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Ralph Waldo Emerson.-From a photograph by Black

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81

James Russell Lowell.—Redrawn from an engraving after

a daguerrotype. NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE.-From Howells's Literary Friends

and Acquaintance HENRY W. LONGFELLOW.-From an old print

83

84

PRESIDENTIAL TICKET, 1840.-From a photograph of the

original ticket

85

86

William Henry Harrison.-From Lossing's Field-Book of

the War of 1812 Joseph STORY.-From an engraving after a portrait by Chester

Harding

89

CAMPAIGN SYMBOL 01 1849.-Redrawn from a copy of the

campaign cartoon

93

95

John Tyler.—Redrawn from an engraving from a daguerro

type THE HANCOCK HOUSE, Boston.—Redrawn from a sketch

made in 1833. Showing rail-fence around the Boston

Common, which was used originally as a cow pasture
TITLE-PAGE OF

PAMPHLET.–From Sparks's
The Men Who Made the Nation

97

ANTI-ABOLITION

99

EAST

BETWEEN

AND

103

106

BROADWAY,

SIDE,

GRAND HOWARD
STREETS, New York, 1840.-From an old lithograph
GENERAL SANTA ANNA.—Redrawn from an old print
WENDELL Phillips.-From a photograph
TITLE-PAGE OF A CAMPAIGN PAMPHLET.–From the original

in the New York Public Library
Henry Clay. From a drawing by Davignon.

Facing P.

109

III

II2

TITLE-PAGE OF “The Clay Songster.”—From a photo

graph from the original .

113

.116

James K. Polk.—Redrawn from an old print
Zachary TAYLOR.–From an old lithograph

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WINFIELD Scott.—From an engraving after a daguerrotype 121

FROM

THE DEPARTURE OF THE PHILADELPHIA VOLUNTEERS

PHILADELPHIA.— From a humorous drawing by F. 0. C.

Darley.
Charge OF THE “PALMETTOS” AT CHURUBUSCO.-From a

drawing by Döpler, in llarper's Monthly Magazine.

123

125

Main STREET IN Austin, Texas, ABOUT 1845.-Redrawn from an old print .

126 SALMON PORTLAND CHASE.-From Harper's Monthly Magazine 127

Lewis Cass.-From Ilarper's Monthly Magazine

129

Thomas Wilson Dorr.-Redrawn from an old print

130

San Francisco, CALIFORNIA, IN 1848.-Redrawn from an

old print

131

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CASTLE GARDEN, New York, IN 1850.--From Harper's

Monthly Magazine .

135

EMIGRANT TRAIN CROSSING THE PLAINS.—Redrawn from an

old print.

136

A TYPICAL HOTEL IN THE MIDDLE MINES, CALIFORNIA, ABOUT

1850.-From a sketch from nature by A. V. S. Anthony 137

SLUICE WASHING FOR GOLD IN THE MIDDLE MINES, CALIFOR

NIA, ABOUT 1850.- From a sketch from nature by A. V.
S. Anthony

139

OLD SPANISH FORT AT MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA, IN 1848.

From Harper's Monthly Magazine

141

LIST OF MAPS TERRITORIAL ACQUISITIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 17831853 ..

Facing p.

28 TERRITORIAL CONTROVERSIES OF THE UNITED STATES, SETTLED BETWEEN 1783-1850 .

Facing P.

80 DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION, 1840

Facing p. 246

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.

