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and increase, or advance, their felicity, so far as human nature is capable of it, both in a particular and general relation; rather than the contrary, or discord, rebellion and revolt, fo often advocated, pursued, and in the end, unhappily experienced, under the plausible name and falfe appearance, of melioration.

But how muchfoever the recommendation and Original extension of unity, concord and amity, with a due

happiness submission, in civil society, may be contrary to the and misery ambition, and selfish views, of an independent and rebellious Spirit, in any age, or country, yet it is most certain that as the former constituted the state of original, and most complete, felicity, so the latter occafioned the contrary; and cannot, in the nature of things, do otherwise;—and that human happiness may be much further increased, or augmented, both in an individual and collective capacity, than either idleness or wickedness will permit many to believe, or think possible, the province of Example of Pennsylvania has afforded a very signal example, Pennfylvaand incontestible proof, to the admiration of strangers; and doubtless far beyond the credibility of many, who are not sufficiently acquainted with the early, as well as the later state of the country.

To conclude, as the world is said to have been How good formed out of a chaos, and that order sprung from theires ered disorder, by the effect of Omnipotence; so, in the and restor, rise of this province, appears a remarkable instance ed. of happy consequences, from apparent unhappy causes ;-~rational liberty, with an equal participation of natural and civil rights, and religious privileges, with the glorious effects, have risen out of oppression, persecution and bigotry:

-But, as the abuse of the former has always introduced the latter, sooner or later; and as human nature ever remains to be the fame, so the reversing of those enjoyments continues to be no less incident to the human race, than it was in former ages of the world;


and their preservation depends as much upon the wisdom and conduct of the pofsefsors of them, as their restoration will do, on means similar to those, which raised, and so long preserved, the happy state of the province of Pennsylvania.

Philadelphia, 1797,







The parentage, birth and education of William Penn, with the time 6. Under the third head are represented:
Their loving one another, and refraining from law.suits, among them-

and manner of his embracing the religion of the people called Quakers, &c.

In the account of the religious system and manners of the Quakers, are comprehended: 1. The time, motive and manner of their first rise, and becoming

a religious fociety. 2. Their first and chief principle, &c. 3. Their wor!hip and ministry, with some of their chief and particular

doctrines. Their other tenets, doctrines, practices and customs, more peculiar to them than to other people, are ranged under the following heads, viz.

1. Their julice, veracity and true Christian fortitudes
2. Their temperance and moderation.
3. Their charity and loving one another.

4. Under the first of these heads are comprised : Their disuse of flattering titles, and their not respecting persons, &c. Their using the plain and true speech of thou and thee, to a single

person, &c.
Their disuse of the common falutations, &c.
Their non-observance of holy-days, faft-days, &c.
Their manner of naming the months, and days of the week, &c.
Their refusing to pay tithes, priest.' wages, &c.
Their strictly

paying the government taxes, dues, &c.
Their not suffering the Negro or save-trade among them.
Their refusing to wear on any occasion.
Their fortitude, in valiantly suffering for their teftimony.

5. Under the second head are,
Their disuse of gaming, sports, plays, &c.
Their avoiding superfluity, viz.

In their diet and discourse.
In their furniture and apparel.
At their births, marriages and funerals.

6. Under

Their loving enemies, and not fighting, but suffering, &c.
Their charity to the poor :- With some conclusions on divers of these

things, from R. Barclay.

7. Their marriages, births, burials and discipline, from W. Penn; con-

cluded with fome further hints of the temper, and general dispo-

sition of mind, and of the practice of this people, in early time,

from W. Penn, and W. Edmundson.

Further account of the life of William Penn, continued till about the

time of the grant and settlement of Pennsylvania.

1. First European discoveries of the different parts of America, by
Spain, Portugal and England, from the year 1492 to 1497.

2. Summary of the ancient Virginia; and of the Dutch and Swede's
pretensions to what was called New Netherland by the former, and
New Swedeland by the latter :— With a sketch of the firit settlement,
government and revolutions of these people on the Delaware Bay and
river ;-Including some account of the Maryland grant to the Lord
Baltimore, in 1632 ; and of the reduction of the Dutch and Swedes
under the British government in 1664.

3. First rise of New-Jersey, in 1664; and some account of the En-
glish administration by the governors of N. York, over the country on
Delaware, till it was retaken by the Dutch, in 1673 ;--and of the go.
vernment there, after it was surrendered to England.

4. Division of New-Jersey into East and Wes New-Jersey, in 1676;
whereby W. Penn first became concerned in the latter;- With a fum.
mary of the first settlement and public transactions of W.At New Jersey,
by the Quakers, &c. continued from the division of the province, in
1676, till about the time of W. Penn's obtaining the grant of Pennsyl-

vania, in 1681, &c.

5. A sketch of the religious state of West N. Jersey, about that time,

with some further hints of its general situation, or state, till the fur-

render of the respective proprietary governments to the crown, in


Note, When the n.onths are mentioned in their numerical order, in the following

history, Marchis inderstood to be the first month of the year, before the change

of the style, in 1 552; after which the year commenced on the first of January.


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A general and comprehensive view of the rise, principles, religious System and practice, or manners, of the people called QUAKERS, who first settled

the province, under his government.

THE wisdom of former ages, when transmitted, Ofice and
in writing, to pofterity, is an inestimable treasure; use of hifa
but the actions of illustrious and virtuous persons, tory, &c.
in the same manner exhibited, is still more benefi-
cial: by the former our judgments are rightly in-
formed, and our minds brought into a proper way
of thinking; by the latter we are animated to an
imitation; and while the excellency of noble ex-
amples is displayed before our understandings, our
minds are inspired with a love of virtue. This ap-
spears to be the office of history; by which every
fucceeding age may avail itself of the wisdom, and,
even, of the folly, of the preceding, and become
wiser and happier by a proper application. Though

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