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for some principalities in Ger- the measures suggested by his many, which are to form one of Majesty to recover the nation the States of the German con- from its difficulties, and promised federation. The King of the Ne- their cordial co-operation in bringtherlands also renounces for him- ing his plans to effect.

At a self and his successors, in favour sitting of the Second Chamber, a of the King of Prussia, the sove- report was made by the Minister reign possessions of the House of of Finance, in which the deficit Nassau Orange in Germany. was stated at forty millions of

The Session of the States-ge. guilders, for which it was proneral at the Hague, was opened posed to provide by an issue of on October the 16th by a speech exchequer bills, to be liquidated from the King, the principal ob during the course of ten years by ject of which was, to prepare the an additional 15 per cent, upon a public mind for those great finan- number of existing taxes. At cial sacrifices which the unforeseen the sitting on October 24, a comevents of the year had rendered munication was made to the Chamnecessary, and which darkened ber of a convention concluded bethe favourable prospects of the tween the Kings of Great Britain former year. In a short space of and of the Netherlands, relative time it had been requisite to arm to the ceded Dutch colonies in the whole lines of fortresses, to dou- West Indies, in which various adble the national army, and to vantages were stipulated for the maintain the still more numerous trade of the Netherlands. The armies of the allies. It was inti- Belgians were at this time highly mated, that the means of providing gratified with the recovery of their for all these expenses would be valuable works of art from the the most serious subject for the museum of the Louvre. assembly's deliberations; and a On the discussion in the Second hope was expressed, that an intro- Chamber of the proposed war tax, duction of taxes of the same kind those differences appeared which throughout the kingdom, would are always to be expected in a put an end to the difficulties at representative assembly amidst oppresent experienced. Some con- posing interests. The Members solation was derived from the of the southern provinces particurevival of various branches of in- larly declared against it, as highly dustry in consequence of the unjust with respect to those disreturn of peace, and the renewed tricts which had suffered so much connection with the colonies ; and from the war; and a voluntary hope for the future was suggested, loan, and the sale of national doas a result of the new guarantees mains, were proposed in its stead. for general tranquillity, to be When, however, the question was expected from the treaty of the put to the vote, the tax law was associated Sovereigns. The ad- carried by 77 to 27. dress in answer to the speech, A very important event to the drawn up by the Second Chamber, new kingdom of the Netherlands and approved by the First, ex- was announced to the States-geprcssed entire satisfaction with all neral, on December 19, in a mes. sage from the King. This was, pressing the consent of the States a contract of marriage between to the marriage, as required by the Prince of Orange, heir appa- the constitution. This was unarent to the crown, and the Grand nimously given, and the union Duchess Anna Pawlowna, sister touk place. The extent of its of the Emperor of Russia. His political consequences time alone Majesty, among the desirable con- can determine ; but it is obvious sequences of such an union, men-' that the crown of the Nethertioned the new support which it lands will obtain a strong addioffered to the interests of the com- tional security by its connection mercial part of the nation in the with a court apparently destined north of Europe ; and the gua- henceforth to take the lead among ranty it afforded to the whole king. the continental powers of Europe, dom, of the durable kindness of a whilst Russia will acquire an court, which had so powerfully augmented weight in the general contributed to its foundation. The balance of political influence. plan of a law was annexed, ex

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CHAPTER CHAPTER X.

Germany. - Affairs of Wurtemberg --Contest between the King and the

States.-Saxony Note of the King to the Allied Powers.-Mutiny of the Saxon troops in Blucher's army.— Final Treaty with Prussia, and Dismemberment of the Saxon Terrritory.--Hanover : Speech of Count Munster to the States.- Prussia : the King's Proclamation to the Inhabitants of Posen, and of Dantzic and Thorn.--Royal Decree on the representation of the People in Prussia.-Organization of the Prussian Monarchy.-- Act of German Confederation.

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S the final settlement of the ministers and council, announced

affairs of Germany depend- his intention of introducing into ed on the resolutions of the con- his kingdom a constitution with gress of Vienna, which had not states-general; and to this effect concluded its deliberations till published a memorial addressed nearly the close of the year, the to all his “subjects, servants, and political condition of that country vassals,” in which he notified that for the most part remained in an he had sketched out a constitution indeterminate state which afforded of this nature, which he meant to little matter for historical record. lay before the states-general to be No longer the seat of destructive assembled in March following. wars, it was gradually recovering The states accordingly met, confrom its wounds, and returning to sisting of representatives chosen the exercise of peaceful industry; by the people, joined with others and although speculation on the who sat by right of birth as forforms of governinent under which mer states of the empire, and with they were hereafter to subsist must members appointed by the king. have been active among the en- The general expectation was, that Fightened classes of society, its ef- the ancient free constitution of fects were in general confined to Wurtemberg, which circumstances literary discussion. Some exam- had abrogated, would be restored, ples, however, were given of con- with modifications rendered netests of a more important kind; cessary by the change of times; and the kingdom of Wurtemberg, but the king's speech on opening in particular, was the theatre of the session expressed a different political events, which will be re- intention. No mention was made garded with interest, as elucidating of the former constitution; and a the spirit now prevailing in the new act, in the formation of which mixed constitutions of the Ger- the states had no share, was laid manic system.

