Report of the Commissioner - United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Part 5

Front Cover
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1879 - Fisheries

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Contents

Page
51
SECTION A INTRODUCTION 1
1
GENERAL RESULT OF THE FIELDWORK OF 1877 12
12
THE TREATY OF WASHINGTON 18
18
A DESCRIPTION OF THE AMERICAN SPECIES OF BREVOORTIA WITH ANATOMICAL
19
THE ENEMIES AND FATALITIES OF THE MEXHADENContinued
23
Size 31
31
Rate of growth of young fish 32
32
Rate of growth of fish during their sojourn on the northern coast 33
33
Arrangement and number of scales 34
34
The swim bladder 35
35
Southern limit of range 36
36
Range of other species of the genus 37
37
The arrival and departures of the schools 38
38
Review of the dates of movement upon the entire coast 39
39
Stay on the coast of North Carolina 40
40
Stay on the coast of Virginia and Chesapeake Bay 69 Stay in Delaware Bay 41
41
Stay on the coast of New Jersey 42
42
Stay at the eastern end of Long Island 72 Stay in Long Island Sound 42
43
Stay in Narragansett
44
Stay in Martbas Vin rd Sound 45
45
Tablo showing dates of appearance of menhaden at Waquoit Weir 185972 46
46
Stay in Cape Cod Bay 47
47
Stay about Cape Ann 82 Stay in the Gulf of Maine 48
48
Mr Maddocks account of the movements of the schools on the coast of Maino 50
50
The influence of ocean tomperatures upon the movements of the menhaden
52
General considerations as to the winter retreat of summer fishes
56
H8 The theory of extended migrations discussed with special reference to tho mackerel
62
The arguments against extended migrations of the menhaden
63
The hypothesis of the oceanic sojourn of the menhadon
66
A criticism of Rimbauds classification with a new classification by habits of east coast fishes
68
The movements of the schools of menhaden
70
Movements of the schools to and from the surface
71
SECTION E ABUNDANCE OF THE MENUADEN COMPARATIVE AND ABSOLUTE
78
SECTION HI TIE ENEMIES AND FATALITIES OF THE MENHADEN
101
THE MESHADEN FISHERIES
113
SUPERSECTION ECONOMICAL VALUE AND APPLICATIONS OF THE MENHADEN
135
SECTION KTHE MENHADEN AS A SOURCE OF FOODContinued
137
THE MANUFACTURE OF OIL AND GUANOContinued 43 Methods of manufactureContinued
162
The factory of Judson Torr Co
171
The factory of Joseph Church Co
172
The factory at Napeague N Y
173
The model of the factory of Joseph Church Co
174
Organization of the fishing gangs
176
249 Mr Goodales improved method for extracting the oil
177
Proposed chemical method
178
Prices proportionato to amount of oil to be obtained from the fish
180
Oilyield of southern fish
183
Statistics of the manufacture of oil and guano
184
Returns for the United States
187
Comparative yield of oil from the menbaden and whale fisheries
190
Comparative yield of nitrogen from the menbadenfactories and from the imports of birdguano
191
The markets for menhaden oil
192
Reviews of the market for individual years
193
SECTION N MENIIADEN AND OTHER FISH AND THEIR PRODUCTS AS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE By W 0 Atwater Sºo also Appendix 0
194
Menhaden in a fresh state used as a fertilizer
195
Use at beginning of present century and later
196
Use at present day
200
Experience in Connecticut Mr Clift
201
Experience of Mr Hall and Mr Loveland
203
Statements of Professor Cook of New Jersey
205
Other testimony
208
Early manufacture in Rhode Island
209
Manufacture in Canada
210
Early manufacture in France
212
Early manufacture in England
213
The Norwegian fishguano
214
Manufacture of glue and removal of oil in preparation of fish guanos
217
Success of fishguano as a fertilizer in Europe
218
Kinds of fertilizers made from fish refuse
219
lishguano methods of manufacture and needs of improvement statements of Professor Goessmann
223
Statement of Mr Maddocks manufacture in Maire
224
Adamsons process
225
Immense waste of fish at present Possibilities of future manufacture
226
Manufacture of ammoniated superphosphates
227
Chemical composition of menhaden and other fish and of fish manures
228
Analyses of fish fertilizers
229
Waste from faulty manufacture and use of fish fertilizers
230
Essential ingredients of plant food
231
Ingredients commonly lacking in wornout soils and hence most important in ferti lizers
233
Explanation of chemical terms used in fertilizer analyses
234
Valnations of commercial fertilizers See also Appendix 0
235
Relative values of different fertilizers Fish and Peruvian gaano
244
Ways of improving fieh manuro fermentation
247
Feeding to stock
248
Danger in using fish fertilizers alone
249
Fish as food for domestic animals
250
General principles of feeding maintenance and production
251
Digestion of foods by animals as tested by European experiments
254
Fish as food for stock
266
APPENDIX A Circular relating to statistics of the menhadea fishery
268
APPENDIX B List of correspondents from whom contributions bave been received
271
Bibliography of literature relating to the menbaden
274
Extracts from writings of ichthyologists relating to the menhaden
279
From Mitchills Fishes of New York Transactions of Literary and Philosophical Society of New York 1815 p 453
282
From Storers History of the Fishes of Massachusetts 1867 p 169
283
From Dekays Zoology of New York Fishes 1842 p 259
286
From Uhler and Luggers List of the Fishes of Maryland 1876 p 133
287
From Günthers Catalogue of Fishes in the British Museum VII p 436
