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sage from the King. This was, pressing the consent of the States a contract of marriage between to the marriage, as required by the Prince of Orange, heir appa- the constitution. This was unarent to the crown, and the Grand nimously given, and the union Duchess Anna Pawlowna, sister touk place. The extent of its of the Emperor of Russia. His political consequences time alone Majesty, among the desirable con- can determine; but it is obvious sequences of such an union, men- ' that the crown of the Nethertioned the new support which it lands will obtain a strong addioffered to the interests of the com. tional security by its connection mercial part of the nation in the with a court apparently destined north of Europe ; and the gua- henceforth to take the lead among ranty it afforded to the whole king- the continental powers of Europe, dom, of the durable kindness of a whilst Russia will acquire an court, which had so powerfully augmented weight in the general contributed to its foundation. The balance of political influence. plan of a law was annexed, ex

CHAPTER

CHAPTER X.

Germany.--Affairs of Wurtemberg.-Contest between the King and the

States.Sarony : Note of the King to the Allied Powers.-Mutiny of the Saxon troops in Blucher's army.- Final Treaty with Prussia, and Dismemberment of the Saxon Terrritory.Hanover : Speech of Count Munster to the States.- Prussia : the King's Proclamation to the Inhabitants of Posen, and of Dantzic and Thorn.- Royal Decree on the representation of the People in Prussia.- Organization of the Prussian Monarchy.Act of German Confederation.

AS the final settlement of the ministers and council, announced A affairs of Germany depend- his intention of introducing into ed on the resolutions of the con- his kingdom a constitution with gress of Vienna, which had not states-general; and to this effect concluded its deliberations till published a memorial addressed nearly the close of the year, the to all his “subjects, servants, and political condition of that country vassals," in which he notified that for the most part remained in an he had sketched out a constitution indeterminate state which afforded of this nature, which he meant to little matter for historical record. lay before the states-general to be No longer the seat of destructive assembled in March following. wars, it was gradually recovering The states accordingly met, confrom its wounds, and returning to sisting of representatives chosen the exercise of peaceful industry; by the people, joined with others and although speculation on the who sat by right of birth as forforms of government under which mer states of the empire, and with they were hereafter to subsist must members appointed by the king. have been active among the en- The general expectation was, that Hightened classes of society, its ef- the ancient free constitution of fects were in general confined to Wurtemberg, which circumstances literary discussion. Some exam- had abrogated, would be restored. ples, however, were given of con- with modifications rendered netests of a more important kind; cessary by the change of times; and the kingdom of Wurtemberg, but the king's speech on opening in particular, was the theatre of the session expressed a different political events, which will be re- intention. No mention was made garded with interest, as elucidating of the former constitution; and a the spirit now prevailing in the new act, in the formation of which mixed constitutions of the Ger- the states had no share, was laid manic system.

before them, as the only organic On January 12th the King of law of the state sanctioned by his Wurtemberg having convoked his Majesty. The assembly, fondly

attached

attached to their ancient govern- government. It concluded with ment, which they considered as announcing the king's resolution their right, refused to accept of of opposing their designs, and enthat which was offered ; and after abling all his faithful subjects to various proceedings, a royal de- enjoy the advantages which he claration was made that the deci- hereby confirmed to them. It had sion should be deferred till the re- however already appeared by maturn of the Crown Prince from ny addresses to the king from Vienna. In subsequent negocia- towns and corporate bodies, that tions between the royal commis- the people concurred with the sioners and some deputies of the States in desiring the restoration States, the former declared that of their ancient constitution ; and they were merely authorised to even in Stuttgard, the royal resi. hear proposals relative to the mo- dence, the court had not influence difications of the new constitution enough to prevent the signature of to be drawn from the old one; a petition by 600 citizens. but, of six points extracted from About this time a list of taxes this as a basis, not one was ac- for 1815 and 1816 was issued by ceded to by the king's commis- the minister of finance, to comsioners ; and in fine, nothing be- mence from April 23d, but the deing effected, an adjournment of cree for the purpose was dated the assembly took place. Of these back on March 11th, four days betransactions an account was sent fore the assembling of the States. by the States to the ministers of This occasioned many districts the courts of Great Britain, Prus- meetings in the kingdom, at which sia, and Denmark, as guarantees resolutions were entered into not of the constitution of Wurtem- to pay the taxes without the asa berg.

