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material aid, when necessary, in the wisest way, for real co-operation, for educating public opinion,- personal service is absolutely necessary. As it is the basis of true charity work, we must first and foremost seek its aid. We, of all persons, must not give the idea that charity can be done by mere officialism or mechanism. Neglect of the element of personality in both officials and volunteers has wrecked some of our societies. A society for organizing charity is not like many things,- a bank, an insurance company,, which most men believe are absolutely necessary, and which, because profitable, one or another good business man will manage well. To establish it is not easy, to maintain it is harder still. The mere fact that it ought to be a help and economy to all charities is not enough to keep it alive with any useful vitality, especially if lean treasuries and petty jealousies and fears of “red tape,” etc., make charitable bodies and churches lukewarm to it. The higher are the methods it follows, the harder is its way.

An energetic and tactful official - one who knows what Charity Organization means and is doing elsewhereis no less necessary than are painstaking and public-spirited volunteers as managers, who will make it, not everybody's business, but their business. The wise direction of benevolent forces is not like the American politician's idea of public office,- something that anybody can do. The lives of some of our societies show fluctuations down and up, from practical disorganization to high efficiency, according to the personal element, to those in whose hands they chanced to be.

There is one more question to be asked, but not answered here; for the answer must vary with the peculiar conditions in each community. Do not some of us at times subordinate to ease and peace, or a petty co-operation, the great and helpful results which might come from a campaign of education? The cause of charity is suffering almost as much to-day from ignorance and indifference in the management of institutions and societies as the cause of good government is suffering from the venality of bad citizens and the indifference of so-called good citizens. A prominent charity worker once likened the model Charity Organization society to a union railroad depot, the terminus of all the charities of a city. The simile would be good, to my mind, provided all the charities be good. But what if some of these charities, by ignorance and antiquated methods, are working against the very aim of organized charity! We would not

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think much of a great railroad which would be content to en-
danger the lives of all its passengers by using a depot together with
a miserably managed road. Not peace, but a sword, has been and
must be, at times, the means to a high end. Our name, especially

Associated Charities,” which most of us happily have taken, ex-
presses not an end, but a means. Knowing the end before us, let
each society, in this regard, take the best means for reaching it.

Some of you may not agree with me that personal service and the
education of public opinion are the most important methods in our
work. If so, it is because you believe that the Charity Organization

I believe
movement can succeed along the line of least resistance.
that it can succeed only along the line of most resistance, where the
hardest work lies. I do not wish to come to our feast to-night to
point to mystic words upon the wall; but I solemnly believe that the
Charity Organization societies must work harder to do away with
the causes of poverty and pauperism, or they will be weighed in the
balance and found wanting.

Let us to-night resolve so to work as not to be found wanting.
Much of the failure and discouragement that we know comes from
the very loftiness of our object, and the high character of the only
methods by which it can be reached. We must strive harder to
keep that end in view, to guide our way by those methods. We must
have not less co-operation, but more of it of a broader nature, not
so much on paper as with persons working for positive results; not
less giving of money, but more giving of time and energy and intelli-
gence; not so much apathy to harm, but the willingness to fight
against harm; not misconception of the word "charity," but the
effort to bring it back to its God-given meaning. Following these
guides, we may safely press on. Then, if men sneer at our work as
• scientific" charity or call it new charity, we may answer that char-
ity bears no qualification, and began when man first turned to raise
up his fellow-man. The socialists and the impatient of every kind,
talking of cross-cut paths to the millennium, may call us slow and
trivial; but we shall go on, believing that we are in the right way -
a long, tedious way, perhaps, but the sure way to lessening poverty
and pauperism.

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size and in many conditions
that there is none. Can the other societies jus...,
their communities? What effect does it have on their object,-
diminution of poverty and pauperism?

Through all this,- for fighting down the need of alms, for sec

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In the United States, Associated Charities work has passed from infancy into childhood. In earlier days we groped doubtfully for ways and means; but now we are beginning to work intelligently, and to form good habits in our methods. Associated Charities

can all be classified under three heads,- cases of degradation, of destitution, and of conditions requiring special work for children.

Under the first must be considered as causes: (1) laziness ; (2) alcoholic intemperance; (3) lying, defrauding, beggary, shiftlessness, a too low standard of life, lack of economy, family squabbles, inefficiency; (4) cruelty to or neglect of children or relatives; (5) gambling, stealing, defrauding, vagrancy, illegal liquor-selling, cruelty to animals,

The causes of destitution are: (1) lack of work; (2) sickness or physical defects; (3) lack of wage-earners in the family, or poorly paid employment; (4) over-expenditure; (5) degradation.

In special work with children our first attention is given to see that they grow up under the best conditions possible, - moral, intellectual, social, industrial, physical, - and that they enter occupations where there is a chance of making a respectable livelihood for themselves and for their families in the future.

