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continued equivocal. On July and officers who betrayed the 16th however, he issued an order King before the 23d of March, or of the day, by which he commu- who attacked France and the gonicated to his army the submis- vernment by force of arms, all of sion of the generals and officers to whom were ordered to be arrestthe government of Louis XVIII. ed and brought before courtsand called upon the soldiers to martial; and another list, more hoist the white cockade and co- numerous, of persons who were lours, acknowledging at the same ordered to quit Paris within three time that he demanded from them days, and retire into the interior róa grcat sacrifice.” This example of France, to places to be indicatwas followed by Gen.Clausel, who ed to them, where they were to had held out Bourdeaux against remain under inspection, until the desires of the people, and on the chambers should decide as to the 22d the white flag was hoist- which of them ought either to deed in that city. The remaining part the kingdom, or be delivered suspicions of the affections of the up to prosecution. In both these arıny were manifested by an lists were many names frequently order issued at Paris, July 22d, occurring in the accounts of past from the governor of the first transactions. About the same military division, enjoining all time the minister for the departofficers who had not followed ment of justice, who was also and remained with the King, provisional secretary for the inteor were not born or domicili- rior, addressed a circular to the ated at Paris, to quit the capi- prefects, which implied much tal between that time and the Ist disorder and faction still subsistof August, and also acquainting ing in the provinces. It authoall non-commissioned officers and rized the prefects to suspend from soldiers, under the same circum- their functions such of the substances, that they should be sent prefects, mayors, secretaries-geback to their families free of ex- neral, and counsellors of prefecpense: further directing that everyture, whose retirement they might military man in future arriving in deem necessary for the public Paris should make his appearance tranquillity, and to appoint others at the general staff of his division, provisionally to fill their places ; and state bis motives for coming. this power, however, only to con
Two royal ordinances were pub- tinue for a month. lished on July 24th which de- The freedom of the press, from noted an increase of vigour and which a royal ordinance of August confidence in the restored govern- 2d had removed all restrictions, ment. By the first, a number of was soon found by the governmembers of the former chamber ment to be too dangerous an inof peers who had accepted seats strument to be committed to the in that summoned by Buonaparte, hands of the disaffected in the prewere declared to have abdicated sent conjuncture; and on the 8th their rank, and no longer to form the Duke of Otranto made a repart of that chamber. By the se- port to the King on the subject. cond, a list was given of generals He observed, that “at all times,
perhaps, it is impossible to give of troops of which the active mithe same extent of liberty to the litary force of France was to conpublication of journals and perio- sist; and an ordinance, containdical works; and in the existing ing the details of the new army. state of France, and of Europe, The great mass of infantry was to in the midst of so many passions be composed of 86 legions of which the powers wish to tran- three battalions each, one legion quillize, the journals which foster to be raised in every departinent, and excite those passions ought to and to bear its name. The solbe submitted to another legisla diers to be disbanded were allowtion." This remark was intro ed to enter, after examination, into ductory to a proposed ordinance the legion of the department to which was adopted by the King, which they belonged. Marshal and the substance of which con- Macdonald had at this time been sisted in a revocation of all the appointed to the command of the Licences given to public journals army on the Loire in the room of of every kind, up to the present Davoust. Measures were taken time, which were not to appear for bringing to justice those offiagain without fresh authority from cers who were denounced as the minister of police; and the traitors : Labedovere was under submitting of all periodical writ- trial, and was soon after condemnings to the examination of a com- ed and executed ; Ney had been mission to be appointed by the apprehended ; and Brune, in orsame minister. The declared ne- der to avoid the like fate, shot cessity of such a measure paints himself. By a royal ordinance of more forcibly the political condi- August 19th the constitution retion of the country at that period, ceived the improvement of making than any partial details could do the peerage hereditary.
