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of the part remaining to the King, people of Prussian Saxony, in A battalion of grenadiers of the which, announcing their union guardand a regiment of grenadiers to his crown, he says, “ The geof the line, who had for some time neral agreement of the powers exhibited a disorderly spirit, on assembled in congress has assignthe hearing of this intention, ed me your country, subjected by broke out into open mutiny, and the fate of war, by way of inattempted to force their way into demnity for the loss which has on Prince Blucher's hotel, but were one side diminished the circuit prevented by the centinels. This of the states guaranteed to me." state of mutiny continued for It will therefore never be a matthree days, when it was sup- ter of question by what tenure pressed by the arrival of some this part of the Prussian domiPrussian troops. The guilty bat. nions is held. The King of talion and regiment were dis- Saxony also issued from Dresden armed, the latter was disbander, a valedictory address to the same seven of the most criminal of portion of his former subjects, in the mutineers shot, and others which he excused the cession, as were condemned to perpetual im- the only condition by which he prisonment. The other Saxon could obtain the restoration of corps quartered in those dis- the rest of his hereditary states, tricts are said to have expressed The following lines must touch indignation at the conduct of their every reader capable of feeling countrymen, and their behaviour the simple pathetic. “All my was praised in a proclamation efforts to avert so painful a saissued by Prince Blucher on the crifice have been in vain. I must occasion.
part from you, and the bonds This incident perhaps hasten- which your fidelity and attached an event which might before ment to my person have renderhave been with certainty pre- ed so dear to me, the bonds which dicted ; that of the final sub- have formed for ages the happi. mission of the King of Saxony to ness of my house, and of your the conditions imposed on him. ancestors, must be broken." Such A treaty between him and the has been the fate of that so. King of Prussia was ratified on vereign who had the misfortune May 21st, by which the cessions of being the last of those who in to the latter were marked out the same year supported the cause together with the conditions un- of the French emperor! der which they were made. The The new kingdom of Hanover, acquisitions of Prussia are in a though safe in its main interests general way expressed in the under the powerful protection of titles assumed by the King on Great Britain, partook, during account of them : these are, Duke the greatest part of the year, of of Saxony, Landgrave of Thurin- the unsettled condition prevailgia, Margrave of both Lusatias, ing throughout Germany, whilst and Count of Henneberg. The waiting the final determinations of King of Prussia at the same time the Congress at Vienna. Of its published a proclamation to the intermediate state a yiew may be
obtained obtained from the speech of the mi- should be recognized under cernisterCountMunster, to the assem- tain modifications. With respect bled states-general on Oct. 18th. to exemptions from taxation, the He observed, that although the public voice had declared so deestablishment of the civil rights of cisively against them, that it Germany had not been yet ac- might not be proper to restablish complished, yet it might tran- them. The minister finally anquilize the Hanoverians that the nounced that the Prince Regent, Prince Regent had shewn, both when the new provinces were inby the whole of his administra- corporated, would cause a plan tion, and by the votes of his pleni- to be drawn up for the representapotentiaries at Vienna, that he tion of the whole kingdom, and was warmly attached to the cause for a central board of taxation. of German freedom. He took The King of Prussia, who has notice of the enlargement, and the been mentioned as bringing to improved rounding, of the king- effect the determination of his dom, which, though occasioning associated colleagues relative to some painful cessions, was ren- the portion of Saxony assigned to dered necessary by the agreement him, about the same time reof the greater powers respecting entered into the possession of his the reconstruction of their states. former Polish provinces. He is Proceeding to the interior af- sued from Vienna, on May 15th, a fairs of the country, he remarked proclamation addressed to the inthat the union of new provinces habitants of the Grand Duchy of rendering it necessary to examine Posen, announcing the restoratheir several situations and cir- tion to their original state, of cumstances, no definitive resolu- those parts of the late Duchy of tions relative to taxation and the Warsaw which had belonged to other parts of administration could Prussia. He also gave them an be taken in the present session. insight into their future political The Prince Regent, he said, did condition, as well as into that of not intend to give the country a his other subjects. “ You are new constitution : he would hold incorporated (he said) with my sacred the original rights of the monarchy, but without being states, but several modifications obliged to renounce your nawould be necessary in the exer- tionality. You will participate in cise of those rights. In particular, the constitution which I intend to the finances would require an uni- give my faithful subjects, and form and firm administration, you will have a provisional conuniting all the parts under one ge- stitution, like the other provinces neral system. With respect to the of my kingdom. Your religion debts contracted during the French shall be maintained, and a suitoccupation, though his Royal able dotation be assigned to its Highness could not allow the servants. Your personal rights right of the states to bind pos- and your property shall return terity by debts contracted without under the protection of the laws, consent of the Sovereign, yet he upon which you will also be thought it advisable that they called in future to deliberate.
Your language shall be used with tion, and framing a constitution the German in all public transac- according to the principles laid tions; and every one of you, ac- down, which is to meet on the 1st cording to his abilities, shall be of September ensuing. If in eligible to public employments in this declaration of the royal will the Grand Duchy, and to all the of- the rudiments of a free governfices, honours, and dignities, of my ment can be discerned, it must kingdom.” A proclamation of the be acknowledged that a great same date was addressed by the number of essential points are King to the inhabitants of the city left wholly indeterminate, and that and territory of Dantzic, the circle the sovereign has bound himself of Culm and Michelau, the town of to nothing which might not as Thorn and its territory, informing readily be made an instrument, as them of their restoration to their a check, of regal authority. ancient connections, and of their A statement of the intended intended paticipation in the con- organization of the Prussian mostitution planned for all his Ma- narchy, given as authentic in a jesty's subjects in the provincial German paper, certainly bears an government of West Prussia.