EDWARD LIVINGSTON.- From a painting which hangs in Whig

Hall, Princeton University Livingston was Jackson'
Secretary of State from 1831 to 1833, and is credited with
having written (December, 1832) Jackson's "Proclama-
tion to the People of South Carolina." Livingston was

PAGE

from New York; a member of Congress from that state
in 1795, serving until 1801, in which year he was chosen
Mayor of New York City. Through the misconduct
of a clerk Livingston became a public defaulter. At this
period he went to New Orleans, and, meeting with great
professional success, paid back every dollar he owed
the government. He was the author of the Criminal
Code for Louisiana; represented that state in Congress
from 1823 to 1829; was United States Senator from
1829 to 1831; a member of Jackson's Cabinet from
1831 to 1833; and then minister to France until the
close of 1835. He was the youngest brother of Chancellor
Livingston

197

A TYPICAL CHARLESTON (S. C.) MANSION, THE GEORGE

EVELEIGH House IN CHURCH STREET.–From Harper's
Magazine, vol. cxxxi., after a drawing by Alice R. Huger-
Smith

201

SAMUEL D. INGHAM.-From a lithograph. In 1829 President

Jackson appointed him Secretary of the Treasury, but he
resigned in 1831 on account of his objection to the “Kitch-
en Cabinet"

205

JACKSON, WEBSTER, AND CLAY.-From an engraving by

John Sartain

207

THE UNITED STATES TREASURY Building.- From Harper's

Magazine, vol. xliv. Erected in 1800; burned by the
British in August, 1814 .

2II

Amos KENDALL.-From Harper's Magazine, vol. lxix. Ken

dall was Postmaster-General (1835-40) in Jackson's
Administration, and with Francis P. Blair, the editor of
The Globe, formed the famous “Kitchen Cabinet.”
These two men were frequently consulted by the Presi-
dent as confidential advisers. To avoid observation they
were accustomed to enter the White House by a back
door. On this account the opposition party, who be-
lieved the advice of these two men caused Jackson to fill
nearly all the offices with Democrats, after turning out
the incumbents, called them in derision the “Kitchen
Cabinet”.

213

SCENE IN THE UNITED STATES SENATE IN THE THIRTIES.

HENRY CLAY SPEAKING. - From an engraving in the Print
Collection, New York Public Library

219

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William J. Duane. From a lithograph. Secretary of the

Treasury in 1833 and opposed to Jackson's action in the
matter of the United States Bank. In consequence of
this President Jackson dismissed him within four months
of his appointment, naming in his stead Roger B. Taney. 225

ANDREW Jackson.-From an engraving by G. Kruell after

the lithograph by La Fosse; copyrighted by M. Knoed-
ler & Co.,

Facing P. 226

Levi WOODBURY.-From an engraving by G. F. Storm after

a drawing by J. B. Longacre. Leví Woodbury, chosen
United States Senator in 1825 from New Hampshire, was
instrumental in winning over New Hampshire from the
Federalist to the Jackson interest, and he was received
into the intimate counsels of President Jackson. He
was editor of the New Hampshire Patriot, also one of the
officers of a bank at Concord and knew what the branches
of the United States Bank could do to dominate credit
and control exchanges

230

BENJAMIN LUNDY.-From an engraving in the Print Collec

tion, New York Public Library. Lundy was born in
Hardwick, New Jersey, January 4, 1789, and became an
abolitionist about 1815, from which time until his death, in
1839, he continued to travel about the country preaching
and publishing journals and pamphlets against slavery.
His work resulted in converting William Lloyd Garrison,
who began the publication of the Liberator at Boston in
1831 ..

234

William Lloyd GARRISON.–From an engraving by H. W.

Smith. Founder of the Liberator at Boston in 1831, a
weekly newspaper and uncompromising opponent of slav-
ery, which was discontinued in 1865, when the result for
which he had devoted the best energies of his life had
been effected by the Emancipation Proclamation of
President Lincoln. Mr. Garrison founded, in 1832, the
American Anti-Slavery Society, and was its president
from that time until 1865 .

236

Caleb Cushing.–From a photograph by Gardner, Washing

ton, D. C. A colleague of J. Q. Adams in Congress, of
which he was a member (1835-1843). He advocated the
policy of war with Mexico. In 1853 he served as Attor-
ney-General in President Pierce's Cabinet, and in 1860
he was president of the Democratic convention at Charles-
ton

241

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