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owner fully for the advantages which the worker receives from him. All other work done by the worker should be reckoned outside his primary agreement, and be paid for in money or in kind, according to circumstances. On a large estate, where there are clove and cocoa-nut trees, the collecting of the cocoa-nuts should be paid for by daily wages, and the gathering of cloves by a certain number of pice per pishi, gathered according to present custom.

"A clause in the agreement should state that it is the duty of the owner to look after the welfare of the worker, especially in times of sickness, it being much to his advantage that he should keep his workers in as healthy a state as possible.

"It will be found advisable, probably, to put all workers on the same basis, namely, each one would get a fair equivalent for his work. The system of slave days and free days would be dropped, and slaves, freed slaves, and freemen would all be equally looked upon as simply workers or labourers.

"It seems to me that if the owners would act in a moderately liberal way on these lines towards their present resident slaves, there ought not to be much difficulty in retaining them on the estates, or even in getting others to take up work on the estates on similar conditions.

"There still remains one point to be touched upon—that is, the vague idea the native mind has of any kind of agreement they may make. No engagement of any kind with a native will be of any use unless it is supported by the power of the law. They have still to learn that a word given is a bond to them, and that they cannot break it with impunity. The agreements made between owners and workers must be very definite as regards the mutual duties and obligations of each to the other. Agreements for time and nature of work must be plainly stated, and then both owner and worker must fully understand that they are bound by their mutual agreement, and that neither one nor the other can break it (without offending against the law to which both are equally responsible).”

The simplest verbal contract I have seen carried out in a large plantation in Zanzibar, and which worked well, was as follows:

The labourers on the plantation worked day and day about for the owner of the plantation and themselves in cleaning and cultivating the plantation, and when he (the owner of the plantation) required their services on their days he paid them according to the work agreed upon or by the day, and when harvesting his cloves he paid a fixed rate for such collection, such as 3 to 4 pice per pishi collected. In this manner the labourers paid in work a fair equivalent for their houses, holdings, and care during sickness, and by harvesting the cloves they received a very fair sum of money during

the year.

If such can be carried out, the question of compensation will be almost entirely done away with, and plantation labour will become organized and more satisfactory. With local contracts in force, we may then estimate the number of labourers we fall short of in the islands. To supplement these I suggest asking Her Majesty's Government to allow us to draw upon the mainland Protectorates from the Wadigo, Wadruma, Wanyika, Wagiriama, Wakamba, and Wa Teita, from Mombasa, and, if necessary, to make arrangements with the Uganda Protectorate for a supply of labour through Mr. James Martin. Also that having known these tribes intimately in the past, and Mr. Alexander having known them within the past few years, when the time comes and supplementary labour is needed, we may be allowed personally to proceed to the East Coast Protectorate to make our own arrangements with the tribes and Protectorate officials. This is little to ask of the Protectorates in return for the many thousands of porters and soldiers we have supplied the Imperial Company and Her Majesty's Government with for the last twelve years.

As regards supplementary labour from British East Africa, I would suggest the contract to be for a period of three years. At the end of three years another contract to be entered into, if agreeable to the labourer, or he may work as a free agent for another two years in the islands.

With labour from British East Africa, the preliminary cost of introduction will be small. The annual average wage in Zanzibar is about 87. yearly, or 6d. per diem. For daily labour, from 3d. to 8d. per diem.

In order that these contracts and labour in all its details be properly supervised, two labour bureaus should be established, one here and one in Pemba, under the Commissioners for Slavery, assisted by native Magistrates, to settle all cases of crime. For breaches of contract a labour law will require to be framed.

I would ask that the above contracts and labour law (of which I have merely given a sketch) might be framed by Her Majesty's Agent and Consul-General, in order that there may be no adverse criticism by those who have always said that Zanzibar officials are in sympathy with slavery, and might look on this as another system of slavery.

As regards the formation of labour bureaus there is another scheme by which these offices might be worked, namely, by merchants in Zanzibar, or a company to be raised for the purpose of undertaking the business. The Commissioners would then act as Government supervisors and Magistrates. It seems to me that there is here a possible field for enterprise.

The nearest approach to this scheme in Zanzibar is the working

of Hamalis at the Custom-house, who are engaged by European merchants whenever required. Personally, I would prefer this alternative plan, as it seems to me to be more a matter for private enterprise than for a Government. If such a scheme was undertaken by one of the Zanzibar firms, or a company, the labourer instead of contracting with the owner of the plantation would be drafted in gangs by the merchant to wherever they were required, and the merchant would alone be responsible for their wages and upkeep, he making his own terms for their employment. It is possible that the Government would be of great assistance to the company by taking over labourers for public works when not required on the plantations.

The Government in such a case would give the merchant or company every assistance in locating them on shambas or on a town site.

I have not gone into details regarding the mode of life, rationing, and settlement of labourers, or the care to be taken of them in illness, as these are matters which can be easily settled when the scheme becomes a fact.

Mr. Farler and Mr. Burtt have not yet replied to my request for their views, but when they do so, and if they make any suggestions other than those mentioned above, and which are practicable, I will write a Supplementary Memorandum embodying them.

