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Spain.-Proclamation by the Inquisition.-Royal Manifesto.- Requisition
to the Congress.- Porlier's Insurrection.-Spanish Armies enter France and retire.- Prosecution of the Liberales and final Sentence.- Italy.Papal Proclamation to the Legations.Pope's Allocution.-Attempts for Ecclesiastical restorations.-Elba.
HE degraded state to which to have been chiefly intent upon
Spain was reduced after the fitting out the long-delnyed expereturn of its king, by a relapse to dition for reducing the insurgents arbitrary government and eccle- in South America, and in putting siastical domination, had render- an end to all attempts at home to ed her at the close of the last propagate obnoxious opinions. A year an object of little concern to proclamation was issued in Jathe rest of Europe; and particu- nuary by the Inquisitor-general larly had deprived her of the in- which, after reciting the Pope's terest taken in her_fate by those bull against free-masons and other warm friends in England, who secret societies, takes notice of had indulged the hope of seeing the connection formed by a numlight and liberty extending their ber of Spaniards, who had residbeneficial influence through a ed in foreign countries, with socountry of ancient renown. It cieties“ leading to sedition, inwas long expected that the train- subordination, and to every error ing which the Spanish nation had and crime,” and summons them received during its contest for in- within a fortnight to return to dependence, and the liberal sen- the bosom of the church, which timents with which it had been is ready to receive them with beimpregnated, would have pro- coming tenderness, denouncing duced a struggle against the vio- at the same time all the penalties lences of despotism and bigotry; inflicted by the civil and canon but experience seemed to prove law against such as shall “ that it was only an inconsiderable tinue obstinate in the path of perminority who had imbibed the dition." spirit of freedom and improve- When Buonaparte subverted ment, and that the general mass the Bourbon throne of France, it was still fitted only for slavery was natural that a king of the and superstition.
same family should join the league At the beginning of the year of sovereigns to dispossess the the Spanish government appears Usurper; but Spain was too much
reduced, and its throne too weakly tention to this requisition ; and filled, to take an active part on had likewise offended his Catholic the occasion ; and it was not till Majesty by recommending to him the month of May that Ferdinand the cession of Olivenza to PortuVII. ventured to declare himself gal. Such was the degree of esunited with the allied powers who timation in which this govertipublished the declaration of March ment was held abroad! 13th. This manifesto was cha- At home, the system of rigorracterised by the feeble and cir- ous and unrelenting persecution cumstantial prolixity common in was still persisted in against the the state papers issued by the Spa- whole party of liberales, together nish court ; and the nation was with the re-establishment of ciparticularly called upon to interest vil and ecclesiastical authority, in itself in the war, as being under. its most arbitrary forms. These taken against an enemy of reli- measures, though long passively gion. It is scarcely necessary to submitted to, at length produced say that the dreaded invader was an insurrection which at first put vanquished long before Spain was on a formidable appearance. Gein any condition to assist in the neral Juan Diez Porlier, who obconflict. Previously to this war- tained great distinction in the war like manifesto, the Spanish mini- for independence under the name ster at Vienna had presented to of the Marquesito, had incurred I'rince Metternich a requisition the suspicion of the restored moon the part of the King for the narchy, and undergone confinedelivery of the States of Parma, ment for a year in the castle of Placentia, and Guastalla, then oc. St. Antonio. Having obtained cupied by Austrian troops, to the permission to visịt a bathingInfant Charles Louis, King of place on acount of his health, on Etruria, as