Nothing was of so much im- France was still far from being portance to the security of the in a state of internal tranquillitv. government as the organization Party feuds raged in many places, of a new army in the place of and were attended with the outthat which was to be disbanded. rages commonly incident to such On August 11th a proclamation quarrels, aggravated by the imwas issued relative to this sub petuous passions of the nation, ject, which began with the ob- and the long habits of military servation that, “inasmuch as it violence. Several relations had has been endeavoured to detach' been published of the ferocious the army from the interests of the and cruel acts perpetrated at Niscountry for the purpose of mak- mes and in its vicinity, a part of ing it a mere instrument of a per- the kingdom in which the prosonal and inordinate ambition, in testants bear the greatest proporthe same degree it is essential for tion to the catholics ; when, on the public order to maintain that Sept. 2d, the King issued a prowhich is about to be formed in clamation with the following prethe principles of a truly national amble. " We have learned with army." A statement then fol- pain that in the department of the lowed of the number and species South, several of our subjects have
recently committed the most cri- it is probable that in this quarter minal excesses—that under the party differences, religious and pretext of acting as ministers of political, subsisted with uncompublic justice, Frenchmen grati- mon violence, and each in its fying their hatred and private re- turn may have taken occasion venge, have shed the blood of from the circumstances of the Frenchmen, even since our au- time to wreak its vengeance upon thority has been universally estab- the other. The King's proclamalished and acknowledged through- tion alludes to persecutions exerout the whole extent of our king, cised upon the royalists during dom. It is true that great crimes, the sway of the usurper. What. infamous treasons, have been com- ever they might have been, they mitted, and plunged France into were returned with usury as soon an abyss of calamities : atrocious as the Bourbons were restored to persecutions have been exercised power; and falling chiefly or against such of our faithful sub- solely upon the protestants, they jects as, following the banners of took the character of a religious our dearly beloved nephew (the persecution, and were marked Duke of Angouleme), have cou- with its peculiar severity. If the rageously endeavoured with him relations are to be depended upon, to save France : but the punish- the barbarities practised against ment of these crimes ought to be the protestant inhabitants of Nisnational, solemn, and regular.” mes and its vicinity would have The proclamation proceeded in disgraced a nation of savages. this strain, hoping that this odious The oppressed party took up arms, attempt to anticipate the action of apparently in self defence, and the laws had already ceased, and disorders prevailed in the departexpressing a conviction that his ment which the authority of the Majesty's voice would not be government was unable to reheard in vain in a country where press. On August 30th, Count he had “received so many proofs Neipperg, commander of a diviof loyalty and affection.” Such a sion of the Austrian army, pubreprimand was more a proof of lished a proclamation at Nismes, favour than of displeasure, and informing the inhabitants of the threw the wrong rather upon the departments in which his troops sufferers of present injury, than were quartered, that he had reupon the party inflicting it. The ceived orders to concur with the fact appears to have been, that civil and miltary authorities apthe protestants in France were in pointed by the King, in maintaingeneral inclined to the cause of ing the public tranquillity, and Buonaparte, who had not only that he should particularly assist been always a friend to religious in the measure of disarming: toleration, but in his new eccle- Disturbances, however, still consiastical establishment had made tinued to prevail in that part of a legal provision for the protestant France, and at a late period of the clergy. As, where opposite sects year, the protestants at Nismes are nearest to a parity, their mu- were obliged by the popular viotual animosity is most rancorous, lence to suspend their public wor
ship. They transmitted to other diminutions in the salaries of his countries, especially to England, servants, and in allother expenses; memorials of the sufferings to he expressed and inculcated great which they had been, and still respect for the constitutional were, exposed, and which seemed charter, and touched upon the to imply neglect or prepossesion important objects requiring their against them in their own go- attention in order to heal the vernment.
