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American spun Yarn (Ring). Testo for couns& Break
Sample I sample II Sample TT Sample TV

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49Variation in Crent

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FIGURE 23.

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variation 57.5% variation 31.89. Dragiams shewing the breaking loads in ounces of 8 samples of åmerican Spun Ring Twist 20 dereble thread teeth frism cack. w.m.

FIGURE 24.

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30 30

14 per cent. 52.6 per cent. 1.96 per cent.
7.6
52.0

1.75
19.3
40.0

1.77
23.6
38.3

1.56
I1.0

1.76
12.24
32.7

1.54
12.5
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1.61
10.25

1.69
19.3
59.2

1.66
18.9
45.0

1.68
21.0
33.3

1.90
20.6
25.0

1.65
27.7
25.0

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1.78
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31.5

1.92
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FIGURE 25.--TABLE OF COMPARISONS,

The PRESIDENT. I understand that Mr. HOGUET has a good deal of testing apparatus of a similar nature in his laboratory. Perhaps he could give us some information.

Mr. ROBERT J. HOGUET. I have not had an opportunity of studying the paper in detail, but I would say that the apparatus described coincides with and comes exactly upon the same lines as our testing apparatus; in fact, several of them that are mentioned here we have in our laboratory in New York. The process that this gentleman speaks of is the English process. We have adopted the French process but the difference is so slight that it is no difference. We arrive at the same result by a little different method. But most of the machines that are mentioned in this paper we have in our own laboratory in New York. We are very happy, as I said before, to test anything for anybody. You can simply put a cop or a bobbin into a preserve jar and send it on to us.

The PRESIDENT. Has anyone else anything to say in regard to this paper? I think Mr. DRAPER has had considerable experience in that line. May we hear from him on that subject?

Mr. GEORGE OTIS DRAPER. Mr. President, regarding this particular machine on which we have the record, I must say my own personal information on that subject is rather lacking because such tests as we have had carried on with that come under the department with which I had no connection during the last few months in which we have been introducing this machine. With regard to the old fashioned system of testing with the ordinary hand or power tester, I have had a good deal of experience. In fact, the breaking strength tables which we now publish were made under my supervision. All that I have to say is to call special attention to the fact that the hand-operated breaking machine is, in my opinion, absolutely and utterly unreliable; place no confidence whatever in a hand-operated strength tester.

The next paper will be upon the subject of The Combing of Short Staple Cotton. Its author is an English mechanical engineer of Manchester, the inventor of the Nasmith Comber and it will be read by this gentleman's representative in this country, Mr. STEPHEN C. LOWE.

Mr. STEPHEN C. Lowe. Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Association. I will not make any apologies for this paper other than to say it is so short that I hope you will listen to it and I think it will be of interest.

THE COMBING OF SHORT STAPLE COTTON.

JOHN W. NASMITH, Manchester, Eng.

The title of this paper suggests at once the necessity for a definition of what is meant by short cotton. When the Heilmann machine first came into use, it was said to be a comber for short fibres, since no attempt had previously been made to comb cotton at all, but only the long wool fibre, and when it came to be used on Egyptian cottons of 138-inch staple, it was thought to be combing the shortest cotton that it would pay to comb, and indeed this would be so, had the Heilmann machine remained the only one. It was the necessity in the hosiery trade of having very regular and very clean yarn of coarse counts, that first suggested the combing of “short cotton," and we may now define what is meant thereby. It is intended to include in the term "short cotton,” those classes with staple from 5/8 inch to 118 inches in length.

It may first be shown why the Heilmann is debarred from dealing with such short fibres. Two points stand out clearly. First, the separation of the tuit from the lap is brought about by the contact of the leather detaching roll, not with the fluted segment on the cylinder, but with the steel roll in front, so that between this point of contact and the top comb, there is the full diameter of the leather roll. The diameter of the leather covered detaching roll has been reduced to meet this difficulty to the utmost limit consistent with the necessary rigidity. But this diameter is still much too great to deal with short cotton as defined above, and so the waste is excessive, indeed prohibitive. Secondly, there is the vital question of a piecing, and in the Heilmann comber, it is impossible to get a satisfactory piecing

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