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DAVID WILMOT (Representative in Congress from Pennsylvania who moved an amendment in the form of a proviso that slavery should be forbidden in any territory to be acquired from Mexico)

treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted.

SECOND WILMOT PROVISO

Text of Second Wilmot Proviso from the “Congressional Globe,” Twenty-ninth Congress, Second Session, Vol. XVI., p. 318 of the Appendix.

And be it further enacted, That there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in any territory on the continent of America, which shall hereafter be acquired by or annexed to the United States, by virtue of this appropriation, or in any other manner whatever, except for crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided always, That any person escaping into such territory from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed out of said territory to the person claiming his or her labor or service.

TREATY OF GUADALUPE-HIDALGO, 1848

Under this treaty, which terminated the Mexican War, all the country north of the Rio Grande to the point where that river strikes the southern boundary of New Mexico and westward one league south of San Diego, California, was ceded to the United States. Extracts from “Revised Statutes Relating to District of Columbia 1873–74 . . . together with the public treaties. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1875, pp. 492-501. (See page 122.)

In the name of Almighty God:

The United States of America and the United Mexican States, animated by a sincere desire to put an end to the calamities of the war which unhappily exists between the two Republics, and to establish upon a solid basis relations of peace and friendship, which shall confer reciprocal benefits upon the citizens of both, and assure the concord, harmony, and mutual confidence wherein the two peoples should live, as good neighbors, have for that purpose appointed their respective plenipotentiaries, that is to say:

The President of the United States has appointed Nicholas P. Trist, a citizen of the United States, and the President of the Mexican Republic has appointed Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas, Don Bernardo Couto, and Don Miguel Atristain, citizens of the said Republic:

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WINFIELD SCOTT, AT THE AGE OF 37, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF IN

MEXICAN WAR, 1846-48 (From an engraving by A. H. Ritchie after a painting by C. Ingham)

Who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective full powers, have, under the protection of Almighty God, the author of peace, arranged, agreed upon, and signed the following

Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits, and Settlement be

tween the United States of America and the Mexican Republic.

ARTICLE I.

There shall be firm and universal peace between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, and between their respective countries, territories, cities, towns, and people, without exception of places or persons.

ARTICLE V.

The boundary line between the two Republics shall commence in the Gulf of Mexico, three leagues from land, opposite the mouth of the Rio Grande, otherwise called Rio Bravo del Norte, or opposite the mouth of its deepest branch, if it should have more than one branch emptying directly into the sea; from thence up

the middle of that river, following the deepest channel, where it has more than one, to the point where it strikes the southern boundary of New Mexico; thence, westwardly, along the whole southern boundary of New Mexico (which runs north of the town called Paso) to its western termination; thence, northward, along the western line of New Mexico, until it intersects the first branch of the river Gila; (or if it should not intersect any branch of that river, then to the point on the said line nearest to such branch, and thence in a direct line to the same;) thence down the middle of the said branch and of the said river, until it empties into the

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