguous modes of warfare.
British province, regulations promulgated since “ It is as fortunate for the United States, that
the commencement of the war, compel citizens of they have it in their power to meet the enemy in
the United States, being there under certain cir this deplorable contest, as it is honorable to them,
cumstances, to bear arms, whilst of the native that they do not join in it but under the most
emigrants from the United States, who compose imperious obligations, and with the humane pur-
much of the population of the province, a number pose of effectuating a return to the established
have actually borne arms against the United usages of war.
States within their limits; some of whom, after “ The views of the French government on the
'having done so, have become prisoners of war, subjects which have been so long committed to

our possession. The British negociation, have received no elucidation since commander in that province, nevertheless, with the close of your late session. The minister-plethe sanction, as appears, of his government, nipotentiary of the United States at Paris had thought proper to select from American prisoners not been enabled, by proper opportunities, to of war

, and sent to Great Britain for trial as cri- press the objects of his mission, as prescribed by
minals, a number of individuals, who had emi bis instructions.
grated from the British dominions long prior to the “ The militia being always to be regarded as
state of war between the two nations, who had in the great bulwark of defence and security for
corporated themselves into our political society, in free states, and the constitution having' wisely
the modes recognised by the law and the prac- committed to the national authority a use of that
tice of Great Britain, and who were made prison- force, as the best provision against an unsafë mi-
cers of war, under the banners of their adopted litary establishment, as well as a resource pecu-
country, fighting for its rights and its safety. liarly adapted to a country having the extent and

« The protection due to these citizens requiring the exposure of the United States; I recominend
an effectual interposition in their behalf, a like to Congress a revision of the militia-laws, for the
number of British prisoners of war were put into purpose of securing, more effectually, the services
confinement, with a notification that they would of all detachments called into the employment
experience whatever violence might be committed and placed under the government of the United
on the American prisoners of war sent to Great » States.

" It will deserve the consideration of Congress
" It was hoped that this necessary consequence also, whether, among other improvements in the
of the step unadvisedly taken on the part of militia-laws, justice does not require a regulation,
Great Britain, would have led her government to under due precautions, for defraying the expense
reflect on the inconsistencies of its conduct, and, incident to the first assembling as well as to the
that a sympathy with the British, if not with the subsequent movements of detachments called
American sufferers, would have arrested the into the national service.
cruel career opened by its example.

“ To give our vessels of war, public and pri“This was unhappily not the case. In viola- vate, the requisite advantage in their cruizes, it is tion both of consistency and humanity, American of much importance that they should have, both officers and non-commissioned officers, in double for themselves and their prizes, the use of the the number of the British soldiers confined here, ports of friendly powers. With this view, I rewere ordered into close confinement, with formal commend to Congress the expediency of such notice, that in the event of a retaliation for the legal provisions as may supply the defects, or death which might be inflicted on the prisoners- remove the doubts of the executive authority, to of-war sent to Great Britain for trial, the officers allow to the cruizers of other powers, at war with so confined would be put to death also. It was, enemies of the United States, such use of the notified at the time, that the commanders of the American ports and markets as may correspond British fleets and armies on our coasts are in.. with the privileges allowed by such powers to structed, in the same event, to proceed with a. American cruizers. destructive severity against our towns and their " During the year ending on the 30th of Sepinbabitants.

tember last, the receipts into the treasury have “ That no doubt might be left with the enemy. exceeded 37,000,000 and a balf of dollars, of which of our adherence to the retaliating resort imposed 24,000,000 were the produce of foans. After on us, a correspondent number of British officers, meeting all the demands for public service, there prisoners of war in our hands, were immediately remained in the treasury, on that day, Dear put into close confinement, to abide the fate of 1.7,000,000 of dollars. Under the authority con

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tained in the act of the 2d of August last, for as the greatest of evils by the friends of liberty BOOK XI. borrowing 7,000,000 and a half of dollars, that and of the rights of nations. Our country has sum has been obtained on terms more favorable before preferred them to the degrading condition Ceap. XI, to the United States than those of the preceding which was the alternative, when the sword was loan made during the present year.