sent of the States given to them, On August 5th a royal rescript and also to petition for their rewas issued, informing the people assembling. Deputies were nothat although the States had not minated for the delivery of repreaccepted the new constitution, his sentations on these subjects to the Majesty had not abrogated it, as king in person, which they were he had a right to do, but had suf- prevented from doing by the royal fered them to continue in its en authority and a military force. joyment, and had graciously re- The result of these measures was ceived their petitions. The old another royal rescript, dated Sepconstitution, it was said, was no tember 7th, in which it was as. longer practicable, as the recently serted that the taxes were such as added territories had no claim to had been annually levied on the it. The king had given up many different parts of the country since points; and although the right of their union, for the purposes of taxation properly belonged to him, taxation, in 1808 and 1810. It he had conceded it to the States. further mentioned, that orders had For these favours they had made been given to the authorities of no adequate return, but had drawn government to restrain future de, up a list of grievances with the putations for petitioning, and to intention of embarrassing the royal preserve the public tranquillity;

at the same time promising a full tions, even with respect to the old examination of the causes of com- states, professed his willingness to plaint. This rescript was not calretain from the ancient constituculated to afford satisfaction to a tion every thing that could be people who considered their rights adapted to the existing state of to have been invaded, and were things, and which was not condetermined to assert them. The trary to the principles of enlightmagistrates of Stuttgard on Sept. ened government. The States re19th made a representation to the turned an address of great length, king, of the general disappoint- in the German manner, in which ment respecting the recognition of the rescript was analysed and comthe ancient constitution, and of mented upon in a train of arguthe illegality of the taxes imposed. mentation. One of the most im“ The people of Wurtemberg portant observations is, that con(they said) never can or will re- vinced as they are that there can nounce the rights and liberties be only one Wurtemberg, they do which it derives from its forefa- not admit the inference that the thers, in which it has felt itself rights of the old country are at an happy for centuries, and the main- end, and that a new constitution tenance of which has been most must be framed for the whole solemnly sworn to by all the sove- kingdom. The new acquisitions reigns of Wurtemberg, and by your were made by the king, not as a Majesty yourself on your accession private person, but as the head of to the government.”—“Even the the old state, which furnished the removal of the chief grievances means, and which may therefore under which it groans, even an demand their incorporation with alleviation of the public burdens, itself; and that when they were enormous as they are, cannot be deprived of their peculiar rights, of any value in the eyes of the and subjected to the burdens and people, unless they result from obligations of the mother country, the constitution, and not from the they necessarily became entitled momentary favour of the sove- to a participation in the rights of reign." They concluded with a

that country.

On the whole, the request for the re-assembling of States adhered steadily to their the adjourned States.

purpose, and requested the king The latter event took place on to declare that he acknowledged the 15th of October, and on the the old constitution as valid for the following day the session whole country, with the reserve opened by the reading of a royal of such modifications as both parrescript. Its tenor was chiefly to ties should agree upon. prove that the constitutional claims Another rescript of the King on of Old and New Wurtemberg could November 13th was answered by not be established upon the same a second address of the States, in basis, or be made to coincide in which they express great satisone common government. The faction with his Majesty's acknowking, however, without admitting, ledgment of the intrinsic validity under the present circumstances, of the ancient constitution, and the obligation of former conven- that his objections affected only

was

its application to the whole king principle than that of convenience, dom. They say, that having al- and without any regard to the inready acknowledged that the con- ternal relations of the nation, a line stitution must undergo some mo- has been traced across the coun, difications and additions, all the try which would at once tear from differences between the sovereign it two-fifths of its population, and and the nation hare ceased to exist, more than one half of its territo, both parties being agreed upon the rial extent, as well as the means principle. In consequence, they indispensible for the subsistence notify the appointment of commis- of what shall remain to the King. sioners on their part to negociate It is to such sacrifices that the with those nominated by the king. King has been invited to give his This address produced another assent, while it is added, that no royal rescript dated Nov. 29th, in negociation will be entered into which it is hinted that some erro- as to accessary points, until his neous and forced interpretations Majesty shall have categorically had been given to several of the declared himself on the territorial principles declared in the former cession.” The King then argues rescript, particularly with respect against pronouncing upon his to the new states, but that they rights without his consent, and shall not retard the negociations retaining his states as conquered for a final accommodation; and a countries; and he claims the annomination is then made of the mission of his plenipotentiary to royal commissioners. The result the congress in order to treat with of the whole seems to be, that the the allied powers. States have gained their point of That the dissatisfaction of the rendering the ancient constitution King was participated by the peoof Wurtemburg the basis of its ple, subjected to a government to future government,

which they had an extreme reIt was mentioned in the narra- pugnance, was rendered evident tive of the last year, that although by a proclamation issued at DresPrussia, by a provisional occupa- den on April 12th, by which every tion, had got the whole of Saxony person who, either in words within her grasp, the fate of that or deeds, manifested an attachunfortunate country was not yet ment to Napoleon Buonaparte, or decided. In the beginning of March his interests, was ordered to be a note was transmitted from the apprehended and delivered to the King of Saxony to the mini-ters of office of police for the investiga: the allied powers at Vienna,- tion of the charge, and corres. which began with expressing the ponding punishment. A more dedeep affliction he had felt on pe- cisive proof of the existence of rusing the documents communi- such feelings among the Saxons cated to him by the Princes Tal- was given by a serious mutiny in leyrand and Metternich, and the the troops of that nation at Liege Duke of Wellington, announcing in the beginning of May. It conithe determination of the five pow, menced from an intended division ers relative to Saxony. He pro- of them into such as were natives ceeds to say, “ Without of the part ceded to Prussia, and

of

any other

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