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and also are not to engage in the tional debt, as ascertained in OcBritish coasting trade of the East tober last, is reckoned at 120 Indies : 4. Consuls for the pro- millions of dollars, to which some tection of trade are to reside free- addition would probably occur on ly in each country: 5. This con- the liquidation of the public acvention is to continue in force counts; and it is observed that during four years.
the improved condition of the reOn December 5th President venue would not only afford the Madison transmitted to both means of maintaining the faith of houses of Congress a message in the government towards its crewhich a detailed account is given ditors, but would justify an imof the most important occurrences mediate alleviation of burdens imsince their last meeting. It be- posed by the war. Various obgins with relating the successful jects of internal improvement are termination of the war which had then pointed out for the considebeen commenced by the regency ration of congress, among which of Algiers against the United is the establishment of a national States. It is next mentioned as seminary of learning within the a source of satisfaction, that the district of Columbia. The mes. treaty of peace with Great Britain sage closes with a congratulatory has been succeeded by a commer- view of the situation and proscial convention, the disposition pects of the country, " Whilst shown in which, it is hoped, will other portions of mankind (says be improved into liberal arrange- the President) are labouring unments on other subjects which der the distresses of war, or strugmight otherwise endanger future gling with adversity in other harmony. The existing relations forms, the United States are in between the States and the Indi- the tranquil enjoyment of prosans on their frontiers are then ad- perous and honourable peace. In verted to; and it is said, that whilst reviewing the scenes through treaties of amity have been enter- which it has been attained, we ed into with the greater part of can rejoice in the proofs given, the tribes on the western and that our political institutions, north-western borders, a restless- founded in human rights, and ness has been manifested by those framed for their preservation, are on the southern frontier, who had equal to the severest trials of war, been chastised into peace, which as well as adapted to the ordihas called for preparatory mea- nary periods of repose.” sures to repress it. Two follow- The other great portion of the ing paragraphs relate to the act American continent has continued passed for the military peace esta- to be the theatre of a sanguinary blishment, respecting which, dif- civil war, the qccurrences in ficulties had occurred which still which have, as before, been so required legislative aid. The re- differently represented by the opvival of the public credit is then posite parties, that it is difficult spoken of with satisfaction, and a to form a distinct idea of the exstatement is given of the late re- isting state of affairs, or a probable ceipts into the treasury. The na- conjecture of the final issue.
The long-prepared expedition The storm of war from Old from Cadiz, designed for the re- Spain was, however, chiefiy di. duction of the independents on rected against the independents the eastern coast of South Ame- who formed the confederation of rica, sailed in the spring, and the Venezuela; and from a proclaarrival at Porto Cabello of two mation of Don Manuel del CasSpanish ships of the line, six fri- tillo, general of the armies of gates, and 70 transports, having New Granada and Carthagena, on board upwards of 12,000 dated from the latter city on July troops, under the command of 21st, we learn that their utmost Gen. Morillo, was announced in efforts were required to resist the the month of April. Another ex- arms of the assailants. By subpedition was said to have sailed sequent accounts from Jamaica it in company, destined for the ri- would appear that Castillo was ver la Plata.
acting a treacherous part, and Authentic intelligence was re- was probably in league with the ceived in May at Buenos Ayres, Spanish commander. It is said that the royalists having aban- to have been his plan to send out doned the strong entrenchments small expeditions for the purpose of Cotagayta in consequence of of falling into the hands of the the advance of General Rondeau, enemy, that the patriots might be commander-in-chief of the army destroyed in detail, which so far of Buenos Ayres, and afterwards succeeded, that Carthagena was evacuated Potosi, that city was brought into great danger; but entered by the advanced guard of his treachery, at length, becomthe latter on the 5th, and was ing manifest, he was deprived of occupied by the rest of his troops his command, which was conferon the 9th.
