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judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.
The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
RATIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION.
The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.
Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our
WILLIAM SAMUEL JOHNSON.
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President, and Deputy from Virginia.
GUNNING BEDford, Jr.
DANIEL, of St. Tho. Jenifer.
JAMES MADISON, JR.
CHARLES C. PINCKNEY.
WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, RATIFIED ACCORDING TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE FIFTH ARTICLE OF THE FOREGOING CONSTITUTION.
Free exercise of religion, etc.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. [Amendment, proposed 25th September, 1789; ratified 15th December, 1791.]
Right to bear arms.
A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. [Amendment, proposed 25th September, 1789; ratified 15th December, 1791.]
No soldier to be billeted, etc.
No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. [Amendment, proposed 25th September, 1789; ratified 15th December, 1791.]
Unreasonable searches prohibited.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. [Amendment, proposed 25th September, 1789; ratified 15th December, 1791.]
Criminal proceedings. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. [Amendment, proposed 25th September, 1789; ratified 15th December, 1791.]
Mode of trial.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. [Amendment, proposed 25th September, 1789; ratified 15th December, 1791.]
Rights of trial by jury.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the common law. [Amendment, proposed 15th September, 1789; ratified 15th December, 1791.]
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. [Amendment, proposed 25th September, 1789; ratified 15th December, 1791.]
Rights not enumerated.
The enumeration in the constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. [Amendment, proposed 25th September, 1789; ratified 15th December, 1791.]
Limitation of judicial power.
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state. [Amendment, proposed 5th March, 1794; ratified 8th January, 1798.]
Election of president and vice-president.
voted for as
The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for president and vice-president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vicepresident, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate;— the president of the senate shall, in presence of the senate and house of repre
sentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted;-the person having the greatest number of votes for president shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the vicepresident shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president.
The person having the greatest number of votes as vice-president shall be the vice-president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the senate shall choose the vice-president; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.
But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of president shall be eligible to that of vice-president of the United States. [Amendment, proposed 12th December, 1803; ratified 5th September, 1804.]
SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
SEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [Amendment, proposed 1st February, 1865; declared ratified 18th December, 1865.]
Citizens, who are-Rights of citizenship.
SECTION 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Apportionment of representation.
SEC. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for president and vice-president of the United States, representatives in congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.
Certain persons disqualified from holding office.
SEC. 3. No person shall be a senator or representative in congress, or elector of president and vice-president, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath as a member of congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But congress may, by a vote of two thirds of each house, remove such disability. Payment of public debt not to be questioned-Rebel debts not to be assumed.
SEO. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.
SEC. 5. The congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. [Amendment, proposed 16th June, 1866; declared ratified 28th July, 1868.]
Right of all citizens to vote.
SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
SEC. 2. The congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [Amendment, proposed 27th February, 1869; declared ratified 30th March, 1870.]