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George Washington...
John Adams.....
Thomas Jefferson ...
James Madison.
James Monroe...
John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson....
Martin Van Buren
William Henry Harrison
John Tyler....
James K. Polk..
Zachary Taylor
Millard Fillmore...
Franklin Pierce....
James Buchanan
Abraham Lincoln...
Andrew Johnson
Ulysses S. Grant....
Rutherford B. Hayes.
James A. Garfield...
Chester A. Arthur
Grover Cleveland .....
Benjamin Harrison
Grover Cleveland....
William McKinley....
Theodore Roosevelt...
William H. Taft...

March 4, 1789.. March 4, 1797.
March 4, 1797.... March 4, 1801.
March 4, 1801. March 4, 1809.
March 4, 1809. March 4, 1817.
March 4, 1817. March 4, 1825.
March 4, 1825. March 4, 1829.
March 4, 1829.. March 4, 1837.
March 4, 1837.. March 4, 1841.
March 4, 1841. April 4, 1841.
April 4, 1841.

March 4, 1845.
March 4, 1845.

March 4, 1849. March 4, 1849.. July 9, 1850. July 9, 1850..

March 4, 1853. March 4, 1853.. March 4, 1857. March 4, 1857. March 4, 1861. March 4, 1861. April 15, 1865. April 15, 1865. March 4, 1869. March 4, 1869. March 4, 1877. March 4, 1877.

March 4, 1881. March 4, 1881. September 19, 1881. September 19, 1881... March 4, 1885. March 4, 1885.

March 4, 1889. March 4, 1889.

March 4, 1893. March 4, 1893. March 4, 1897. March 4, 1897. September 14, 1901. September 14, 1901... March 4, 1909. March 4, 1909.

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In the “Notes upon the foreign treaties of the United States," prepared by Hon. J. C. Bancroft Davis, and republished in the volume of Treaties and Conventions concluded between the United States and other Powers, Senate Executive Document No. 47, Forty-eighth Congress, second session, is given, in concise form, the history of the conduct of the foreign affairs of the United States up to the time of the establishment of the Department of State. From these notes the following statement has been gathered:

On the 29th of November, 1775, Congress appointed a “ Committee of Secret Correspondence," whose duty it would be to correspond with the friends of the colonies in other parts of the world. From the date of the appointment of this committee until the autumn of 1781, the management of the foreign affairs of the country was in the hands of committees of Congress. Robert R. Livingston, of New York, was then appointed “their Secretary of Foreign Affairs,” and took the oath of office on the 20th of October, 1781. Livingston resigned in June, 1783, and Elias Boudinot, the President of Congress, acted officially as Secretary in the interim.

General Thomas Mifflin was chosen President of Congress on the 3d of November, 1783, at the beginning of a new Congress, and as such succeeded to Boudinot as ad interim Secretary. John Jay was elected Secretary May 24, 1784, but did not qualify until December 21, 1784, and he remained the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, until the adoption of the Federal Constitution. On September 15, 1789, the President approved "An act to provide for the safe-keeping of the acts, records, and seal of the United States, and for other purposes,” in the first section of which it was provided “that the Executive Department denominated the Department of Foreign Affairs shall hereafter be denominated the Department of State, and the principal officer therein shall be called the Secretary of State.” Jefferson was appointed Secretary of State September 26, 1789, but did not enter upon the duties of his office until March 21, 1790. Jay, notwithstanding he had been selected to be Chief Justice, continued to fill the office of Secretary until Jefferson entered upon its duties, although never commissioned as such under the new government.a

a "Compilation of treaties in force 1899.”

The following list contains the names of the different Secretaries, the Presidents by whom appointed, and the dates of their respective commissions:


Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia

George Washington Edmund Randolph, of Virginia Timothy Pickering, of Pennsylvania (Secretary . of War).

John Adams.. John Marshall, of Virginia .... Levi Lincoln, of Massachusetts (Attorney-Gen-

eral), ad interim. James Madison, of Virginia..

Thomas Jefferson Robert Smith, of Maryland.

James Madison. James Monroe, of Virginia.... ...... Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania (Attorney-Gen- James Monroe.

eral), ad interim. John Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts Henry Clay, of Kentucky....

John Quincy Adams
James A. Hamilton, of New York, ad interim..
Martin Van Buren, of New York

Andrew Jackson
Edward Livingston, of Louisiana. Louis McLane, of Delaware John Forsyth, of Georgia ....

Martin Van Buren J. L. Martin, of North Carolina, chief clerk),

ad interim. Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts...

William H. Harrison

John Tyler Hugh S. Legaré, of South Carolina (Attorney- ..... General), ad interim. William S. Derrick, of Pennsylvania (chief clerk),

ad interim.
Abel P. Upshur, of Virginia (Secretary of the

John Nelson, of Maryland (Attorney-General), ad
John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina... James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania

James K. Polk. John M. Clayton, of Delaware

(Zachary Taylor.

Millard Fillmore Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts... Charles M. Conrad, of Louisiana (Secretary of .do

War), ad interim.
Edward Everett, of Massachusetts..
William Hunter, of Rhode Island (chief clerk), .do

ad interim, William L. Marcy, of New York...

Franklin Pierce Lewis Cass, of Michigan ...

James Buchanan. William Hunter, of Rhode Island (chief clerk), ... ad interim. Jeremiah S. Black, of Pennsylvania...

.do William H. Seward, of New York..

(Abraham Lincoln

Andrew Johnson.
Elihu B. Washburne, of Illinois..

Ulysses S. Grant
Hamilton Fish, of New York
William M. Evarts, of New York.

Rutherford B. Hayes
James G. Blaine, of Maine......

(James A. Garfield

Chester A. Arthur
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, of New Jersey

November 6, 1852.
March 2, 1853

March 7, 1853
March 6, 1857.
December 13, 1860.

December 17, 1860.

March 5, 1861.

March 5, 1869.
March 11, 1869.
March 12, 1877.

March 5, 1881.

December 12, 1881.

Secretaries of State.



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Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware.
James G. Blaine, of Maine...
William F. Wharton, of Massachusetts (Assistant

Secretary), ad interim.
John W. Foster, of Indiana ....
William F. Wharton, of Massachusetts (Assistant

Secretary), ad interim.
Walter Q. Gresham, of Illinois....
Edwin F. Uhl, of Michigan (Assistant Secretary),

ad interim.
Richard Olney, of Massachusetts
John Sherman, of Ohio..
William R. Day, of Ohio.
Alvey A. Adee, of the District of Columbia (Sec-

ond Assistant Secretary), ad interim.

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John Hay, of the District of Columbia

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Elihu Root, of New York.
Robert Bacon, of New York
Philander C. Knox, of Pennsylvania

William H. Taft.

July 7, 1905.
January 27, 1909.
March 5, 1909.

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