their lawful possessor. September 13th, at night, he asThe reasoning on which this de- sembled the troops quartered at mand was founded turned upon the St. Lucia, without the gates of facts, that the powers who by the Corunna, and entering the city treaty of Fontainebleau bestowed early on the next morning, lie these Duchies upon the Arch- placed the Governor, the Captainduchess Maria Louisa, disposed general, and a few other persons of what did not belong to them, under arrest. Tranquillity being since military occupation confers restored, he issued a proclamano right; and that the same pow- tion addressed to the soldiers of ers having by their declaration in the Galician army, in which he congress on March 13th announ- inveighed severely against the ced that the above treaty was conduct of Government since the oroken by the forcible entrance of return of Ferdinand, and proposBuonaparte into France, it can no ed the removal of the ministers, Jonger be an obstacle to an act of and the re-establishment of the just restitution. From a subse- Cortes. A long manifesto to the quent protest to the Spanish mi- same effect was also addressed to nister dated June 5th, it appears the Spanish nation, purporting to that the congress had paid no ato be from the Provincial Junta of
Galicia under the presidency of and thrown into the prison of the Porlier, styled Gen.-Commandant Inquisition; and having been of the interior of the kingdom. hastily tried by a court-martial, on
A column of grenadiers and October 3d, he suffered death by provincial light infantry of Gali- the cord as a traitor. He directcia was at this time quartered at ed that a handkerchief steeped in Santiago, upon whose co-opera- his last tears should be given to tion Porlier relied ; and being in- his wife, with a consolatory letter, formed that they were hesitating in which he exhorted her not to how to decide, and that his pre- afflict herself with the kind of sence would probably confirm death to which he was sentenced, them in his cause, he marched since it was dishonourable only from Corunna on the night of the to the wicked, but glorious to the 21st, at the head of 300 men col- virtuous. From all that has been lected in haste, with four pieces published it would appear that of cannon. The chapter of Santi- the people took no part in this ago, which possesses great wealth, movement, at least not in its faresolved to employ it in frustrat- vour. The citizens of Corunna ing the revolutionary enterprize ; were thanked for their conduct on and placing a large sum at the the occasion, in the congratuladisposal of the governor of the tory proclamations that were isplace, it was employed to gain sued after the suppression of the over the troops ; and the result insurrection. In one of these, was, that a regiment on its march from the members of the Junta of to join Porlier was ordered to Corunna, who were placed under halt. This leader arrived on the confinement during the insur, night of the 22d at a village three rection, their deliverance is as, leagues from Santiago, where he cribed to the protection of the halted his fatigued men, and with most holy Virgin of the Rosary, bis officers took a slight repast. whose festival was then celeIn the meantime some emissaries brating. from Santiago introduced them- Towards the close of August, selves among his men in the dis- the Spanish army stationed in the guise of peasants, and made pro- environs of Bellegarde concen. mises of advancement to the ser, trated and made a movement to. jeants if they would assist in ap- wards the French frontier. The prebending the General and bis French General Ricard immediOfficers. These promises, with a ately advanced a division of troops plentiful distribution of money, in the direction of Perpignan, and were successful ; and a plan was all the other troops in the departe laid, hy which Porlier and his of- ments on the Pyrenees were put ficers were secured without re- in preparation. On the 27th the sistanee : such was the termina- Spaniards, to the number of from tion of this ill-fated and apparent- 12 to 15,000 infantry, and 1000 ly rash enterprize at its very com- or 1200 cavalry crossed the Bimencement.
