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on, 160

Angola-Continued

Angola Continued
RSA military role in—Continued

U.S. support for FNLA/UNITA
Bombing of Luanda, 137

government in-Continued
British position, 193

DRC/Zaire as conduit for, 158, 164,
DRC/Zaire position, 156

166, 172, 181
Nigerian position, 156, 167

Final budgeted amounts for, 181
Results of, 186

40 Committee meeting on, 137, 138,
Soviet position, 142, 154, 169

139, 147, 173, 175
U.S. position, 139, 144, 148, 152,

French-U.S. communications on,
168, 175

141, 155, 157, 172, 173
Withdrawal from Angola, 165, 167,

Need for timely action on, 147
184, 186, 192

NSC meetings on,

163
Sino-Soviet competition in, 92, 141

Planning for implementation of,
Soviet role in:

144
British position, 193

Portuguese-U.S. communications
Motives for, 141
Support for MPLA, 92, 107, 113,

Question of continuance of, 173,
114

175
U.S. position, 160

Termination payments, 186, 187
U.S.-Soviet messages/talks on, 138,

Tunney Amendment, 151, 157, 163,
139, 140, 142, 144, 145, 154,

168, 182, 183, 186, 187
169, 170

U.S. reconnaissance flights, 139, 147
Tanzanian proposal on,
156

Zambian-U.S. talks on, 150
United States, relations with:

U.S. support for non-Communist
Closing of U.S. consulate, 134, 135

liberation groups in, 112, 115,
Evacuation of U.S. diplomatic

117, 119
personnel, 133, 135

Additional funding for, 125, 126
MPLA position, 190

CIA position, 100, 106, 127
U.S. position, 188, 191

DRC/Zaire as conduit for, 121
U.N. membership for, 136, 186, 188,

Ford-Kissinger-Scowcroft meetings
189, 190, 191

on, 114, 117, 118
U.S. arms embargo against, 40

40 Committee meetings on, 102,
U.S. help in Portuguese evacuation

106, 113, 114, 115, 116, 123,
of, 125

125, 126, 127
U.S. investment in, 68, 91

Military training, 127
U.S. policy toward:

NSC meeting on, 113
Aims and options in, 17

Plan for covert action, 116, 122
Guidelines for, 93

Zambian-U.S. talks on, 103
In the independence era, 105, 109 Ansary, Hushang, 161
Prevention of Neto takeover, 108 Antiballistic missiles, 88
Review of, 147, 148

Antimony, 53
U.S. role in, as seen by African

Anyaoku, Eleazar Chukwuemeka, 223,
leaders, 111

232, 233
U.S.-RSA cooperation on, 83

Apartheid, 1
U.S. support for FNLA/UNITA

Arenales, Alfonso, 110
government in:

Armstrong, Anne, 208, 233
Budgeting for, 139, 173

Armstrong, Gen. R.F., 78, 80, 81
Congressional relations over, 151, Asbestos, 8, 52
152, 153, 156, 157, 172, 185

Ascension Island, 139, 196
Department of State internal

Asencio, Diego, 90
disagreements over, 149, 152 Ashe, Arthur, 12, 18, 19, 21
Diplomatic efforts, 138, 155

