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CHAPTER XI.

Kingdom of Poland under the Emperor of Russia.-Sweden.—Norway.

-Swedish Pomerania annexed to Prussia.-Switzerland.The Part taken by it in the War.-Disturbance in Unterwalden pacified.

ON

N April the 30th, the Em- sary to conciliate them with the

peror Alexander addressed spirit of the nation, and approx. to the President of the Polish imate them to the constitution of Senate at Warsaw, a letter, an- May, 1791. The Roman-catholic nouncing that the fate of their is declared the religion of the country had been unanimously State, but with the free exercise of decided by the Powers assembled all other modes of worship. The in congress, and that he had as- Executive Power and the funcsumed the title of King of Poland. tions of Government are exclu. “ The kingdom (said the Em- sively vested in the Sovereign. peror) will be united with Russia No person can be arrested but by the bond of its own constitution. according to legal forms, and in If the great interest of general cases determined by the law. The tranquillity has not permitted the grounds of imprisonment are to union of all the Poles under the be communicated to every person same Sceptre, I have, at least, in custody, and he must be brought endeavoured to alleviate as much before the competent tribunal as possible the pain of the sepa- within three days. No change is ration, and to obtain for them to be made in the taxes and imevery where the peaceful enjoy- posts without the consent of the ment of their nationality." We General Diet, convoked according learn afterwards, that far the to constitutional forms. In fugreatest part of the Duchy of ture, all civil and criminal laws, Warsaw was thus made over to and all respecting the finance, the Sovereign of Russia.

and even relative to the functions In the month of December an of the constitutional authority, account appeared of that national are to be submitted to the exaconstitution, under which the mination of the General Diet, and Kingdom of Poland is allowed not to have the force of lawv till to maintain an existence in its assented to by them, and sancunequal conjunction with a mighty tioned by the Sovereign. empire. The still subsisting sta- This newly created Kingdom of tutes of the Duchy are preserved Poland, with the Prussian Duchy in all points, with the exception of Posen, and the former annexof such modifications as are neces. ations of the three partitioning

Powers

[111 Powers, comprehend the whole more worthy of the choice of the of what was once Poland, with States, than any one who has worn the exception of the ancient capital, the crown of the Great Gustavus Cracow, which those Powers have Adolphus. thought goud in congress to de- The Diet appears to have passed clare a free, independent, and in great harmony. The States strictly neutral city, having a small having been informed by the King, territory assigned to it. Russia, that the foreign debt would in a Austria, and Prussia, engage to short time be discharged, a depurespect, and to cause to be respect- tation of the four orders waited ed, its neutrality, and no armed upon his Majesty, and the Crown force is upon any pretext to enter Prince, with an address of gratiits territory. It is to possess its tude on that account. In this they free constitution, its academy, and expressed their acknowledgments bishoprie, as settled by a former to the King, that by wise and treaty.

beneficent measures, as well as At the Diet of Sweden, which by important personal services, opened at Stockholm in March, he had given the nation the power, the King delivered a speech re- of which it would probably have markable for the very high terms been deprived for a long time to in which he mentioned the Crown come, of discharging in a way not Prince. Speaking of the dange- likely to be much felt by the firous state of the country when he nances, a debt which had long ascended the throne, he said, pressed heavily upon them.” On “ By your unanimous choice a August the loth, the Diet was hero was placed at my side. By closed by a speech from the him all your hopes and mine were Throne, which began with af. animated. The dangers which firming, that“Seldom had a King loured at a distance vanished be- of Sweden more objects to profore the lightning of his sword, pose for regulation to his people, and all contending spirits were or more occasion for joy in doing pacified by the benignity of his so; seldom had the bond of union countenance." After alluding to between the Sovereign and sub, the new contest for the liberties jects been more closely drawn.” of Europe, in which their country Among other causes for satisbore a part, “My son, however, faction, he particularly mentioned (said he) did not draw his sword the conviction expressed by the merely to raise the honour of the Diet, that the union between Swe. warriors of Sweden to its former den and Norway required for its lustre ; he had, as well as myself, solidity an entire recognition of a higher and more important end common rights; and their having in view.” This is explained to be met with enlightened good-will the union of Norway with Sweden; the wishes of the Norwegian naon the effectuating of which, the tion, and thereby excited a mutual assembly is warmly congratulated: confidence, which had shewn in a The eulogy on the Prince is brought short period what could only have to a climax, by pronouncing him been expected from long expe

rience,

rience. After noticing the event king his rights to Swedish Pomcwhich had again rekindled in rania and Rugen, in return for Europe the flame of war, his Ma- the Duchy of Lauenburg (which jesty observed, that, prevented by had been made over to him by its situation and confined resources Hanover), and a sum of money trom taking a more active part, in addition. This exchange was the Scandinavian Peninsula had completed by letters-patent from only been able by concurring in the King of Sweden, dated Oct. the principles of its allies, to give 1st. absolving the inhabitants of proof of its continued friendly Pomerania and Rugen from any union.