dassoa, the Commander in chief, The unfortunate leader was Count Avisbal, publishing a probrought to Corunna on the 26th, clamation announcing that his en
trance into France had no other who had been favourites of the object than to support the throne King, and the dismissal of some of Louis XVIII. and the integrity ministers, immediately after Porof his kingdom. At the same licr's insurrection, were thought time another Spanish army under to indicate an intended change in Gen. Castanos crossed the fron- the measures of government; and tier on the side of Perpignan. So a free pardon to the confined libelittle, however, was such aid de- rales, and even a restoration of sired, that the Duke of Angou- the Cortes, were fondly predicted, leme, in an interview with the lat- especially as it was known that ter commander, persuaded him to the allied powers disapproved the march back into Spain. Count policy which had been pursued in Avisbal being informed of this Spain. Nothing of this kind, transaction by Lieut.-Gen. Count however, took place; and the rede Viomesnil, announced that as mainder of the year exhibited the soon as he should receive official same predominance of arbitrary notice of it from General Casta- principles, superstition, and renos, he would also repass the Bi- sistance to improvement, which dassoa. This intention he put had re-plunged this country into in execution on Sept. 4th, after its former state of degradation.having adiressed a letter to Count The character of the monarch was Viomesnil, in which he extols the exhibited in a peculiarly odious discipline observed by his troops light by the despotic rigour which whilst in France, who were nei- he personally exercised upon the ther provoked by the menaces of state prisoners. Having given the local authorities, nor by the orders that the trials of the liberecollection of the enormities rales should be concluded within practised by the troops of Buo- a fixed period, and that he should naparte in Spain, to acts of hosti- be consulted with regard to the lity. Ilis letter concludes with sentences to be pronounced, he the wish that the King of France was greatly dissatisfied on being may not one day have to repent of told that nothing appeared in evibeing deprived of the assistance dence to convict the accused, and of 0,000 Spaniards. This must that it would be consonant to appear mere vapouring, at a time royal clemency to cast a veil over when the presence of nearly a mil- the past, and restore them to lilion of foreign troops had quelled berty. This recommendation only all resistance to the Bourbons; induced him to transfer the causes and it is difficult to discover the to another tribunal, to which he motive of this invasion of the referred the consideration whether French territory, which must have they were not comprised in cerexcited high indignation in all tain laws relative to traitors and parties, and would have been the exciters of tumults' and dispowerfully resisted, unless it were turbances. Receiving a reply that that of seeming, though late, to none of those who had been seized do something in the cause of the were guilty of offences of that naallies, and earning a subsidy. ture, the king, in a rage, ordered The disgrace of several persons the clerk of the court to bring to
him the proceedings, when he by an event of which notice was himself pronounced sentence of given by a proclamation published exile or imprisonment for longer at Bologna on July 18th, by Caror shorter terms upon thirty-two dinal Gonsalvi, secretary of state persons, who had been the most to the Pope, and addressed to the distinguished deputies to the Cor- legations of Bologna, Ferrara, tes, or promoters of liberal prin- and Ravenna.. The people of ciples. Of the nature of these these districts are informed that sentences a specimen may be given by the unanimous will of the alin that of the celebrated Arguel- lies they are restored to the Holy les, to serve ten years as a com- See. The sentiments of his Holimon soldier in the regiment sta- ness on the occasion are then comtioned at Ceuta ; and in that of municated to them, which are, Garcia Herreros, former minister that every display of political conof grace and justice, to serve eight duct and opinion which had taken years in chains in the garrison of place in these provinces is banishGomera. Such is the prospected from his mind, and that it is afforded of the reign of the beloved his desire that all shall look forFerdinand !
ward to the future with equal Of the occurrences in Italy dur- confidence and security ; further, ing this year, the most important he expects that all the citizens have been related in the chapter shall imitate his example, and forconcerning Murat and the revo- getting every thing past, shall relution at Naples ; some circum- gard each other as brothers, being stances however remain to be no- all equally his sons. Moreover, ticed with respect to that country. his Holiness engages, that pur
The Roman Pontiff continued chasers of property from the preto pursue the plan of restoring to ceding governments, who have his see all the authority belong- made their purchases according to ing to the head of the Catholic the laws then subsisting, shall church, and of renovating the im- not be disturbed in their possespaired dignity of religious insti- sion; and he also guarantees the tutions. On the first day of the public debt of the provinces, and year he issued a bull against ec- the civil and military pensions, clesiastical abuses, which contain- reserving only his claims on foed various injunctions for render- reign countries in respect of them. ing more sacred and respectable The reduction of the taxes is then the characters of persons in holy declared, and assurance is given orders. His expulsion from Rome that his Holiness will immediatein consequence of the advance of ly employ himself on a new sysking Joachim's troops, and his tem of administration conformsubsequent restoration after the able to the welfare of his people. fall of that temporary sovereign, A particular account of the cirwere mentioned among the inci- cumstances connected with the dents of the Neapolitan war. restoration of the Papal territory
That important change in the was the subject of an allocution affairs of Italy was fożlowed by of the Pope in the Secret Consis