Aspin, Norman, 215
Disengagement from covert

Assad, Hafez al-, 204
activity, 182, 183

Atoms for Peace Program, 17
References are to document numbers

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Austin, Timothy, 189

Brown, Robert L., 16
Australia, 234

Brown, Gen. George S.:
Avery, Sewell, 130

Angola:
Azores, 68, 87, 160

U.S. policy toward, 105, 148
Azevedo, Adm. José Pinheiro de, 128

U.S. support for FNLA/UNITA

government in, 137, 139, 147,
Baker, James, 72

163, 173, 175, 182
Bandaranaike, Sirimavo, 35

U.S. support for non-Communist
Banda, Rupiah, 150, 193, 195

liberation groups in, 106, 123,
Barbados, 160

125, 127
Barbour, Robert, 137, 139

Ocean surveillance, 80
Barr, Brady G., 36

U.S. policy toward Southern Africa,
Basele Ikondi ya Bankoko Lopori, 99

84
Baster people, 205

Bruce, Robert L., 26, 27, 41
Beatty, William, 45

Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 239
Belgium, 99, 234

Buchanan, Patrick, 8, 171, 185
Benguela Railroad, 93, 113, 173

Buffum, William, 38, 138
Benin, 160

Bureau of Intelligence and Research:
Bennett, W. Tapley, 150

Intelligence Notes:
Bergh, Gen. Hendrik Johannes Van

No. 490: South Africa: The Invisible
Den, 10, 196, 203

Government, 10

RAAN-11: South-West Africa:
Bergsten, C. Fred, 22
Berne Union, 234

Enough South African-

Waldheim Progress?, 75
Bertram, Christoph, 192

RAFN-15: South-West Africa:
Birnbaum, Phil, 215
Bisengimana, Barthelemy, 91, 166

Implications of South Africa's

Plebiscite Offer, 46
Black Parents' Association, 203

RESN-158: Portugal Proposes
Blee, David H., 165
Bliss, L.G. “'Tony," 37

Dialogue with African States,

97
Bomani, Paul, 200

RSEN-60: USSR-Africa: Soviets
Bongo, Omar, 144, 166, 174

Increasing Aid to African
Botha, Roelof Frederik:

Liberation Fronts?,92
On Kissinger as Communist, 204

Bush, George H.W., 96
Plebescite offer for South West

Angola, U.S. support for
Africa/Namibia, 54

FNLA/UNITA government in,
Rhodesia/Zimbabwe:

173, 175, 182, 183, 185, 187
Conference for transition to

Byrd Amendment, 55
majority rule, 200, 222, 235

Export-Import Bank loans to RSA, 82
Economic support plan for, 215

Smith-Vorster meeting on
Transitional government, 236

Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, 201
U.S.-RSA talks on, 196, 203, 236,

U.S. review of policy in Southern
238

Africa, 84
U.S. economic policy toward RSA, 76 Butcher, Goler T., 55
U.S.-RSA relations under Carter

Butiku, Joseph W., 194, 204
administration, 239

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Butler, Malcolm, 83
Botswana, 17, 20, 53, 71, 87

Butterfield, Alexander P., 96
Bouteflika, Abdelaziz, 152

Byatt, Robin, 229
Boverie, Col. Richard T., 163

Byelorussia, 136
Bowdler, William G., 81, 196, 203, 213 Byl, Pieter K. van der, 223, 235
Brazil, 70, 136

Byrd Amendment, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 62,
Bremer, Jerry, 111, 112, 121, 138, 156

69, 103, 194, 197
Brezhnev, Leonid I., 77, 140

Byrd, Harry F., Jr., 56, 59
References are to document numbers

1

!

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Continued
Angola--Continued
U.S. support for FNLA/UNITA

government, 138, 144, 187
U.S. support for non-Communist

liberation groups in, 100, 106,

127
U.S. cooperative surveillance
program

with RSA, 78, 79
U.S. policy toward South West

Africa/Namibia, 30
Central Treaty Organization (CENTO),

192
Ceylon, 35
Chacko, Eapen, 73
Chad, 166
Chase International, 45
Cheney, Richard, 163
Chicago Sun-Times, 192
China, People's Republic of:

African liberation movements, 68
Angola, 113, 114, 129, 136
Mozambique and, 87, 138, 194
Soviet competition in Africa with, 92,

141
China, Republic of, 59, 70
Chipenda, Daniel, 106, 186
Chissano, Joaquim, 110, 124, 193, 204,

223
Chona, Mark:

Angola, 103, 121, 150
Rhodesia/Zimbabwe:
Conference for transition to

majority rule, 221, 222, 228,

231, 237, 239
Kissinger-Kaunda meetings on,

195, 205, 207
Patriotic Front in transition period,

239
Transitional government in, 235,

236
South West Africa/Namibia, 237, 238
Chrome:
Byrd Amendment, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59,

62, 69, 194, 197
Prohibition of Soviet imports of, 69
Rhodesia, 8, 23, 37, 55, 69
As strategic material, 69

U.S. imports from RSA of, 37, 71
Cisse, Jeanne Martin, 97
Clark, Richard, 123, 124, 139, 156, 180,