288
APPENDIX E Catalogue of specimens in the United States National Museum illustrating the history of the menhaden
289
APPENDIX F Tables of ocean temperatures for certain points on the east coast of the United
291
Partial list of vessels employed in the menhaden fishery
297
Proceedings of the United States Menhaden Oil and Guano Association
353
annual reports of menbaden oil and guano manufacturers in the State of Maine 308
368
APPENDIX N Statements of correspondentsContinued
373
Statement of Alden H Jordan keeper of Bakers Island light Cranberry Isles Me
391
Statement of William S Allen Nantucket Mass January 1875
413
Statement of R C Kenney Nantucket Mass January 21 1874
414
Statement of C B Marchant collector of customs Edgartown Mass January
416
Statement of Jason Luce Co North Tisbury Mass January 6 1875
417
Statement of Luce Brothers East Lymo December 4 1877
418
Statement of E T De Blois Portsmouth R I November 26 1877
425
Statement of J S Crandall Watch Hill R I February 20 1874 and January
427
Statement of William H Potter Mystic River Conn January 27 1874
428
Statement of John Washington Mystic Conn December 30 1874
430
Statement of Leander Wilcox Mystic Bridge Conn January 15 1875
431
Statement of Samuel C Beebe Cornfield Point lightvessel No 12 Saybrook Conn January 6 1875
432
Statement of R E Ingham Saybrook lighthonso Saybrook Conn March 17 1874
433
Statement of J L Stokes Westbrook Conn February 25 1875
435
Statement of B Lillingston Stratford Conn February 23 1874
437
Statement of W S Havens Sag Harbor N Y January 1 1875
441
Statement of Hawkins Brothers Jamesport N Y February 25 1875
443
Statement of Benjamin H Sisson Greenport R I January 29 1874
445
Statement of David G Vail River Head Long Ieland March 20 1875
447
Statement of Joseph Whaley Point Judith light Point Judith R I December
449
Statement of A G Wolf Absecom light Atlantic City N J March 6 1874
450
Statement of Albert Morris Somers Point N J January 12 1875
451
Statement of D E Foster Cape May lighthouse N J February 15 1875
453
Statement of James H Bell Mispillion River Delawaro Bay January 23 1875 434
457
Statement of Hanco Lawson Cristield Md January 22 1874
458
Statement of Isaac D Robbins Hog Island February 21 1874
460
Statement of G Henry Seldon Kinsale Westmoreland County Va August 1874
461
Statement of Henry Richardson Cape IIenry February 9 1874
464
Statement of C G Manning Edenton N C January 6 1875
465
Statement of A W Simpson jr Cape Hatteras N C January 20 1875
470
Statement of A W Simpson jr Cape Hatteras N C January 25 1875
471
Statement of Wallace R Jennett Cape Hatteras N C February 26 1874
474
Statement of A C Davis Beaufort N C February 14 1874 and January 27 1875
475
Statement of W T Hatsel Bodys Island N C March 4 1874 and February 23 1875
477
Statement of W A Harn Morris Island S C January 21 1875
478
Statement of George Gage Beaufort S C January 20 1974
479
Statement of J F Hall Brunswick Ga April 11 1876
481
Statement of Charles Koch Jacksonville Fla January 15 1874
482
Statement of D P Kane Matagorda Texas March 1 1874
483
Letter from C A Goessman on the agricultural value of menbaden fertilizers
485
A description of the factory of the Pacific Gaano Company at Woods Holl Mass 4 The Cumberland Bone Companys works
491
The Quinnipiac Fertilizer Companys works
492
The Crowell Manufacturing Company
493
Method of calculating costs of valuable ingredients of fertilizers By W O Atwater
495
Improved methods of drying fishscrap
502
APPENDIX Q Supplementary works September 22 1878
506
The spawning grounds of the menbaden
507
Menhaden fishing on a Long Island steamer By Ernest Ingersoll
509
The manufacture of sardines from menhaden
512
Small oiltrying in Maine 1860
513
The use of fish for manure by the early colonists of Massachusetts
514
Esplanation of plates
515
Alphabetical index
519
Karl Dambeck GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE GADIDÆ OR THE COD FAMILY
531
Anonymous AN ACCOUNT OF THE LOFFODES ISLANDS OF NORWAY Translated by
559
G 0 Sars REPORT OF PRACTICAL AND SCIEXTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS OF THE COD FISHERIES
565
G O Sars REPORT OF PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS ON THE COD FISHERIES
612
G O Sars REPORT MADE TO THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OF INVESTIGATIONS
663
lated from the French by J Paul Wilson
707
IN THE YEAR 1877 By Gerhard Von Yhlen Translated from the Swedish by
741
Senator Dantziger THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF THE EMDEN JOINT STOCK HERRING
751
IN POXDs Translated from the German by H Jacobson 779782
779
Livingston Stone REPORT OF OPERATIONS AT THE UNITED STATES SALMONHATCH
797
Fred Mather ACCOUNT OF TRIP TO EUROPE WITH EGGS OF THE QUINNAT SALMON
811
Charles G Atkins REPORT ON THE COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOODIC
817
Record of fishing at Grand Lake Stream Maine October and November
824
from October 1875 to March 1878 inclusive
841
Plan of the inclosures used at the Schoodic salmon breeding establishment Grand
846
B Eckhardt THE EXPERIMNTS IN EPROPAGATING THE MAIFISCH ALOSA VULGARIS
853
Fred Mather THE EXPERIMENT OF TRANSPORTING TURBOT AND SOLE FROM ENGLAND
867
Karl töbius HOW CAN THE CULTIVATION OF THE OYSTER ESPECIALLY ON THE GER
875
OBSERVATIONS WITH THE CASELLAMILLER DEEPSEA THERMOMETER By Commander L
887
John Gamgee ON ARTIFICIAL REFRIGERATION By John Gamgee London England
901