wounds of the state, and restore The crown, in the meantime, internal tranquillity. The oaths was gradually establishing its were then taken by the peers and authority in the midst of con- deputies, of fidelity to the King, tending parties, and obtaining and obedience to the constituthat ascendency which hereditary tional charter. monarchy can scarcely fail to ac- The situation of Louis XVIII. quire, if administered with pru- although thus surrounded with dence and moderation. In Sep- the legal authority of the nation, tember a considerable change was was at this time peculiarly hard made in the French ministry, the and difficult. His obligations on Duke of Otranto (Fouche) whose one hand to the allied powers, service under the late usurpation who had placed him, and still had rendered him obnoxious to maintained him, on the throne; the royliststs, having resigned, and on the other, to his own and the Duke of Richelieu, a people, now galled and bowed nobleman who had passed many down under the yoke of those years as a loyal emigrant, being allies; produced a conflict of placed in the important post of feelings and duties which must secretary for foreign affairs. On have proved extremely harassOctober 6th the King published ing. A circumstance which ex. an ordinance nominating a privy posed him to particular morcouncil, among the members of tification was passing directwhich were many persons of the ly in his view. The museum highest rank. On the 7th the of the Louvre, rendered by a opening of the Chambers took long series of French conquests place at a royal sitting, where the richest receptacle of the the King delivered a speech rela- arts in Europe, had, notwithtive to the present state of af- standing some reclamations, been fairs. He said that he had con left untouched at the capitulation cluded with the powers which, of Paris in the former year. In " after having destroyed the the convention of the present usurper, still occupy a great part year, the provisional government of our territory," a convention made a demand that it should be which would, without reserve, equally respected ; but the allied be laid before the assembly as generals are said to have written soon as it had received its final in pencil opposite to the article, ratification. He mentioned hav- not granted ; and the general ing ordered a considerable part article respecting public property of his civil list for the year to be was afterwards interpreted as not paid into the treasury of the applying to the fruits of viostate, and having made similar lence. At least it may be said,
that that what was gained by con- if the French people are not alquest, might be resumed on re- ready convinced that Europe is conquest. Prussia was the first too strong for them, they may claimant on this ground; and Mar- be made to feel that however exshal Blucher, on his entrance into tensive for a time their tempoParis, sent to demand from M. rary and partial advantages over Denon, director of the museum, one or more of the powers of every thing in it belonging to Europe may be, the day of retalithat kingdom. Denon referring ation must at length come. Acthe affair to a future negociation cording to my feelings, then, it with his government, he was would not only be unjust in the arrested in a military manner,
military manner, sovereigns to gratify the French and threatened with being con- people, but the sacrifice they fined in a Prussian fortress. His would make would be impolitic, compliance was the consequence as it would deprive them of the of this menace, and Prussian opportunity of giving the French commissaries carried off not nation a great moral lesson." only the spoils of Berlin and The Austrians then began to Potsdam, but of Cologne and Aix make reclamations for Venice, le Chapelle. For a considerable and the famous Corinthian Horses time the French were suffered to were carried off under the eyes of flatter themselves that this retri- the King from the Tuilleries. bution would be limited to the The Pope obtained restitution, power most hostile to them ; but through the influence of the Briat length the recovery of the tish minister, of the valuable prorich plunder of the Belgian ducts of art and literature carried churches became an object to
The other the new king of that country, as a Italian states recovered their lost means of ingratiating himself treasures ; and at length, amidst with the catholic clergy, and the the groans, exclamations, and British government supported his execrations of the Parisians, the application. The Duke of Wel- gallery of the Louvre was wholly lington thought it incumbent up- stript of all its foreign spoils, and on him to afford the aid of his reduced to the productions of soldiers in removing some of the French artists, and the few other great works reclaimed by the articles of legitimate acquisition. Belgian agents; and having been The extreme unpopularity much reflected upon in France thrown upon the King and for his conduct on this occasion, Court by these occurrences may he wrote a letter to Lord Castle- be inferred from the circulation reagh in explanation, which was of a paper, purporting to be a made public. The paragraph with letter of the late French miniwhich it concluded was probably sters to the King, explaining the not less grating to the feelings of motives for their retiring. It the French, than the act itself. contained many severe strictures “ It is to be wished (says his on the encouragement at court of Grace) as well for the happiness factions, to the injury of legitiof France, as of the world, that mate authorities, and obviously
away from Rome.