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may direct. At a special election to be provided for by law, the constitution that may be agreed upon by such convention shall be submitted to the people for their ratification or rejection, in such manner as the convention may determine. The returns of such election shall, in such manner as the convention shall direct, be certified to the executive of the state, who shall call to his assistance the controller, treasurer, and secretary of state, and compare the returns so certified to him; and it shall be the duty of the executive to declare, by his proclamation, such constitution, as may have been ratified by a majority of all the votes cast at such special election, to be the constitution of the state of California.
SECTION 1. The legislature shall prescribe all necessary regulations for the protection of the state, and the counties, cities, and towns thereof, from the burdens and evils arising from the presence of aliens who are or may become vagrants, paupers, mendicants, criminals, or invalids afflicted with contagious or infectious diseases, and from aliens otherwise dangerous or detrimental to the well-being or peace of the state, and to impose conditions upon which such persons may reside in the state, and to provide the means and mode of their removal from the state upon failure or refusal to comply with such conditions; provided, that nothing contained in this section shall be construed to impair or limit the power of the legislature to pass such police laws or other regulations as it may deem necessary.
Corporations not to employ.
SEC. 2. No corporation now existing or hereafter formed under the laws of this state shall, after the adoption of this constitution, employ, directly or indirectly, in any capacity, any Chinese or Mongolian. The legislature shall pass such laws as may be necessary to enforce this provision.
Employment on public work.
SEC. 3. No Chinese shall be employed on any state, county, municipal, or other public work, except in punishment for crime.
Discouragement of immigration.
SEC. 4. The presence of foreigners ineligible to become citizens of the United States is declared to be dangerous to the well-being of the state, and the legislature shall discourage their immigration by all the means within its power. Asiatic coolieism is a form of human slavery, and is forever prohibited in this state, and all contracts for coolie labor shall be void. All companies or corporations, whether formed in this country or any foreign country, for the importation of such labor, shall be subject to such penalties as the legislature may prescribe. The legislature shall delegate all necessary power to the incorporated cities and towns of this state for the removal of Chinese without the limits of such cities and towns, or for their location within prescribed portions of those limits, and it shall also provide the necessary legislation to prohibit the introduction into this state of Chinese after the adoption of this constitution. This section shall be enforced by appropriate legislation.
Seat of government.
SECTION 1. The city of Sacramento is hereby declared to be the seat of gov ernment of this state, and shall so remain until changed by law; but no law
changing the seat of government shall be valid or binding unless the same be approved and ratified by a majority of the qualified electors of the state voting therefor at a general state election under such regulations and provisions as the legislature, by a two-thirds vote of each house, may provide, submitting the question of change to the people.
SEC. 2. Any citizen of this state who shall, after the adoption of this constitution, fight a duel with deadly weapons, or send or accept a challenge to fight a duel with deadly weapons, either within this state or out of it, or who shall act as second, or knowingly aid or assist in any manner those thus offending, shall not be allowed to hold any office of profit, or to enjoy the right of suffrage under this constitution.
SEC. 3. Members of the legislature, and all officers, executive and judicial, except such inferior officers as may be by law exempted, shall, before they enter upon the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I will support the constitution of the United States and the constitution of the state of California, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office of
to the best of my ability."
And no other oath, declaration, or test shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust.
New offices and officers.
SEC. 4. All officers or commissioners whose election or appointment is not provided for by this constitution, and all officers or commissioners whose offices or duties may hereafter be created by law, shall be elected by the people, or appointed, as the legislature may direct.
SEC. 5. The fiscal year shall commence on the first day of July.
Suits against state.
SEC. 6. Suits may be brought against the state in such manner and in such courts as shall be directed by law.
SEC. 7. No contract of marriage, if otherwise duly made, shall be invalidated for want of conformity to the requirements of any religious sect.
SEC. 8. All property, real and personal, owned by either husband or wife before marriage, and that acquired by either of them afterwards by gift, devise, or descent, shall be their separate property.
SEC. 9. No perpetuities shall be allowed except for eleemosynary purposes. Bribery.
SEC. 10. Every person shall be disqualified from holding any office of profit in this state who shall have been convicted of having given or offered a bribe to procure his election or appointment.
Disabilities of convicts-Protection of free suffrage.
SEC. 11. Laws shall be made to exclude from office, serving on juries, and from the right of suffrage, persons convicted of bribery, perjury, forgery, mal
feasance in office, or other high crimes. The privilege of free suffrage shall be supported by laws regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence thereon from power, bribery, tumult, or other improper practice.
Absence on public business.
SEC. 12. Absence from this state, on business of the state or of the United States, shall not affect the question of residence of any person.
SEC. 13. A plurality of the votes given at any election shall constitute a choice, where not otherwise directed in this constitution.
State board of health.
SEC. 14. The legislature shall provide by law for the maintenance and efficiency of a state board of health.
SEC. 15. Mechanics, material-men, artisans, and laborers of every class, shall have a lien upon the property upon which they have bestowed labor or furnished material, for the value of such labor done and material furnished; and the legislature shall provide, by law, for the speedy and efficient enforcement of such liens.
Terms of office.
SEC. 16. When the term of any officer or commissioner is not provided for in this constitution, the term of such officer or commissioner may be declared by law; and if not so declared, such officer or commissioner shall hold his position as such officer or commissioner during the pleasure of the authority making the appointment; but in no case shall such term exceed four years.
Hours of labor on public work.
SEC. 17. Eight hours shall constitute a legal day's work on all public work. Sex no disqualification.
SEC. 18. No person shall, on account of sex, be disqualified from entering upon or pursuing any lawful business, vocation, or profession.
Constitutional convention expenses.