1813. Further drawn in the cause which gave birth to our sums to a considerable amount will be necessary national independence: and none who contemto be obtained in the same way during the en plate the magnitude, and feel the value of that "suing year; and from the increased capital of the glorious event, will shrink from a struggle to

coantry, from the fidelity with which the public maintain the high and happy ground on which it
engagements have been kept, and the public cre- placed the American people.
dit maintained, it may be expected, on good “With all good citizens, the justice and necessity
grounds, that the necessary pecuniary supplies of resisting wrongs and usurpations no longer to
will not be wanting.

be borue will sufficiently outweigh the privations
“ The expences of the current year, from the and sacrifices inseparable from a state of war.
multiplied operations falling within it, have ne But it is a reflection moreover, peculiarly consol-
cessarily been extensive. But on a just estimate ing, that whilst wars are generally aggravated by
of the campaign, in which the mass of them has their baneful effects on the internal improvements
been incurred, the cost will not be found dispropor- and permanent prosperity of the nations engaged
tionate to the advantages which have been gained in them, such is the favoured situation of the
The campaign has indeed, in its latter stages, in one United States, that the calamities of the contest
quarter been less favorable than was expected; into which they have been compelled to' enter,
but in addition to the importance of our naval are mitigated by improvements and advantages,
success, the progress of the campaign has been of which the contest itself is the source.
filled with incidents highly honourable to the “ If the war has increased the interruptions of
American arms.

our commerce, it has at the same time cherished “ The attacks of the enemy on Craney Island, and multiplied our manufactures, so as to make on Fort Meigs, on Sackett's Harbour, and on us .independent of all other countries for the Sandusky, have been vigorously and successfully more essential branches, for which we ought to repulsed: nor have they in any case succeeded be dependent on none; and is even rapidly giving on either frontier, excepting when directed them an extent which will create additional against the peaceable dwellings of individuals, or staples in our future intercourse with foreign villages unprepared or undefended.

markets. « On the other hand, the movements of the “If much treasure has been expended, no inconAmerican army have been followed by the re siderable portion of it has been applied to obduction of York, and of Forts George, Erie, jects durable in their value, and necessary to our and Malden: by the recovery of Detroit, and permanent safety. the extinction of the Indian war in the West; “ If the war has exposed us to increased spoliaand by the occupancy or command of a large tions on the ocean, and to predatory incursions portion of Upper Canada. Battles have also on the land, it has developed the national means been fought on the borders of the St. Lawrence, of retaliating the former, and of providing pro which, though not accomplishing their entire tection against the latter; demonstrating to all, objects, reflect honour on

on the discipline and that every blow aimed at our maritime indepenprowess of our soldiery, the best auguries of dence, is an impulse, accelerating the growth of eventual victory. In the same scale are to be our maritime power. placed the late successes in the south, over one “By diffusing through the mass of the nation of the most powerful, which had become one of the elements of military discipline and instruction, the most hostile also, of the Indian tribes. by augmenting and disturbing warlike prepara

“It would be improper to close this communica- tions applicable to future use, by evincing the tion, without expressing a thankfulness, in which zeal and valour with which they will be employall ought to unite, for the numerous blessings ed, and the cheerfulness with which every peceswith which our beloved country continues to be sary burden will be borne; a greater respect for favoured; for the abundance which overspreads our rights, and a longer duration of our future our land, and the prevailing health of its inha- peace, are promised, than could be expected bitants ; for, the preservation of our internal without these proofs of the national character and tranquillity, and the stability of our free institu resources. tions: and above all, for the light of divine truth, “ The war has proved, moreover, that our free and the protection of every man's conscience in government, like other free governments, though the enjoyment of it. And although among our slow in its early movemeuts, acquires in its pro. blessings we cannot number an exemption from gress a force proportioned to its freedom; and the evils of war, yet these will never be regarded that the union of these states, the guardian of

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