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Troops, under the command of nicated, by means of his son, the the Duke of Wellington, were satisfaction which he felt with the called from different quarters, and conduct of his Belgian subjects in a powerful Prussian army under the preceding actions, and assured Marshal Blucher prepared for co- then that “the blood they had operation. That strong suspici. shed had irrevocably effaced the ons at this time prevailed respect- last'doubt that might have subing the affections of the Flemish sisted respecting the solidity of people was rendered manifest by the new kingdom, and the union a proclamation issued at Brussels of its inhabitants"-words which on April 20th, appointing a spe- will be seen to imply more than cial court to take cognizance of, they express. and punish, all such persons as On July 13th a report was preeither by discourse or actions sented to the King of the Nethershowed themselves partizans of lands from the committee appoint“ a certain foreign power,” or ate ed to draw up the constitution tempted to excite discontent and for the kingdom. Its particulars sedition among the inhabitants. are too numerous to admit of The battle of Waterloo, su im- abridgment; but some of the portant to all Europe, was parti- provisions may be mentioned by cularly decisive of the fate of Bel- which the points most essential to gium, since it was the result of a free representative government the direct attempt of Buonaparte are secured. The legislative power to take possession of Brussels. is assigned jointly to the King, On that and the preceding days and the States-general elected by all the fluctuations of hope and the provincial States, who are fear were observable in this capi- themselves elected by all the inhatal, according to the different in- bitants of the kingdom interested telligence transmitted from the in its prosperity. All arbitrary armies; and it cannot be doubted arrests are forbidden, and every that party feelings were displayed individual arrested by order of in the several changes; but the government is to be brought final success left only one expres- within three days before his legal sion of the public voice, that of judge. Judicial sen ences are to joy and congratulation for a great be pronounced in public, and their deliverance, Belgian troops had causes assigned. Houses to be fought along with the allies in the inviolable, and property not subconflict, and the hereditary Prince ject to confiscation. The right of of Orange had received an ho- petitioning is recognized. nourable wound in the cause. privilege exempts from taxes. The city of Brussels distinguish- Every subject is eligible to all ed itself by humane attentions to employments without distinction the wounded strangers, especially of birth or religion. No other the British, and obtained the restraint to the liberty of the press acknowledgments of the great but the responsibility of writers, Commander on the occasion. The printers, and distributers. Liberty King of the Netherlands, who of conscience is guaranteed. The remained at the Hague, commu- provincial States are charged with


every thing relating to the inter- of his subjects, for which purnal economy of the province; their pose he has convoked deputies, president to be a commissioner or notables, from each district, appointed by the king. The na- to be the organs of the general tional representatives to be divid- opinion. ed into two chambers; the higher The constitutional plan was laid to consist of members nominated before a special assembly of the by the king, and for life. The States-general of the United Neplans of laws deliberated on in therlands, on August 8th, and its the council of state, are sent by unanimous acceptance was anthe king to the chamber of elect- nounced on the 19th by a deputaed deputies, and if there adopted, tion which waited on the king. are sent to the other chamber for Onegreat difficulty which might examination. The latter also re- be foreseen in effecting a coalesceives and discusses all proposi- cence of the whole Netherlands, tions made by the elected chamber under one form of law and goto the king, and transmits them vernment, arose from the very if approved. The sittings of the different feelings concerning reStates-general are made public. ligion which prevailed in the two The independence of judges is portions of the country. The seguaranteed. The right of mak- ren Dutch provinces were in a ing peace and war is committed great measure indebted for their to the sovereign. The crown is prosperity to that principle of gedeclared hereditary in the house neral toleration in which they of Nassau.

