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as their rank and station might ther the Queen had not strongly appear to require.

expressed herself on the improThis message being taken into priety of the Duke of Cumberconsideration on the following dayland's marriage with this prinby the House of Lords, the Earl cess, after her professed union of Liverpool stated, that the pro- with the Duke of Cambridge had vision intended to be made was been obviated. an addition of 60001. a year to the

This attack on the persons of Duke's income, and a jointure to the royal pair was followed up in the same amount to the Duchess, the speeches of other members, if she should be the survivor. A notwithstanding the regret excorresponding address to the Re- pressed by Lord Castler eagh at the gent was agreed upon without turn which the debate had taken. opposition.

To the observation respecting the In the House of Commons the secrecy with which the marriage subject was introduced by Lord had been conducted, he affirmed Castlereagh, who, in the introduc- that it had, on the contrary, been tory speech to his motion, said attended with all possible publithat he could not conceive any city, the duke and duchess having grounds on which it was likely to been married at Berlin in the prebe opposed. Having then stated sence of the king of Prussia and the fact of the marriage, he mov- several members of the house of ed for the grant of a provision to Mecklenburg. The question being the royal pair to the amount at length called for, the House above-mentioned.

divided, when there appeared for The motion was opposed by the motion 87, against it 70. Mr. Whitshed Keene and Sir M. The report of the committee W. Ridley on the ground of its with respect to the grant to the being unnecessary to lay an addi- DukeofCumberland being brought tional burden on the public for up on the 29th, and a motion augmenting the income of a made for reading a second time branch of the royal family already the resolution in its favour, Mr. adequately provided for. Mr. R. Gordon rose to oppose it, and Bennet took a different view of maintained, contrary to the asserthe subject. He said, and ap- tion of the above noble lord, that pealed to the public voice for the it was the duty of the House to truth of his assertion, that of all consider the question as a perthe branches of the royal family, sonal one, and to inquire whe. the Duke of Cumberland was the ther the Duke of Cumberland had one to whom the public feeling rendered any services to his counwould be the least inclined to try which could entitle him to the grant any pecuniary boon. He grant. In conclusion he moved asked whether a marriage be- to defer the second reading to tween the princess of Salms and that day three months. A furanother member of the royal ther debate was then entered into, family had not been projected, which the ministerial party in and broken off in co' sequence of vain atteinpted to terminate hy certain circumstances; and whe- the cry of qucstion, repcated as

each [62]

each member rose to speak. Mr. ing was carried only by the maW. Smith said that he apprehend- jority of 100 to 92. ed that the marriage of the The final decision took place on Duke of Cumberland was disa- July 3d, upon the motion of the greeable to the Royal Family, and second reading of the bill. On that it was reported that his new this occasion Mr. Wilberforce connection would not be received viewed the question as having a at court, and he wished to ask reference to the public morals. whether this were the fact. Mr. He said that the various rumours Tierney having repeated the ques- afloat respecting the person with tion, Lord Castlereagh said that he whom the connection was formed should abstain from answering in this marriage, was a strong any interrogatories tending to vi- corroboration of the report that lify the Royal Family, and that he she would not be received by the did not think the right hon. gen. Queen. Ile conceived that Partleman had a right to put such liament was called upon to exerquestions. Mr. T. however per- cise a sound discretion on the sisted, and asked whether her subject before them; and if in Majesty had not declared that she expressing its opinion any pain would not receive the Duchess of was inflicted, the blame was attri. Cumberland at court; and whe- butable to those only who had ther she had not decidedly disap- brought the measure forward. proved of a proposed marriage The llouse ought to withhold its between the Princess of Salms sanction to the connection, if it and the Duke of Cambridge? were such as the Queen refused to These questions receiving no re. approve, which refusal they were ply, the house first divided on the justified in inferring. amendment, which was rejected Mr. Western having moved for by 74 to 62. A motion for bring- deferring the reading to that day ing a bill conformably to the re- six months, his amendment was solution was then carried by 75 carried by the majority of one ; to 62.

the numbers being veas 126, noes The bill being presented on the 125. Thus terminated a discus30th by the Chancellor of the Ex- sion which will be memorable in chequer, and the first reading parliamentary history, as one of moved for, the opposition was re- those examples of the prepondesumed by Lord Archibald Hamilton rating influence of moral estimate on the ground of the uncontra- in the British House of Commons, dicted report of the Queen's los- which, whenever they occur, cantility to the marriage; and Mr. not but be regarded as highly hoBurrel, who followed, moved an nourable to the national character. amendment for rending the bill The high price of bread for on that day three months. It now some years past had produced appeared that the question had considerable research into the taken a strong hold on the public causes of a circumstance which feelings; for, in a much fuller pressed hard upon the lower house than before, the first read- ranks of society, and a coinmittee

lad

had been appointed by the House agitate the public by asserting, of Commons for inquiring into that if wheat were at 80 shillings the state of the existing laws bread must be sold at 16 pence the which regulate the manufacture quartern loaf; in which case a and sale of bread.