remaining allegiance to the SweThe Diet of Norway was as- dish crown; and in the same sembled in this summer, and on month, those districts were forJuly 5th a royal speech was de- mally occupied by the King of livered before it by the Chancellor Prussia's commissioner. of the kingdom, Count Essen. Its The part to be taken by the principal topic was the new war Swiss Cantons on the renewal of by which the repose of Europe war hetween the allied powers had been disturbed, and which and France was necessarily rel'endered it necessary that the garded as a matter of importance ; united Scandinavian people should and on May 6th the ministers of be prepared for any exigency, al- the four great powers at Zurich though there was reason to hope (lelivered a note on the subject to that they might still enjoy the se- the Diet then sitting. They becurity of their geographical posi- gin with applauding the detertion. Mention was then made of mination expressed by the Helvethe fraternal disposition towards tic body, at the moment of Buothe Norwegians displayed by Swe- naparte's return to France, of den; and it was announced that taking up arms to defend its fronthe misunderstandings with Den- tiers, and avert the disorders with mark on account of Pomerania which all Europe was menaced bad been brought to a desirable by this event. They proceed to - conclusion.

mention the compact entered into This last event was effected in by the sovereigns at the congress the following manner :-By the of Vienna for subverting this treaty of Kiel in January 1814, usurpation, and their invitation to the King of Sweden had cedled to the rest of Europe to accede to it, the crown of Denmark his rights which had been accepted ; and to Pomerania and Rugen as a they announce that they have been compensation for Norway. The commissioned by these powers to King of Denmark, compelled by represent to the Diet their conficircumstances to acquiesce in this dent expectation, that Switzerexchange, found his new posses- land, by a formal declaration, sion of little value on account of would adopt the same principles, its separation from the other parts and concert with them the meaof his dominion; and by a treaty sures necessary for opposing the with the King of Prussia, dated common danger. They affirm, June 4th, 1815, he ceded to that hoirever, that the allied powers

are

are far from proposing to Swit- rangements by constitutionally zerland that it should display any confirming them. other force than such as is pro- The result of this determinaportioned to the resources and tion of the diet was a convention, usages of its people, and that by the articles of which Switzertheir only desire is that the confe- land declared its formal adhesion deration would assume an ener- to the system of the four allied getic attitude, and adopt mea- powers; and on the other hand, sures commensurate to the ex- the sovereigns promised that on traordinary circumstances of the the conclusion of a general peace, time. They say that they have all the advantages conferred on received instructions from their Switzerland by the congress of courts to regulate, by a conven- Vienna should be secured to it. tion, the footing on which Swit- The confederation bound itself to zerland is to stand in this associ- have in the field an army suffici. ation, and they request the dietent as well to cover its frontiers to nominate plenipotentiaries for from the enemy, as to impede any negociating with them.

attempt on that side against the The diet, in its answer, after forces of the allies. Various arexplicitly asserting its resolution ticles were inserted in favour of to oppose with all its might a Switzerland, and pecuniary assistpower which threatens the peace, ance was offered to those cantons independence, and rights of all which should not be able to supnations, intimates that the part port a protracted armament. The to be taken by 22 little republics signature of the convention by united for mutual security, must both parties was dated May 20th, naturally be that of the vigorous and deputations immediately went defence of their frontiers. For to their respective cantons to atthis purpose, it is said that more tend the deliberations on the subthan 30,000 men have been set on ject. It appears that the convenfoot; in return for such exertion tion was ratified in the canton of Switzerland thinks it may expect Zurich by 109 voices against 5%, from the kindness of the allied but was rejected at Basle by 55 powers that their armies will re- to 53. Bern and several other spect its territory, till it shall call cantons are mentioned as having for their aid. If, however, any joined in the ratification, The thing is to be done to fix in a city of Basle, which was probably inore precise manner the political induced by its position under the relations of the confederation with cannon of the French fortress of the allied powers, the diet is Huningen, to withhold its conready to listen to overtures, and currence in the convention, soon has commissioned three persons experienced the impossibility of (named) to enter into a negocia- maintaining a state of tranquillity tion with the ministers. In every between contending armies.case, however, the right is re- Huningen being invested by the served to the Cantons of taking a Austrians, its commandant, on definitive resolution on this heai, June 28th, without any previous and giving validity to these ar- notice, commenced a bombardVol. LVII.

I

mient

ment on the town, which, how which caused the Diet to send ever, soon ceased. An order of commissioners in August to the the day was soon after published lower part of that canton, who by the Swiss commander-in-chief, by their prudent measures effected Bachman, mentioning that the the complete union of that disincursions of the French troops trict with the rest of their couninto the territories of Switzerland, trymen. The commissioners, in attended with the plundering of a proclamation to the people of villages, having rendered the ad- Lower Unterwald, dated Stanz, vance of the Swiss troops neces- August 26th, express their satissary, and at the same time seve- faction at the recognition of the ral French frontier districts hav- legitimate authority, and bestow ing requested that they might be their parting advice for the preoccupied by the Swiss, they had servation of tranquillity and good entered the French territories, in order. The diet passed a resoluwhich, however, they were order- tion for the re-admission of the ed to conduct themselves as the canton into the confederation unfriends of the inhabitants. Basle der certain stipulations, which decontinued to be held in alarm by note that a resistance to the paythe threats of the commander of ment of the contingent imposed Huningen to lay it in ashes if he upon it was the cause of the diswere bombarded by the besiegers, turbance. It may now be hoped tillit was relieved by his surrender; that the federal constitution of and the total demolition of the Switzerland is so well arranged strong works of that fortress was and finally established, that it will one of the desirable results of the have no more storms to undergo, final success of the allies.

and will assure to that country The principal opposition to the the internal happiness and moral new Helvetic confederation ap- respectability, which have long obpears to have existed in the old tained for it the admiration of democratic cantons; and in that Europe, of Unterwald tumults prevailed

CHAPTER

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