long stood distinguished among On July 18th a proclamation the nations of Europe, and which was issued by the king, notifying was fundamental in their political the union of the United Provinces system. The ten Flemish prowith Belgium, as agreed upon by vinces, on the contrary, from the the allied powers, and accepted time of their separation from the by himself, with the leading arti- others, adopted in its extreme the cles of that union. The first of exclusive maxim of the Roman these is, that the two countries catholic church, and acquired the shall form one state, governed by character of some of the most bithe constitution already establish- goted and intolerant members of ed in Holland, modified by con- that community. The attempts sent according to the new state of of the Emperor Joseph to enforce things. It declares that the Bel- a toleration of different religions gian provinces shall be duly re- were reckoned among his most presented in the States-general, heinous violations of the Belgie which are to be held alternately rights, and were finally defeated in a town of Holland, and in one with the rest of his projects. It of Belgium. It mentions the ap- might be supposed that the great pointment of the committee and political changes since his time, the presenting of the report above and particularly the long subjeccited; but says, that before the tion of those provinces to France, introduction of the fundamental would have produced a change in law, his Majesty has resolved to men's opinions on this subject, convince himself of the assent and this was probably the case Vol. LVII.



with respect to the body of the hearts of his faithful subjects in laity; but among the high clergy, this part of his kingdom,“ with whose prejudices and interests whom, attachment to the catholic combined in the support of the faith is stronger and more lively ancient system, there existed all than in any other country in the former repugnance to admit Europe.” From these purely rea principle equally hostile to both. ligious complaints, they turn to The operation of these combined another of a civil nature. “The motives was remarkably mani- clergy of these provinces have obfested by the publication of an ad- served, not without pain, that dress from certain of the Belgian your Majesty has been persuaded prelates to the King of the Ne- to exclude them from the assemtherlands, dated July 28th. Be- blies in which the great interests ginning with the king's assurance of the state were discussed ; that in his proclamation of confirming the plan of the new constitution to the catholic church its estab- contains honourable distinctions lishment and privileges, they af- for the nobility; and that the firm that these are inconsistent clergy, one of the first class in with an article in the plan of the the state, are deprived of them; new constitution, by which equal that they will not even have the favour and protection are promis. right of being represented in the ed to all religions. They next provincial assemblies; that their endeavour, historically, to prove influence on the acceptance of the the incompatibility of such a to- new constitution is carefully releration with the canonical laws and moved, so that the most distinfundamental principles of the ca- guished members of the clergy tholic church. They say, “We are not, according to the expresare bound, Sire, incessantly to sions of your Majesty's proclapreserve the people entrusted to mation, among the persons most our care from the doctrines which worthy of the

confidence of their are in opposition to those of the fellow-citizens ; lastly, that they catholic church. We could not are not allowed to inscribe their release ourselves from this obli- dissentient votes on the lists of gation without violating our most the notables.”

This address, sacred duties; and if your Ma- which contains many other rejesty, by virtue of a fundamental marks of a similar nature, was law, should protect in these pro- signed by the bishops

Ghent, vinces the public profession and Namur, and Tournay, and the spreading of these doctrines, we vicars-general of Liege and of should be in formal opposition Malines. An ecclesiastical proto the laws of the state.” In a kind test of this kind was capable at a of menace, they proceed to inform former period of lighting up a the king, that such regulations, if dangerous flame. At the present, confirmed, could only lead to a it was more likely to throw disrenewal of the troubles which de- credit upon the religion of which solated these provinces in the it was the advocate, as being rasixteenth century, and that they dically intolerant, and admitting must, sooner or later, alienate the no union with other forms of