When we see adverse conditions in almost every family under our care appearing again and again, year after year, like the weeds in our garden, we must keep at work continually, season after season, pulling up the weeds of degradation and destitution, cultivating the thrift, self-dependence, industry, virtue, health, as well as the intellectual and social natures of our poor friends. If we hope for success in these human gardens, we must have such love, enthusiasm, energy, thoroughness, courage, as Celia Thaxter showed in her island garden. As she studied the habits of each plant in order to give it the essential elements for growth, so we carefully and patiently try to develop each family within the limitations of its nature. Mrs. Thaxter's book has many lessons for us, and it is pleasant to learn them in the delightful atmosphere of her breezy surroundings. think much of a great railroad which would be content to endanger the lives of all its passengers by using a depot together with a miserably managed road. Not peace, but a sword, has been and must be, at times, the means to a high end. Our name, especiall.. “ Associated Charities," which mind

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Thus it is essential for every visitor to start out with the idea that this friendship for the family is to continue. It could also be made helpful by frequent consultations between the visitor and his conference. This could be written out by the committee or its agent for every family needing a visitor, as, for example: “At 5 Clark Street lives James Leonard with his wife Ellen and their four children. You may introduce yourself as having heard that he is out of work. You may perhaps help now to get him employment, and in the future by looking out for the children. We shall be glad to hear from you about this family at the Conference, Charity Building, Wednesday afternoon at three o'clock, at the office, or by letter."

Whenever the family has been helped over its period of sharp distress, then comes the time to assist in improving its condition permanently. It has been said that it is impossible to visit a family without making improvement, and it is equally true that it is impossible to visit a family year after year without making permanent improvement. Only by this long acquaintance can the friendly visitor become "the visiting friend." Friendliness is helpful, but friendship is powerful for good. We all know how the confidence of a friend has helped each one of us up into places we should never have reached alone.

A striking example occurred once during a visitor's illness, when we were asked to call on some of her poor people. One of the women we had not seen since she first came to us some four years before, and we remembered her distinctly as quite ordinary then. Imagine our surprise on finding that a certain dignity and earnestness akin to that of the visitor had crept into this woman's life, and found expression in her face and bearing. Such transformations cannot take place in a few weeks or months. They are of slow growth, but they are the best rewards of friendship.

There are visitors who find it difficult to talk with their poor families. One, we remember, thought he could not speak to them of the opera and theatre, and so felt that there was nothing to talk about. Edward Everett Hale's “How to Do It” applies just as well to conversation between the poor and well-to-do as it does to conversation elsewhere. Why not talk, therefore, of the theatre or opera, or of anything which interests us, as the best means of interesting them? If they cannot afford these recreations themselves, they may care all the more to hear them described by others. Often our poor friends

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are eager to know all we can tell about ourselves. If we wish to
secure their confidence, the safest way to make sure of this is to give
them ours.

There are visitors who keep to their own simple and natural ways
with their poor as they do with their well-to-do friends. One of
these visitors, an artist, took an unruly boy from one of her families
to the Art Museum. In the same charming spirit with which she
entertains her society friends, she cultivated the artistic imagination
in this boy. When he went home, he could not begin again slashing
up the furniture with his pocket-knife or beating his younger brother ;
for on every pine chair and table, as well as on his brother's jacket,
arose visions of a soldier's camp-fire at sunset, of a cardinal in his
crimson robe of state, of three boats sailing out into the moonlight.
He soon became a good boy; but the process of making him clean
and neat took two whole years, although it was done finally by con-
tinued lessons in connection with situations found for him from time
to time. Perhaps we may be pardoned for giving a homely instance
to show how the friendship of this same visitor established a health-
ful habit. A young girl went up to a country house for a vacation,
and, on coming home, took the visitor one side, shutting all the doors,
and asked, “ Do you brush your teeth ?” The visitor admitted the
fact. “Well,” said the girl, “the mother and the girls in the coun-
try brushed their teeth. I thought it might be a notion they had ; but,

yours, it must be right, and I am going to brush mine."
This visitor writes: "It is only by the strength of our sympathies
that we can be of use to the poor. The bond is, however, stronger
and more wholesome when one is able to receive sympathy from
them, and such small services as they wish to offer. If we can draw
out an interest in our own way of life and occupation or experience
from people who never read, our answers to their questions make a
deep impression. The questions may appear somewhat indiscreet,
but they are prompted not so much by curiosity as by the eagerness
to understand something of the world outside of their own. Our
answers may open a window from a dark room into the summer
world of thought and imagination."

After you have been “the visiting friend,” it is only one more step to have your poor friends come to visit

Well do we remember the lady who gave the boys from her poor family a standing invitation to spend any of their leisure time at her house and gar


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