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Page 7 - States and of the islands aforesaid, for the purpose of drying their nets and curing their fish ; provided that, in so doing, they do not interfere with the rights of private property, or with the fishermen of the United States in the peaceable use of any part of the said coasts in their occupancy for the same purpose.
Page 7 - Islands thereunto adjacent, without being restricted to any distance from the shore; with permission to land upon the coasts and shores of those Colonies and the Islands thereof, and also upon the Magdalen Islands, for the purpose of drying their nets and curing their fish...
Page 8 - XXI of this treaty, the amount of any compensation which, in their opinion, ought to be paid by the Government of the United States to the Government of Her Britannic Majesty in return for the privileges accorded to the citizens of the United States under Article XVIII of this treaty; and that any sum of money which the said Commissioners may so award shall be paid by the United States Government, in a gross sum, within twelve months after such award shall have been given.
Page 7 - States fishermen by the convention between the United States and Great Britain, signed at London on the 20th day of October, 1818, of taking, curing, and drying fish on certain coasts of the British North American colonies therein defined, the inhabitants of the United States shall have, in common with the subjects of Her Britannic Majesty, the liberty...
Page 8 - States conjointly ; and in case the third Commissioner shall not have been so named within a period of three months from the date...
Page 7 - States, as places reserved from the common right of fishing under that treaty, shall be regarded as in like manner reserved from the common right of fishing under the preceding articles. In case any question should arise between the Governments of the United States and of Her Britannic Majesty as to the common right of fishing in places not thus designated as reserved, it is agreed...
Page 7 - Colonies therein defined, the inhabitants of the United States shall have, in common with the subjects of Her Britannic Majesty, the liberty, for the term of years mentioned in Article XXXIII. of this treaty, to take fish of every kind, except shell-fish, on the sea-coasts and shores, and in the bays, harbours, and creeks, of the provinces of Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, and the colony of I'rince Edward's Island, and of the several islands thereunto adjacent, without being restricted to...
Page 7 - It is agreed by the high contracting parties that British subjects shall have, in common with the citizens of the United States, the liberty...
Page 8 - Commissioners shall be appointed to determine, having regard to the privileges accorded by the United States to the subjects of Her Britannic Majesty, as stated in Articles XIX and XXI of this treaty, the amount of any compensation which, in their opinion, ought to be paid by the Government of the United States to the Government of Her Britannic Majesty...
Page 7 - ... with the rights of private property or with the fishermen of the United States in the peaceable use of any part of the said coasts in their occupancy for the same purpose. It is understood that the above-mentioned liberty applies solely to the sea fishery; and that salmon and shad fisheries, and all other fisheries in rivers and mouths of rivers, are hereby reserved exclusively for fishermen of the United States.

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