Christianity. Christianity. It does not appear faction. His Majesty in his speech to have produced any alteration in took notice of the union, under the resolutions formed by the the same Sovereign and laws, of ruling powers relative to the sys- the seventeen provinces in the tem of religious affairs for the reign of the Emperor Charles V.; Netherlands. The King, on Sep- and congratulated the assembly tember the 10th, issued an ordi- on the prospect of its renewal after nance, with the following pre- a separation of nearly three cenamble : “ Considering that it is turies. He was replied to in an just and expedient to recur to the appropriate speech by the Preadvice of functionaries professing sident of the First Chamber; after the Catholic religion, for every which, the constitution was read, measure of administration relative and the King pronounced the oath to the public exercise of this reli- with peculiar energy. The progion, and especially for what re- cession then repaired to the church gards the relations between the of St. Gudule, at the door of clergy of our kingdom and the which the King was received by holy see, and desiring to confirm, the very Reverend M. Mille, enby a special and permanent insti- titled chief priest and pleban, who tution, our resolution to remove addressed to him a discourse en every thing which might tend to tirely free from any of the sen. weaken the real guaranty which timents of the prelatic address the constitution secures to the li- above mentioned, and claiming berty of all forms of worship, or only the protection for the Cawhich might in any degree affect tholic religion guaranteed by the the dogmas and the discipline of constitution. The first sitting of the Roman-catholic religion, or the States-general, at Brussels, hinder those who profess it from opened on the 25th, and one of freely exercising their faith as the earliest of its acts was a doheretofore, we have decreed, &c.” tation to the Duke of Wellington, From this formula, it will appear, as Prince of Waterloo, of an estate that only protection, and not mas- on the very theatre of his triumph. tery, and still less an exclusive The Sessions, in which every thing power, is given to the Roman passed with unanimity, was soon church in Belgium. The sub- after closed. sequent articles contain the ap- In October, was officially pubpointment of a committee of the lished the boundary treaty between Council of State, consisting of the King of the Netherlands and three or four Catholic members, the Emperor of Austria, concluded to which is to be referred every at Vienna, on May the 31st. It thing relating to Catholic wor- marks out topographically all the ship.

limits between the seventeen Bel. On September the 21st, the gic provinces and their neighceremonial of the inauguration of bours, comprising also a part of the King of the Netherlands was the ancient Duchy of Luxemperformed at Brussels with all burg, to be possessed in perdue solemnity, and with every petuity by the Sovereign of the external mark of general satis. Netherlands, as a compensation

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for some principalities in Ger- the measures suggested by his many, which are to form one of Majesty to recover the nation the States of the German con- from its difficulties, and promised federation. The King of the Ne- their cordial co-operation in bringtherlands also renounces for him- ing his plans to effect. At a self and his successors, in favour sitting of the Second Chamber, a of the King of Prussia, the sove. report was made by the Minister reign possessions of the House of of Finance, in which the deficit Nassau Orange in Germany. was stated at forty millions of

The Session of the States-ge- guilders, for which it was proneral at the Hague, was opened posed to provide by an issue of on October the 16th by a speech exchequer bills, to be liquidated from the King, the principal ob during the course of ten years by ject of which was, to prepare the an additional 15 per cent. upon a public mind for those great finan- number of existing taxes. At cial sacrifices which the unforeseen the sitting on October 24, a comevents of the year had rendered munication was made to the Chamnecessary, and which darkened ber of a convention concluded bethe favourable prospects of the tween the Kings of Great Britain former year. In a short space of and of the Netherlands, relative time it had been requisite to arm to the ceded Dutch colonies in the whole lines of fortresses, to dou. West Indies, in which various adble the national army, and to vantages were stipulated for the maintain the still more numerous trade of the Netherlands. The armies of the allies. It was inti. Belgians were at this time highly mated, that the means of providing gratified with the recovery of their for all these expenses would be valuable works of art from the the most serious subject for the museum of the Louvre. assembly's deliberations; and a On the discussion in the Second hope was expressed, that an intro- Chamber of the proposed war tax, duction of taxes of the same kind those differences appeared which throughout the kingdom, would are always to be expected in a put an end to the difficulties at representative assembly amidst oppresent experienced. Some con- posing interests. The Members solation was derived from the of the southern provinces particu. revival of various branches of in- larly declared against it, as highly dustry in consequence of the unjust with respect to those disreturn of peace, and the renewed tricts which had suffered so much connection with the colonies ; and from the war; and a voluntary hope for the future was suggested, loan, and the sale of national doas a result of the new guarantees mains, were proposed in its stead. for general tranquillity, to be When, however, the question was expected from the treaty of the put to the vote, the tax law was associated Sovereigns. The ad- carried by 77 to 27. dress in answer to the speech, A very important event to the drawn up by the Second Chamber, new kingdom of the Netherlands and approved by the First, ex- was announced to the States-ge. prcesed entire satisfaction with all neral, on December 19, in a mes


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