appearance more resembling that A royal decree published on of a military government, than May 25th, laid before the Prus- of one in which it is intended sian nation the plan of that re- to afford much scope to the operapresentation of the people which tion of the popular will. dcwas to be the basis of the future cording to this plan, the whole moconstitution of the monarchy. The narchy is to be portioned into five following were its principal provi- military divisions, ten provinces, sions : The provincial assemblies, and twenty-five circles. Each diwhere still existing, are to be re- vision, comprehending two proestablished and modelled accord- vinces, and averaging two miling the exigencies of the time; lion of inhabitants, is to have at and where at present there are no its head a general in chief. Every such assemblies, they are to be province is to be administered by introduced. From these, the as- a high president, having under sen bly of representatives of the his special direction ecclesiastical kingdom is to be formed, which affairs and public education, meis to sit at Berlin, and the dical police, the common confunctions of which are to extend cerns of the province, and certo deliberating upon all those ob- tain military matters. An anjects of legislation which concern nexed table of territorial divisions, the personal rights of citizens, with their capitals, is at least a and their property, including taxa- good geographical document of tion. A committee is to be form- the present Prussian dominions, ed at Berlin, of officers of state, whatever may be the event of the and inhabitants of the provinces, preceding plan. It is as follows: nominated and presided over by East Prussia, chief town, Konigsthe chancellor, for the purpose of berg; West Prussia, Dantzic; organizing the provincial assem- Posen, Posen ; Silesia, Breslau ; blies and the national representa- Brandenburgh, Berlin; Pomera
nia (recently ceded by Sweden), cision of the Diet. It is further Stettin ; Saxony, Magdeburg; agreed, that in all the states of the Munster, Munster ; Grand Duchy Confederation constitutional of the Lower Rhine, Cologne; assembly of states-general shall Cleves and Berg, Dusseldorf. be established; and that diver
In order to secure the external sity of Christian faith shall occaand internal tranquillity of Ger- sion no difference in respect of many, and the independence of civil and political rights. The Diet its different states, a solemn act is also to take into consideration of confederation was signed at the mode by which the condition Vienna on June 8th, between the of professors of the Jewish relisovereign princes and free cities, gion may be meliorated. They including the Emperor of Austria likewise assure to the subjects of and the King of Prussia, for those the confederate states the possesof their possessions which for- sion of landed property out of the merly belonged to the German state in which they reside, without empire; the King of Denmark, being subject to greater charges for Holstein ; and the King of than the natives ; the right of the Netherlands, for the Grand free emigration from one state to Duchy of Luxemburg. By this another which shall consent to react the affairs of the Confederation ceive them; and that of entering are to be managed by a general into the civil and military service assembly or diet, in which all the of such confederate state ; both members are to be represented those rights, however, on the by their plenipotentiaries, either supposition that they lie under singly possessing a vote, or se- no previous obligation of military veral joining to form one vote, service in their native country. the whole number of votes being The Diet, at its first meeting, is to 17. The presidency is given to occupy itself with the framing of Austria; the place of meeting is uniform regulations relative to the to be Frankfort on the Maine. freedom of the press, and the seEach member of the Confedera- curity of authors and publishers tion engages to assist in protect- from oppression. ing not only all Germany, but It will be remarked with satisevery separate state of the league, faction, that the general tenor of against any attack, and recipro- these articles affords proof of a cally to guarantee to each other great advance of liberal principles the whole of their possessions in- in this important part of Europe ; cluded within the Confedera- and if the confederacy remain tion. They also bind themselves firm in its union, it must be a to enter into no treaties hostile powerful preservative against the to the Confederation, and not to renewal of those internal wars by make war upon one another which Germany has so often been upon any pretext, but to sub- desolated. mit their differences to the de
CHAPTER CHAPTER XI.
Kingdom of Poland under the Emperor of Russia.-Sweden.—Norway.
- Swedish Pomerania annexed to Prussia.-Switzerland. The Part taken by it in the War.-Disturbance in Unterwalden pacified.
Operor Alexander, addressed spirit of the nation, and approx
to the President of the Polish imate them to the constitution of Senate at Warsaw, a letter, an- May, 1791. The Roman-catholic nouncing that the fate of their is declared the religion of the country had been unanimously State, but with the free exercise of decided by the Powers assembled all other modes of worship. The in congress, and that he had as- Executive Power and the funcsumed the title of King of Poland. tions of Government are exclu. « The kingdom (said the Em- sively vested in the Sovereign. peror) will be united with Russia No person can be arrested but by the bond of its own constitution. according to legal forms, and in If the great interest of general cases determined by the law. The tranquillity has not permitted the grounds of imprisonment are to union of all the Poles under the be communicated to every person same Sceptre, I have, at least, in custody, and he must be brought endeavoured to alleviate as much before the competent tribunal as possible the pain of the sepa- within three days. No change is ration, and to obtain for them to be made in the taxes and imevery where the peaceful enjoy- posts without the consent of the ment of their nationality." We General Diet, convoked according learn afterwards, that far the to constitutional forms. In fugreatest part of the Duchy of ture, all civil and criminal laws, Warsaw was thus made over to and all respecting the finance, the Sovereign of Russia.
and even relative to the functions In the month of December an of the constitutional authority, account appeared of that national are to be submitted to the exaconstitution, under which the mination of the General Diet, and Kingdom of Poland is allowed not to have the force of lav till to maintain an existence in its assented to by them, and sancunequal conjunction with a mighty tioned by the Sovereign. empire. The still subsisting sta- This newly created
Kingdom of tutes of the Duchy are preserved Poland, with the Prussian Duchy in all points, with the exception of Posen, and the former annexof such modifications as are neces. ations of the three partitioning