236

Cabinda:

Cuban troops in, 137
DRC/Zaire policy toward, 99, 113,

127
Front for the Liberation of the

Enclave of Cabinda, 103, 136
Separatism in, 131

U.S. investments in, 93
Cabora Bassa Dam, 94
Cabral, Amilcar Lopez, 194
Caetano, Marcello, 202
Autonomy for overseas territories, 68,

93, 94, 96
Conservative domination of

government of, 97
Overseas provinces policy of

Portugal, 89, 90, 91
Overthrow of, 98, 101
Callaghan, James:

Angola, 147, 193
Ford message exchange with, 210
Kissinger meetings with, 197, 198, 208
Kissinger message exchange with,

192, 193
Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, 193

British role in transition, 221, 229
Guarantees for Rhodesian whites,

196, 197, 208
U.S.-British talks on, 197, 236, 239
Cameroon, 136, 152, 166
Campbell, Hugh, 46
Campbell, Phil, 96
Canada, 234, 236
Cape Verde Islands, 87, 136, 160
Caprivi Strip, 29
Caradon, Lord, 16
Cardoso, Antonio da Silva, 130
Cardoso, Leonel, 129, 130
Carlucci, Frank, 125, 127, 128, 129, 160
Carter, Jimmy, 201, 205, 208, 239
Carter, W. Beverly, Jr., 51, 110, 117
Case, Clifford, 123
Cashews, 94
Catto, Henry E., Jr., 218, 220, 229, 232
Central America, 13
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA):
Angola:
Covert aid to non-Communist

liberation groups, 102, 106,

112, 127
Cuban costs for intervention in, 173
U.S. military aid to DRC/Zaire,

121, 127

References are to document numbers

Clements, William P.:
Angola:
U.S. support for FNLA/UNITA

government in, 137, 139, 147,

163
U.S. support for non-Communist

liberation groups in, 106, 113,

115, 121, 123, 125, 127
Ocean surveillance, 78, 80
Clift, Denis, 139
Coal, 52
Coal liquification, 83
Colby, William E.:
Angola:

RSA withdrawal from, 165
U.S. policy toward, 105, 148
U.S. support for FNLA/UNITA

government in, 137, 138, 139,

144, 147, 163, 187
U.S. support for non-Communist

liberation groups in, 100, 112,

117, 121, 122
40 Committee meetings, 106, 113,

115, 123, 125, 126, 127
Export-Import Bank loans to RSA, 82
Colonialism, 194
Commerce, U.S. Department of, 23, 30,

31, 33, 83
Commonwealth of Nations, 35, 233, 236
Conference on International Economic

Cooperation (CIEC), 149
Conference of Nationalist Organizations

of the Portuguese Colonies, 92
Conference in Support of Peoples of the

Portuguese Colonies (Rome, June

1970), 92
Conger, Clement, 88
Conger, Clinton, 20
Congo, Democratic Republic of

(DRC)/Zaire (see also DRC/Zaire

subheadings under other subjects):
Angolan civil war's impact on, 148
Belgium, relations with, 99
British economic aid to, 193
Cuban destruction of plane from, 185,

186
Portugal, relations with, 87
Schaufele visit to, 157, 166
United States, relations with, 79, 99,

113, 179
U.S. diplomacy in support for

FNLA/UNITA government in
Angola, 155, 158

Congo, Democratic Republic of

(DRC)/Zaire_Continued
U.S. economic and military aid to,

112, 115, 117, 119, 127, 179, 182,

185
Congo (K). See Congo, Democratic

Republic of (DRC)/Zaire.
Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville):
DRC/Zaire move into Cabinda,

possible reaction to, 127
MPLA aided by, 108, 141, 160
Soviet advisors for MPLA forces in,

