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nous avons arrêté que, jusqu'à nouvel ordre de notre part, les recrues seront incorporées seulement dans les détachements de troupes dont les contingents sont principalement formés d'hommes origi naires de Finlande, et que le chiffre des conscrits appelés chaque année au service actif sera réduit. Puisse cette dernière mesure, impliquant la suppression de certains détachements de troupes Finlandaises, être un nouveau témoignage de notre intention de ne pas accroître pour le moment les charges personnelles de la population de la Finlande pour le service militaire.

Dans la certitude que le régime nouvellement établi assurera, de la part de la population Finlandaise, conformément aux conditions actuelles, l'accomplissement d'un devoir général pour l'Empire, nous ordonnons, savoir:

1. Le Statut du service militaire dans le Grand-Duché de Finlande, approuvé par nous en ce jour, est mis en vigueur en remplacement du Statut du service militaire du Décembre, 1878, avec tous ses compléments et amendements, ainsi que du Manifeste publié le même jour.

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2. Le premier appel des recrues, en strict conformité avec le nouveau Statut (section 1), sera effectué en 1903.

3. Jusqu'à nouvel ordre de notre part

(a.) Les recrues qui seront appelées au service aux termes du nouveau Statut (section 1) seront incorporées dans le bataillon des Tirailleurs Finlandais et dans le régiment des Dragons: et

(b.) Le nombre des conscrits à lever chaque année, à partir de l'année courante, sera proportionné aux besoins de la relève des contingents du bataillon et du régiment susmentionnés.

4. A la date qui sera indiquée par nous seront mises en vigueur pour le Grand-Duché de Finlande les dispositions ci-après :

(1.) L'administration supérieure des détachements de troupes composées principalement de natifs Finlandais appartient au Ministre de la Guerre.

(2.) Le commandement en chef des détachements de troupes mentionnés ci-dessus sub (1), lorsque ces troupes sont cantonnées dans la circonscription militaire de Finlande, est confié au Commandant des troupes de cette circonscription, auquel est dévolue la direction des dits détachements, par l'entremise des Administrations. Militaires d'Arrondissement respectives qui lui sont subordonnées.

(3.) Il est réservé à notre appréciation de régler l'équipement et l'entretien des détachements de troupes composées principalement de natifs Finlandais.

(4.) Les détachements de troupes composés principalement de natifs Finlandais pourront aussi bien en temps de paix qu'en temps de guerre être employés, à notre gré, au service dans les limites de la Russie et à l'étranger. [1900-1901. XCIV.]

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(5.) Parler et écrire couramment le Russe est une condition absolue pour la promotion aux grades d'officier et de sous-officier.

(6.) Les habitants du village du Raïvola, Province de Vibourg, n'appartenant pas à la population indigène, sont assujettis au Statut général du service militaire de l'Empire ("Recueil des Lois," Tome IV, édition de 1897), mais il leur est réservé le droit de remplir le service militaire d'après le Statut pour le Grand-Duché de Finlande (section 1).

5. Il sera procédé graduellement, suivant nos indications spéciales, à la dissolution des bataillons Finlandais des tirailleurs de ligne.

6. En attendant qu'aient été formés les Conseils de Revision d'Arrondissement les attributions de ces Conseils, d'après le nouveau Statut (section 1), seront dévolues aux Conseils de Recrutement.

7. Il est réservé à tous ceux qui, à la promulgation du nouveau Statut du service militaire (section 1), se trouvent au service actif, dans la réserve ou dans la milice territoriale, d'accomplir leur service d'après le Statut du Décembre, 1878, à la condition toutefois que les réservistes qui n'ont pas fait de service actif seront inscrits au moment voulu dans la milice territoriale de la première catégorie.

Donné à Péterhof, le 29° jour du mois de Juin de l'an de grâce 1901, et de notre règne le septième.

NICOLAS.

BRAZILIAN LAW defining and guaranteeing the Rights of
Authors.-Rio de Janeiro, August 1, 1898.

(Translation.)

[No. 496.]

ART. 1. The rights of authorship in any literary, scientific, or artistic work consist in the privilege, which the author alone enjoys, of reproducing or authorizing the reproduction of his work by publication, translation, representation, execution, or in any other manner.

The law guarantees these rights to natives and to strangers living in Brazil in the terms of Article 72 of the Constitution,* provided the authors fulfil the conditions of Article 13.

2. The expression "literary, scientific, or artistic works" includes books, brochures, and writings generally of any kind; dramatic, musical, or musico-dramatical works, musical compositions with or without words; paintings, sculptures, architecture, engraving, lithoFebruary 24, 1891. Vol. LXXXIII, page 487.

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graphy, photography, illustrations of any kind, letters ("cartas "), plans, and sketches-any production, in fact, within the domain of literature, science, or art.

3. The period of legal guarantee of the rights enumerated in Article 1 is :

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(1.) For the exclusive privilege of reproduction or authorization thereof under any form, fifty years, commencing from the 1st January of the year of publication;

(2.) For the exclusive privilege of making translations, performances, or executions, or authorizing them, ten years, commencing, as to translations, from the date above specified, and as to performances and executions, from the first which shall have taken place with the permission of the author.