Zanzibar, January 19, 1901.


No. 12.-Mr. Cave to the Marquess of Lansdowne.-(Received
March 16.)

Zanzibar, March 16, 1901.

I estimate number of slaves at present in Zanzibar and Pemba at approximately 50,000.


YOUR telegram of the 15th instant.

No. 13.-The Marquess of Lansdowne to Mr. Cave.


Foreign Office, March 27, 1901. THE effect of the anti-slavery legislation since 1897, and especially that of the instructions given to you on the 10th November, 1897, is stated to have been to augment the number of prostitutes and vagrants drawn from the slave classes in Pemba and Zanzibar.

Is this statement supported by your information, and if it is, can you corroborate it by any statistics ?

No. 14.-Mr. Cave to the Marquess of Lansdowne.—(Received
April 19.)


Zanzibar, April 19, 1901. WITH reference to your telegram of the 27th ultimo Crime in Pemba and Zanzibar.


I have complete statistics for last four years. The number of convictions for petty offences, such as assault, drunkenness, theft, and vagrancy, during the year which succeeded the issue of Decree was 1,536; in 1898 these figures approximate to 2,552, and Article 4 of the Decree was, towards the end of that year, put into force in consequence of this increase; number of convictions in the following year dropped to 1,496; but after the instructions contained in Lord Salisbury's telegram of the 10th November had taken effect, figures approximate again in 1900 to 2,057.

Nearly every unmarried native woman has become a prostitute in Pemba, where there are no brothels, and in Zanzibar numerous brothels have been opened, the occupants of which are nearly all freed slaves. To obtain statistics with regard to prostitution is impossible, but it is certain that of late years it has greatly increased.

To a certain extent, owing to removal of the restraint which was formerly exercised by Arabs on their female slaves, this would have probably followed the issue of Decree, whatever interpretation had been placed on Article 4; but, owing to the inability of the Courts to postpone emancipation until the applicant can produce evidence that he has adequate means of subsistence and possesses a domicile, the evil has been undoubtedly increased.

Above facts and figures show, I think, conclusively that my apprehensions have been amply verified, as stated in my despatches of 1899.*

No. 15.-Mr. Cave to the Marquess of Lansdowne.-(Received
May 13.)


Zanzibar, April 15, 1901.

I HAVE the honour to submit the following Report on the number of persons remaining at the present time in a state of slavery in the Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba:

The fact that, in deference to Mahommedan prejudices, no census has ever been taken of either the free or the servile population of this Sultanate makes it extremely difficult to form a reliable estimate. In the town of Zanzibar itself, and perhaps in some of the villages scattered about the two islands, it is possible, by counting

*See "Africa No. 3 (1900)," Nos. 3, 9, and 10.

the number of houses and allowing an average number of inhabi tants to each, to arrive at an approximate estimate of the popula tion; but even so, there are no means of discriminating between those who are free and those who are still in slavery. And if this information is hard to obtain in towns and villages where large quantities of human beings are herded together in limited areas, it becomes infinitely more so in the open country, where the native huts are dotted promiscuously over the shambas, and where a certain proportion of the population is constantly migrating from one district to another. It is obvious, therefore, that the data for a Report of this description are very meagre, and that the conclusions arrived at must be largely a matter of conjecture.

An estimate can be formed by either a direct or an indirect method--that is, by calculating the number of slaves actually held by Arabs and natives at the present time, or by taking the last official estimate and deducting therefrom the number of slaves who have from one cause or another been lost to their masters. I will take the latter method first.

The earliest estimate that we have is that of Captain Smee, of the Indian navy, who reported in 1811 that the population of these islands amounted to 200,000, of whom two-thirds, or 133,000, were slaves. The population of Zanzibar Island was estimated by Dr. Ruschenberger in 1835 at 150,000, by Dr. Krapf in 1814 at 100,000, and by M. Guillain in 1816 at from 60,000 to 200,000. Then, in 1858, Sir Richard Burton gave the number of residents in both islands as 400,000, of whom two-thirds, or 266,000, were slaves, and a similar estimate was made by the Sultan, Seyyid-Barghash, in 1873. These figures were considerably reduced by Mr. Consul Smith, who believed that twenty years later, in 1891, the number of inhabitants did not exceed 150,000, and that this number did not include more than 75,000 slaves. And, lastly, in February 1895, Sir Lloyd Mathews gave it as his opinion that the population of the Sultanate amou mounted to about 208,700 souls, of whom 140,000 were


These last-named figures have formed the basis for all the calcu lations which have been made during the last five or six years with respect to the abolition of slavery; but it appears probable, in the light of the knowledge that has been subsequently acquired, that the numbers of the servile population at any rate were over-estimated. The opinion of Sir L. Mathews was, of course, the best that could possibly be obtained, and as such it was universally accepted; but it must be remembered that at the time when it was formed there had been very few opportunities of acquiring any intimate knowledge with respect to the inhabitants of the more outlying portions of this and Pemba Island. Two years later, however, when the Abolition

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