red upon Don Bermudez. MoFurther intelligence from Bue- rillo was afterwards repulsed at nos Ayres to June 19th men- Carthagena, and was obliged, for tioned, that the royal army of want of provisions, to remove Lima had sustained another de- from the vicinity of that city. A feat, in which Ramirez, the se- further account mentions, that cond in command, and two other the general situation of Venegenerals, were killed. With re- zuela is much in favour of the spect to Buenos Ayres itself, it was independents, who possess all the said that the squadron for its de- savannas of Cumana and Barcefence under Admiral Brown was lona; and that an army from fully equipped and manned; that New Granada had occupied the the land forces in the city and its provinces of Merida, Truxillo, environs amounted to 18,000, and and Barinas, and had defeated the that upwards of 200 pieces of ar- Spaniards in a decisive action. tillery were mounted on its works. Advices from Mexico mention Also, that several districts in the that 2500 of the Spanish troops interior had engaged, on the first of the expedition were landed in appearance of the expedition from that province as a reinforcement Spain, to march 23,000 men to to the royalists, but that, being its assistance.
drawn into the interior by the
Mexican general, Anaya, a num- controul. The whole of the ber of them were cut off, others French troops, with the exception joined the independents, and but of part of a regiment, were aftera small number made good their wards permitted to depart from retreat to Xalapa. The Mexican the island unarmed. The terms congress was to assemble, and a on which this succour was affordconstitution had been drawn up ed by the British commander for the province.
were perfectly liberal.
The soOn the whole it appears cer- vereignty of the island was to retain, that the attempt from Old main entire in the King of France; Spain to recover its authority in the British troops, which were to these parts has been unsuccessful; act as auxiliaries to the governor, and the more the character and were to be maintained at the exproceedings of the Spanish go- pense of the English government, vernment at home become known and to preserve str discipline, in the colonies, the less probabi- and the persons and properties of lity will there be of a re-union the inhabitants were to be fully of the latter to the mother coun- respected by them. try.
In the island of Guadaloupe The political storm by which the revolutionary cause obtained a France was agitated in this year temporary triumph. A vessel havextended its effects to the Westing arrived after a short passage Indies. In Martinique, the troops from France, on June 18th, an in possession of the forts display, insurrection broke out, in which ed such a disposition to mount both the military and citizens dethe tri-coloured cockade, and de- clared for Buonaparte. The goclare for Buonaparte, that the vernor, Admiral Count de Linois, Count de Vaugirard, governor of was placed under arrest, doubtthe island, found it necessary to less by way of mere form, since anticipate an open revolt by as- on the next day he was set at lisembling the soldiery, and releas- berty, and issued a proclamation, ing from their obligations such of acquainting the soldiers and inthe officers as desired it, at the habitants that Napoleon had been same time informing them that received in France without resistthey must quit Martinique, and ance; that the tri-coloured flag that an attempt to raise the stand- was every where waving, and that ard of rebellion would be resisted the colonists were expected to conby force. A revolutionary move- cur in this change of government. ment, however, in all probability, He concluded with Vive l'Empecould not have been prevented, if reur ! On the same day BuonaSir James Leith, commander of parte was prociaimed in grand the British military force in the ceremony at Point-a-Petre, under Leeward islands, had not sent the direction of the commandant over from St. Lucie an auxiliary Fromentin, acting for General body of troops, which, landing Boyer, and with every display of in the island on June 5th, occu- enthusiastic joy. It was not, howpied all the strong positions, ever, by a sudden effervescence of and kept the disaffected under this kind that a durable revolution
was to be effected; and as soon as previously sent a copy to Linois the affairs of Martinique were with notice of their intention. Its settled, preparations were making substance was an information to by the British commanders to the inhabitants of the events wrest Guadaloupe from the impe- which had taken place in France rial usurper. Sir James Leith, since Buonaparte's landing, namehaving collected troops from the ly, his entire defeat at Waterloo, Windward islands and the conti- the march of Wellington and Blunent of America, and made ar- cher to Paris, and the advance of rangements with Rear-adm. Sir all the allied arinies to the French Charles Durham, sailed on July frontiers. They also announced 31st from Carlisle Bay in Barba- their arrival with a powerful force does, whilst the land force from to place Guadaloupe under the St. Lucie, Martinique, and Domi- protection of his Britannic Manica, was