4. The rights of authors may be alienated, ceded, and transferred wholly or partially, and may descend to the heirs in legal form.

$1. The cession as between living persons will not be valid for more than thirty years, after which the author shall regain his rights if they still exist.

§ 2. The author shall always retain the right, whenever there may be a new edition, of amending or revising his work or of resuming his rights in it, provided he hand over to the grantee the amount he shall have received from him in payment, half the net value of the preceding edition [sic].

$3. For carrying the preceding paragraph into effect the grantee shall declare to the author in writing the number of copies of each edition with the respective price: each issue shall be considered an edition.

§4. The declarations of the grantee shall constitute conclusive proof as against himself, but the author shall be able to contest them whenever he has other evidence to oppose to them.

5. The cession or descent, either of the author's rights or of whatever embodies the work of art, literature, or science, does not give the right of modifying it either for sale or of exploiting it for any other purpose.

6. In the absence of a contract as to publication legally made it is to be presumed always that the author is in the full enjoyment of his rights. Any one who shall publish any work without such contract, whatever statements he may make, shall be liable to the author for an indemnity of not less than 50 per cent. of the market value of the complete edition.

7. The creditors of the author cannot during his life deprive him of his rights, but merely of the profits which may accrue to him therefrom.

8. The proprietors of a posthumous work enjoy the rights of authorship for the periods determined in Article 3, commencing,

however, as to reproductions and translations, from the 1st January of the year of the author's death.

9. When a work produced in collaboration shall not be divisible the collaborators, should there be no contract to the contrary, shall enjoy equal rights, none of them being entitled, without the consent of all the others, to reproduce it or to authorize its reproduction.

In case of disagreement between the co-proprietors it shall be the province of the Courts to decide, they being able, when one of the parties shall be opposed to publication, to decree that he shall not participate in the expenses or the profits or that his name shall not appear in connection with the work.

Each of the proprietors may individually and independently realize his share in the rights.

10. In regard to a theatrical work in which various authors shall have collaborated, the consent of any one of them shall be sufficient for its exhibition or representation, the right being reserved to the rest to obtain indemnity by legal means for the part belonging to them.

11. The editor of an anonymous work, or one signed with a pseudonym, shall have the rights and responsibilities of the author. These, however, shall pass to the author as soon as he shall be known.

12. The translator of a work shall enjoy with reference to it the same rights as an author; but he shall not be able to prevent other translations of the same work being made, except during the period mentioned in Article 3 (2), if he shall be a grantee of this right.

13. The registration in the National Library within a maximum period of two years, ending on the 31st December of the year following that in which the computation of the period mentioned in Article 3 shall commence, is to be an indispensable formality:

(1.) For works of art, literature, or science, printed, photographed, lithographed, or engraved, of one copy in a perfect state of preservation.

(2.) For paintings, sculpture, architecture, drawings, sketches, or similar works, one copy of the respective photograph, in a perfect state, with minimum dimensions of 0.18 m. by 0-24 m.

14. The right of representation in a literary work is regulated according to the dispositions with regard to musical works.

15. No public performance or representation, whether in whole or in part, of a musical work shall take place without the consent of the author, whether it be free or whether its object be one of charity or for profit. If, however, it shall be published and offered for sale, the author shall be supposed to consent to its execution wherever no charge is made.

16. The author's rights in musical compositions include the

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exclusive privilege of making arrangements and variations on the themes ("motivos ") of the original work.

17. The cession of a work of art does not imply the cession of the right of reproduction in favour of any one acquiring it; but the artist cannot reproduce it without a declaration that it is not the original work.

18. The reproduction of a work of art by industrial processes or its application to industry does not entail its losing its artistic character; even in these cases it is subject to the dispositions of the present law.

19. Every deceitful or fraudulent violation of the rights of authorship shall constitute the offence of counterfeit. Those who knowingly sell, offer for sale, have in their establishments for sale, or introduce into the territory of the Republic for commercial purposes counterfeit works, shall be held guilty of the said offence.

20. In offences of counterfeit the accomplices are to be punished with penalties similar to those applicable to the principals.

21. The following shall be considered counterfeits:

(1.) Translations in the Portuguese language of foreign works when not expressly authorized by the author and made by foreigners not domiciled in the Republic and not printed therein. Authorized translations which shall be in accordance with the above conditions shall bear the distinct inscription "translation authorized by the author,"* and they alone may be introduced, sold or represented in the territory of the Republic.

(2.) Reproductions, translations, executions, or representations, whether authorized or not, in the case of works not under legal protection or already become public property, in which alterations, additions, or suppressions have been made without the formal consent of the author.

22. The following shall not be considered counterfeit :

(1.) The reproduction of passages or extracts from works already published or the insertion, even in their entirety, of short extracts, in the body of a larger work, provided that the latter be of a scientific nature or a compilation of writings from various authors made for the use of public instruction. In no case shall there be a reproduction without the quotation of the work from which it is taken and the name of the author.

(2.) The reproduction in daily papers and periodicals of news and political articles taken from other daily papers and periodicals, and the reproduction of speeches made or delivered at public meetings, whatever their nature. In transcribing articles mention must be made of the paper from which they are taken aud the name of the

# " Traducção autorisada pelo autor."

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