before them, as the only organic On January 12th the King of law of the state sanctioned by his Wurtemberg having convoked his Majesty. The assembly, fondly

attached

attached to their ancient govern- government. It concluded with ment, which they considered as announcing the king's resolution their right, refused to accept of of opposing their designs, and enthat which was offered ; and after abling all his faithful subjects to various proceedings, a royal de- enjoy the advantages which he claration was made that the deci- hereby confirmed to them. It had sion should be deferred till the re- however already appeared by maturn of the Crown Prince from ny addresses to the king from Vienna. In subsequent negocia- towns and corporate bodies, that tions between the royal commis- the people concurred with the sioners and some deputies of the States in desiring the restoration States, the former declared that of their ancient constitution; and they were merely authorised to even in Stuttgard, the royal resihear proposals relative to the mo- dence, the court had not influence difications of the new constitution enough to prevent the signature of to be drawn from the old one; a petition by 600 citizens. but, of six points extracted from About this time a list of taxes this as a basis, not one was ac- for 1815 and 1816 was issued by ceded to by the king's commis- the minister of finance, to comsioners; and in fine, nothing be- mence from April 23d, but the deing effected, an adjournment of cree for the purpose was dated the assembly took place. Of these back on March 11th, four days betransactions an account was sent fore the assembling of the States. by the States to the ministers of This occasioned many districtthe courts of Great Britain, Prus- meetings in the kingdom, at which sia, and Denmark, as guarantees resolutions were entered into not of the constitution of Wurtem- to pay the taxes without the asberg.

sent of the States given to them, On August 5th a royal rescript and also to petition for their rewas issued, informing the people assembling. Deputies were nothat although the States had not minated for the delivery of repreaccepted the new constitution, his sentations on these subjects to the Majesty had not abrogated it, as king in person, which they were he had a right to do, but had suf- prevented from doing by the royal fered them to continue in its en- authority and a military force.-joyment, and had graciously re- The result of these measures was ceived their petitions. The old another royal rescript, dated constitution, it was said, was no tember 7th, in which it was aslonger practicable, as the recently serted that the taxes were such as added territories had no claim to had been annually levied on the it. The king had given up many different parts of the country since points ; and although the right of their union, for the purposes of taxation properly belonged to him, taxation, in 1808 and 1810. It he had conceded it to the States. further mentioned, that orders had For these favours they had made been given to the authorities of no adequate return, but had drawn government to restrain future de. up a list of grievances with the putations for petitioning, and to intention of embarrassing the royal preserve the public tranquillity ;

at

at the same time promising a full tions, even with respect to the old examination of the causes of com- states, professed his willingness to plaint. This rescript was not calretain from the ancient constituculated to afford satisfaction to a tion every thing that could be people who considered their rights adapted to the existing state of to have been invaded, and were things, and which was not condetermined to assert them. The trary to the principles of enlightmagistrates of Stuttgard on Sept. ened government. The States re19th made a representation to the turned an address of great length, king, of the general disappoint- in the German manner, in which ment respecting the recognition of the rescript was analysed and comthe ancient constitution, and of niented upon in a train of arguthe illegality of the taxes imposed. mentation. One of the most im“ The people of Wurtemberg portant observations is, that con(they said) never can or will re- vinced as they are that there can nounce the rights and liberties be only one Wurtemberg, they do which it derives from its forefa- not admit the inference that the thers, in which it has felt itself rights of the old country are at an happy for centuries, and the main- end, and that a new constitution tenance of which has been most must be framed for the whole solemnly sworn to by all the sove- kingdom. The new acquisitions reigns of Wurtemberg, and by your were made by the king, not as a Majesty yourself on your accession private person, but as the head of to the government." -"Even the the old state, which furnished the removal of the chief grievances means, and which may therefore under which it groans, even an demand their incorporation with alleviation of the public burdens, itself; and that when they were enormous as they are, cannot be deprived of their peculiar rights, of any value in the eyes of the and subjected to the burdens and people, unless they result from obligations of the mother country, the constitution, and not from the they necessarily became entitled momentary favour of the sove- to a participation in the rights of reign.” They concluded with a that country. On the whole, the request for the re-assembling of States adhered steadily to their the adjourned States.

purpose, and requested the king The latter event ok place on to declare that he acknowledged the 15th of October, and on the the old constitution as valid for the following day the session was whole country, with the reserve opened by the reading of a royal of such modifications as both parrescript. Its tenor was chiefly to ties should agree upon. prove that the constitutional claims Another rescript of the King on of Old and New Wurtemberg could November 13th was answered by not be established upon the same a second address of the States, in basis, or be made to coincide in which they express great satisone common government. The faction with his Majesty's acknowking, however, without admitting, ledgment of the intrinsic validity under the present circumstances, of the ancient constitution, and the obligation of former conven- that his objections affected only

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