ordered to rendezvous jesty, and stated the terms on at the Saintes. On the 7th Aug. the which they proposed to receive whole force being assembled at the colony. the Saintes, it was resolved to lose Early on the 9th the troops ad. no time in making the attack, ex- vanced in columns with all possible pedition being rendered necessary rapidity, and a series of actions as well by the approach of the ensued (see Gazette) by which hurricane season, as by the in- the enemy were completely cut ternal state of Guadaloupe, in off from making their intended which the sanguinary scenes of junction. On that night an offithe French revolution were about cer came tu propose a capitulation to be renewed. The 15th of the on the part of Linois; but the anmonth, being Buonaparte's birth- swer returned was, that no other day, was, according to report, to conditions would be accepted than have been solemnized by the exe- those mentioned in the proclamacution of a number of royalists tion. On the next morning, prealready condemned to death; and parations being made for an attack their rescue was an object of in- on Morne Houel, a white flag was terest to the British commander. hung out as a signal that the The troops of the line and armed troops in it had surrendered as militia in the island amounted to prisoners of war, and that all the about 6000 men, posted in Grand- forts in the colony had yielded to terre and Basseterre, and it was the British arms. This conquest the plan of Sir J. Leith to land was obtained with a small loss, his principal force so as to prevent and by it an end was put to revothe intended junction of the ene- lutionary attempts in the French my. This was successfully effec- West Indies. By the articles of ted on the 8th, and the troops capitulation it was agreed that were moved forward, driving the the Count de Linois, Baron Boyenemy from the position they had er, the French troops of the line, taken. At the time of landing, with the military administration, the General and Admiral circulated should be sent to France to the a proclamation of which they had Duke of Wellington as prisoners Vou. LVII.
of war: that the militia who had strong guard in the fort. An esalready withdrawn to their habi- act police was maintained in the tations should be protected in per- capital, by which order was person and property, but that those fectly preserved, though it was who were still in arms should be evident that the French inhabittreated as prisoners of war, and ants looked upon their conquerors sent away: that no individual with great aversion. should be molested by the British Some important proceedings in government on account of his po- the House of Assembly of Jamaica litical conduct to the present have been reported as taking place moment: and that the laws, and in the month of October. They private property on shore, should originated from the receipt in that be respected. All the forts, re- island of the copy of the bill redoubts, &c. in the island, with lative to the registry and regulamagazines, arms, and every thing tion of slaves, introduced by Mr. military, were to be delivered to Wilberforce to the House of Comthe British troops ; and all persons mons in the last session. A comunder arms were to surrender mittee had been appointed by the them.
House of Assembly to take into By later intelligence from the consideration the bill in question, : West Indies it appeared that Gua- which in their report gave an
daloupe, though completely in the opinion that a more solemn invesmartial occupation of Great Bri- tigation, by a committee vested tain, was not reduced to a state with fuller powers, ought to be of tranquillity. A number of made into the allegations and facts French soldiers who had deserted set forth in the bill. They also previously to the surrender of the recommended that the House island, took refuge in the woods, should without delay take into whence they carried on a desultory consideration the constitutional and ferocious war against the posts question arising out of the said of the English, several of whom bill, concerning the legislative auwere killed in their desperate sal. thority within the island. With lies. Many of the inhabitants of relation to this point, they drew Point-a-Petre, who formerly pur- up and offered certain resolutions, sued the trade of privateering, declaratory of what they considerwere suspected of holding corres- ed as the constitutional and un. pondence with them, and supply- alienable rights of the inhabitants ing them with provisions and am- of Jamaica. The first of these demunition. Measures had however clares the right of the colonists of been taken to prevent this inter- Jamaica to enjoy, so long as they course, and a force had been sent have no representatives in the Briagainst the insurgents. A lètter tish parliament, a distinct and enfrom Basseterre, dated Nov. 2d, tire civil government. The subasserts that about 300 of Buona- sequent resolutions are suppleparte's adherents in the island mental to the claim advanced in had been apprehended, and that the first. The fifth, however, aca ship load had been sent to Eu- knowledges the authority of parrope, many still remaining under liament to make laws for the ge