Its report

quantity of wheat sold at 8.4 having been printed, Mr. Frank- would in bread produce £.7 145. Lund Lewis, on June 22d, called In fact, it mattered nothing to the attention of the House to the the baker at what price flour was subject. He said, that it was the sold according to the existing law, opinion of the committee, that because that price settled the the operation of the assize laws price of the loaf, and it might tended rather to increase than to easily be arranged between the diminish the price of bread, an mealman and the baker, the lateffect which might be proved ei- ter being, in general, the agent ther by comparing the price of of the former, from whoin he bread with that of wheat, by com- took his meal at long credit, and paring its price in those places yet the price settled upon such where the assize prevailed with credit was the standard by which that where it did not exist, or by the price of bread was fixed. The considering the natural conse- evil was inherent in the law, and quences of the laws. After ad- no alteration in the mode of fixducing a number of facts in proofing the assize could remedy it. of these positions, he moved for He admitted that the proposed leare to bring in a bill “ to re- bill was only an experiment, but peal the laws relating to the as- he was anxious that the trial size of bread in the city of Lon- should be made with as little dedon, and within ten miles of the lay as possible. The bill was Royal Exchange," which was then committed for Friday next. granted.

In the progress of the bill a peOn the motion for its second tition was delivered in its favour, reading on the 27th, Mr. Alder- signed by 800 master bakers, and man Atkins cautioned the House at the same time another was preagainst overturning a system sented against it from the maswhich had stood the test of 700 ter and wardens of the baker's years. The principle of these company. Mr. F. Lewis explained laws, he thought, was unobjec- this contradiction by affirming, tionable, although the mode of that scarcely a person whose name taking the assize was imperfect, appeared to the latter petition was and required modification. Mr. a baker, but that they were chiefly F. Levis, in reply, affirmed that mealmen and flour-factors. Durfrom the evidence produced be- ing the farther discussion, it was fore the committee it appeared agreed that its operation should that no modification of the law commence on the first of Septemwould answer the purpose. As ber next. On July 5th it was read an argumentum ad hominem, he the third time, and it afterwards said that the hon. alderman was passed into a law. among those who, some time By the provisions of this bill since, contributed so much to the bakers were still bound under

penalties penalties to allow the same weight of the allied arms, but had left a as formerly to loaves of the same state of affairs in which it was nedenomination, but the price was cessary that there should be no left to free competition, as in the relaxation in our exertions till case of all other articles of com- those arrangeinents were common sale.

pleted which should afford the Some farther financial acts were prospect of permanent peace and passed before the conclusion of security to Europe. The restothe session; among which were ration of the kingdom of Naples two bills imposing very large ad- to its ancient sovereign, the reditions to the tax on stamps in ception of the king of France in law proceedings, and every other his capital, and the renewal of case in which stamps had been peace with the United States of rendered necessary; and a bill America, followed by a negociafor a vote of credit of six millions, tion for a commercial treaty, were to enable his Majesty to take such mentioned with satisfaction ; and measures as the exigency of af- Parliament was informed that the fairs might require,

labours of the congress at Vienna On July 11th the Prince Re- were terminated by the signature gent prorogued Parliament by a of a treaty, the ratifications of speech from the throne. Its sub- which not having been yet ex. stance was a brief recapitulation changed, it could not be at preof the extraordinary events which sent communicated. Entire sihad occurred since the commence- lence was observed with respect ment of the year, and which had to all domestic occurrences. terminated so much to the glory

CHAPTER

CHAPTER VI.

parties.-Unpopularity of the Bourbon government. Buonaparte.-His progress.--Measures to oppose him.-His . Lyons.-Joined by Ney.Enters Paris.Declaration against the Allied Powers.-His cause adopted by the majority of the Na---Opposition in the South. Duke and Duchess of Angouleme. --Brit'y and la Vendee.- Reports of the State of Affairs.-Treaty between tre four Allied Powers.-Louis XVIII.-Buonaparte's additional act to the Constitution.Extraordinary Commissioners.--Fouche's Report, and Imperial Decrees.-Champ de Mai.- Internal Commotions.-Chamber of Representatives.British and Prussian Armies on the Flemish borderBuonaparte repairs to the army.--Actions of June 15, 16, 17, and 18, ending with the battle of Waterloo.-Buonaparte's Return to Paris. His Projects and Abdication.Proceedings of the Chambers.Commission of Government.-Advance of the Allies towards Paris.--Wellington's Proclamation.--Address of Louis XVIII. to the French. The Capital invested.--Actions.-Convention of Paris.

VE state of parties in France, Some trying questions had been

close of the last year, was such as bers, particularly those relative indicated the existence of wide to emigrant property, and the differences in opinion and interest censorship of the press, whicb, among large classes of the com- though carried in them by decimunity; and although in a well sive majorities in favour of the established government, and a- court, were differently looked mong a people of sedate character upon in the political circles of and temperate feelings, it is found Paris and the provinces. But it by experience that such diversi- was in the military class that ties may prevail without material- feelings existed the most dangerly endangering the public tran- ous to the security of the Bourquillity, yet under the rule of a bon government. With scarcely dynasty restored, after long inter- any exceptions, both officers and mission, in consequence of foreign soldiers retained a high sentimenconquest, to the throne of a na- tal attachment to the man who tion distinguished by the vehe- so long had led them to glory mence and proinptitude of its and victory, and under whose emotions, there was sufficient banners, notwithstanding recent reason to apprehend that secret disasters, they fondly regarded dissensions could not long sub- themselves as destined to retrieve sist without bursting into a flame. their own importance, and the

honor

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