SEC. 19. Nothing in this constitution shall prevent the legislature from providing by law for the payment of the expenses of the convention framing this constitution, including the per diem of the delegates for the full term thereof. Election years-Commencement of terms.
SEC. 20. Elections of the officers provided for by this constitution, except at the election in the year eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, shall be held on the even-numbered years next before the expiration of their respective terms. The terms of such officers shall commence on the first Monday after the first day of January next following their election.
SECTION 1. The boundary of the state of California shall be as follows: Commencing at the point of intersection of the forty-second degree of north latitude with the one hundred and twentieth degree of longitude west from Greenwich, and running south on the line of said one hundred and twentieth degree of west longitude until it intersects the thirty-ninth degree of north latitude;
thence running in a straight line, in a south-easterly direction, to the river Colorado, at a point where it intersects the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude; thence down the middle of the channel of said river to the boundary line between the United States and Mexico, as established by the treaty of May thirtieth, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight; thence running west and along said boundary line to the Pacific ocean, and extending therein three English miles; thence running in a north-westerly direction and following the direction of the Pacific coast to the forty-second degree of north latitude; thence on the line of said forty-second degree of north latitude to the place of beginning. Also, including all the islands, harbors, and bays along and adjacent to the coast.
That no inconvenience may arise from the alterations and amendments in the constitution of this state, and to carry the same into complete effect, it is hereby ordained and declared:
Laws in force-Rights, claims, and contracts.
SECTION 1. That all laws in force at the adoption of this constitution, not inconsistent therewith, shall remain in full force and effect until altered or repealed by the legislature; and all rights, actions, prosecutions, claims, and contracts of the state, counties, individuals, or bodies corporate, not inconsistent therewith, shall continue to be as valid as if this constitution had not been adopted. The provisions of all laws which are inconsistent with this constitution shall cease upon the adoption thereof, except that all laws which are inconsistent with such provisions of this constitution as require legislation to enforce them shall remain in full force until the first day of July, eighteen hundred and eighty, unless sooner altered or repealed by the legislature. Obligations incurred-Fines and penalties due-Writs, actions, and indictments.
SEC. 2. That all recognizances, obligations, and all other instruments entered into or executed before the adoption of this constitution, to this state, or to any subdivision thereof, or any municipality therein, and all fines, taxes, penalties, and forfeitures due or owing to this state, or any subdivision or municipality thereof, and all writs, prosecutions, actions, and causes of action, except as herein otherwise provided, shall continue and remain unaffected by the adoption of this constitution. All indictments or informations which shall have been found, or may hereafter be found, for any crime or offense committed before this constitution takes effect, may be proceeded upon as if no change had taken place, except as otherwise provided in this constitution.
Change of courts-Transfer of causes.
SEO. 3. All courts now existing, save justices' and police courts, are hereby abolished; and all records, books, papers, and proceedings from such courts as are abolished by this constitution, shall be transferred on the first day of January, eighteen hundred and eighty, to the courts provided for in this constitution; and the courts to which the same are thus transferred shall have the same power and jurisdiction over them as if they had been in the first instance commenced, filed, or lodged therein. Publication of constitution—Election.
SEC. 4. The superintendent of printing of the state of California shall, at least thirty days before the first Wednesday in May, A. D. eighteen hundred
and seventy-nine, cause to be printed at the state printing-office, in pamphlet form, simply stitched, as many copies of this constitution as there are registered voters in this state, and mail one copy thereof to the post-office address of each registered voter; provided, any copies not called for ten days after reaching their delivery office shall be subject to general distribution by the several postmasters of the state. The governor shall issue his proclamation, giving notice of the election for the adoption or rejection of this constitution, at least thirty days before the said first Wednesday of May, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, and the boards of supervisors of the several counties shall cause said proclamation to be made public in their respective counties, and general notice of said election to be given at least fifteen days next before said election.
Printing and distribution of ballots.
SEC. 5. The superintendent of printing of the state of California shall, at least twenty days before said election, cause to be printed and delivered to the clerk of each county in this state five times the number of properly prepared ballots for said election that there are voters in said respective counties, with the words printed thereon: "For the new constitution." He shall likewise cause to be so printed and delivered to said clerks five times the number of properly prepared ballots for said election that there are voters in said respective counties, with the words printed thereon: "Against the new constitution." The secretary of state is hereby authorized and required to furnish the superintendent of state printing a sufficient quantity of legal ballot paper, now on hand, to carry out the provisions of this section.
Registers, poll-books, and forms.
SEC. 6. The clerks of the several counties in the state shall, at least five days before said election, cause to be delivered to the inspectors of elections, at each election precinct or polling-place in their respective counties, suitable registers, poll-books, forms of return, and an equal number of the aforest.id ballots, which number, in the aggregate, must be ten times greater than the number of voters in the said election precincts or polling-places. The returns of the number of votes cast at the presidential election in the year eighteen hundred and seventysix shall serve as a basis of calculation for this and the preceding section; pro、 vided, that the duties in this and the preceding section imposed upon the clerk of the respective counties shall, in the city and county of San Francisco, be performed by the registrar of voters for said city and county.
SEC. 7. Every citizen of the United States, entitled by law to vote for members of the assembly in this state, shall be entitled to vote for the adoption or rejection of this constitution.
SEC. 8. The officers of the several counties of this state whose duty it is, under the law, to receive and canvass the returns from the several precincts of their respective counties, as well as of the city and county of San Francisco, shall meet at the usual places of meeting for such purposes on the first Monday after said election. If, at the time of meeting, the returns from each precinct in the county in which the polls were opened have been received, the board must then and there proceed to canvass the returns; but if all the returns have not been received, the canvass must be postponed from time to time until all