141
U.S. reconnaissance flights over, 139,

147
Congress, U.S.:
Acts of:
Byrd Amendment, 55, 56, 57, 58,

59, 62, 69, 103, 194, 197
Conte Amendment, 17
Defense Appropriations Act (1976),

183, 187
Hughes-Ryan Amendment to

Foreign Assistance Act, 187
Military Procurement Act (1971),

55, 69
P.L. 480, 20
Tunney Amendment, 151, 157, 163,

168, 182, 183, 186, 187
Angola, 115, 125, 149
U.S. support for FNLA/UNITA

government in, 151, 152, 153,

156, 157, 172, 185
House Appropriations Committee,

147, 185, 187
House Armed Services Committee,

147
House Africa Subcommittee of the

Foreign Affairs Committee, 76
House Foreign Affairs Committee,

147
House Select Committee on

Intelligence, 147
Joint Committee on Atomic Energy,

63
Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, 208
Senate Appropriations Committee,

185
Senate Foreign Relations Committee,

20, 123, 147
South Africa visa restrictions, 12, 13

Zimbabwe Development Fund, 234
Connally, John B., Jr., 69,96
Connell, James, 97

References are to document numbers

Connor, James E., 189

Denmark, 234
Conte Amendment, 17

Denney, George C., 10
Coote, Wendell B., 43

Détente, 118, 163
Copper, 53, 71, 113

Development Assistance Committee,
Corning Glass, 20, 37

234
Costa Gomes, Francisco de, 125, 129

De Villiers, David, 46
Costa Rica, 136

Devlin, Lawrence R., 111
Cotton, 94

Diamonds, 53, 91, 93
Cotton, Norris, 79

Dibrell, 37
Council on International Economic

Diego Garcia, 139
Policy (CIEP), 83

Diggs, Charles C., Jr.:
Coutinho, Adm. António Alva Rosa,

Rhodesia / Zimbabwe, 55, 236
130

South Africa, Republic of, 12, 13, 18,
Covey, James P., 203, 214

49, 50, 51, 72, 83
Cromer, Earl, 58, 62, 65, 66

Dobrynin, Anatoly, 140, 142, 145, 146,
Crosby, Oliver S., 2, 7, 13, 18, 50, 65

154, 156, 169
Crosland, Anthony, 197

Dole, Robert J., 96
British role in Rhodesian transition,

Dorman, Maurice, 67
229

Douglas-Home, Sir Alec:
Conference for transition to majority

British arms sales to South Africa, 34
rule in Rhodesia/Zimbabwe,

Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, 37, 61, 62, 66,
223, 233

235
Rhodesian acquiescence to majority

Duckett, Carl, 106, 163
rule, 213

Duff, Anthony:
Richard talks with, 223, 224

Namibia, 197
RSA suspension from IAEA, 86

Rhodesia/Zimbabwe:
U.S.-British talks on

RSA-British talks on, 200, 203, 220,
Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, 202, 208,

239
235, 239

U.S.-British talks on, 197, 202, 208,
Zimbabwe Development Fund

233
proposal, 234
Cuba (see also Cuba and Cuban

Dugard, John, 45
subheadings under other subjects):

Dupont, 45
Recognition of MPLA government
by, 136

Eagleburger, Lawrence S., 121, 152, 202,
United States, relations with, 170

203, 208
Curran, Ted, 43, 63

East African Training Program (EATP),
Cutler, Walter L., 99, 111, 112, 127, 135

68
U.S. support for FNLA/UNITA

East Caprivi people, 1
government in Angola, 137, 139,

East and Central Africa Summit
149, 164, 166

(Lusaka, May 1969), 9

Easum, Donald B., 144, 149
Daddah, Ould, 56, 57, 58

Echeverri, Ossa G., 196
Dahomey, 160

Edmondson, William B., 217, 235, 236,
Dales, Richard, 202

237
Damara people, 1

Eduardo Pinnock, Johnny, 107, 116
Davis Cup, 21

Egypt, 194
Davis, Nathaniel, 103, 110, 111, 112, 115, Ekangaki, Nzo, 97
117, 118, 121, 149, 152

Elections:
Declaration of Arusha (1967), 239

Angola (Nov. 1975), 107, 113
Defense Appropriations Act (1976), 183, Rhodesia (Apr. 1970), 27
187

Rhodesia/Zimbabwe (transitional),
Defense, U.S. Department of, 30, 31, 83

224
Dellums, Ronald, 147

South Africa (Apr. 1970), 18
References are to document numbers

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