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Mr. STEPHEN C. LOWE. I will answer that question, Mr. President, by saying that there are two sizes of Heilmann Combers, having six heads and eight heads. They are made in 8 and 10 inch laps. A 10 inch lap comber, eight heads, produces between 450 and 500 pounds in one mill of my recollection, as against a six head 10 inch Nasmith, producing between 750 and 800 pounds, doing better work in this respect that the piecing is so much better in the Nasmith than in the Heilman, that the yarn has a smoother and rounder appearance and breaks stronger.

Mr. JOHN A. FERNLEY. I would like also to ask, Mr. President, as to whether the Nasmith is a good machine to use on long staple. We hear about the short staple, what about the long?

Mr. STEPHEN C. LOWE. We have at work in this country over 500 of them on all classes of work. In one mill especially that I have in mind they comb nothing but the longest Sea Island cotton and we have had four orders, being three repeat orders after the first installation.

Mr. JOHN A. FERNLEY. Just one more question. The question is this in my mind, as to how it compares with the Whitin comber?

Mr. STEPHEN C. LOWE. I would rather, Mr. President, not make any comparison. I am not here particularly to exploit the difference between a rival comber and ours. I have merely read this paper at Mr. Nasmith's request. We give you the facts about our comber and we are very glad to have it investigated.

The PRESIDENT. It seems to me that that point is well taken.

The next paper on the program is by Mr. WILLIAM F. PARISH, JR., one of our members well known in this country but at present residing abroad, a recognized expert on the subject of lubrication. He has written several papers for us before and this is his latest production, which will be read by Mr. C. H. PARKER of New York.


WILLIAM F. PARISH, JR., Stubenring 2, Vienna, Austria.

The investigations of Dr. THURSTON, which were of the highest value in showing the possibilities of efficient lubrication, and the experiments made by Dr. WOODBURY, which proved the considerable power differences between various lubricants when used on a testing machine, prompted the author, some twelve years ago, to transfer the investigation of this subject from the laboratory to the manufacturing plant itself, where lubricating conditions could be observed on a broader scale under actual running conditions.

There were many obstacles to be overcome, but from what seem now the rather crude methods at first used an elaborate system has been envolved, which at present in the plant itself gives results of approximately laboratory accuracy.

It will be the object of this paper to discuss the subject of lubricating economies in a general way, to show the means employed to demonstrate these economies, and to give the results actually obtained in various mills in different parts of the world.

If it were possible to entirely remove all friction by means of ideal lubrication the life of all power machines and all machines driven by power would be greatly increased; almost no repairs would be necessary and practically all the power generated could be utilized for useful work. The great difference in the mechanical efficiency of machines caused by the differences in quality, or in suitability, of the lubricants used is not generally known, and engineers usually overlook the economic possibilities

contained in this item of the influence of lubrication upon friction, due, no doubt, to the fact that all lubricating oils are considered "necessary evils" without any particular virtue as compared one with another. The greater number of lubricating oil users consider that they have given this problem all the attention it deserves when they buy the lowest priced oils they can get and use them freely. As it is intended in this paper to deal principally with power losses, the waste of such a policy will not be discussed here.

Reduction in frictional losses and consequent saving of power depends upon four conditions:

I. Ability to manufacture various lubricants which will contain a maximum of lubricating nature.

2. The type and condition of the machine or plant to be operated upon.

3. The character and suitability of the lubricant in use and the method of its application.

4. Ability to determine the lubricants which, when placed upon machines of different kinds, will in comparison with those in use produce a lower co-efficient of friction.

While a consideration of the various methods used in manufacturing lubricating oils might be of interest, it is outside the subject of the present paper, but it should be said here that it is possible to make lubricants in such a way that the results of their application are known beforehand, and it is also possible for an engineer trained in this power-saving work to judge within a few per cent. of the exact reduction which it will be possible to secure upon particular machines against any oil in


Otherwise it would be impossible to maintain in many countries important engineering departments, fully equipped with expensive instruments for the purpose of showing upon all classes of machinery frictional losses caused by improper lubri



The main effects, which show as a result of reducing the friction of a plant and which must appear in the complete summary of a full comparative power test, are as follows:

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a. Reduction in the total horse power of the mill.

b. Reduction in the power of transmission, and of the power of each subdivisional part of the mill.


Reduction in the amount of coal required for developing the power necessary to drive the mill. (Whether it is possible to show this reduction in coal, however, depends upon the ratio of coal to horse power being maintained during both conditions of lubrication. Many experiments have been. made which prove that, in the majority of plants, the amount of coal used is not strictly in accord with the work being done.)

Reduction in the amount of feed water used for power pur-
poses. (This item is closely related to the amount of horse
power being developed, assuming, of course, that steam is
not blown off and wasted.)

Reduction in the temperature of all bearings and spindle bases.
Increase in the speed of machines and spindles.

b. Increase in the speed of line shaft.



Increase in the speed of the engine if the load upon the engine has been excessive. (These increases of speed are due to the fact that reducing the resistance reduces the per cent. of slippage of the driving belts and bands.)

Increase of production of the plant if the production is related to the speed.

b. Increase in production due to less stoppages,- a considerable per cent. of stoppages are caused through defects of lubrication.

a. Decrease in repairs.


Decrease in the number of bands required for driving spindles. Decrease in the wear on the belts which would be perceptible, during a long period of time, in decrease of renewals.

All the foregoing conditions will show to some extent if a reduction in friction has been made. They all depend upon each other to a very considerable degree.

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