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No. 295.]



Mr. Swenson to Mr. Hay.

Copenhagen, March 13, 1903.

SIR: I inclose herewith clippings from Berlingske Tidende and the London Times, commenting on the German Emperor's approaching visit to the Danish court.

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His Majesty the German Emperor, who desires to convey his felicitations in person on the occasion of our King's eighty-fifth birthday anniversary, April 8, will, in view of the fact that this date occurs during Holy Week, arrive at the court April 2, 5 o'clock in the afternoon. During his stay, which is expected to last till April 4, the Emperor will occupy quarters in Christian VII palace.

It will afford the Danish Government and the Danish people sincere satisfaction to extend a hearty welcome to the exalted monarch of our mighty neighboring Empire, whose sympathy and affection for our aged King finds expression in the proposed visit. We cherish the confident hope that His Majesty the Emperor will have an opportunity through this visit to convince himself that the Danish people have appreciated the splendid reception accorded our crown prince on all sides, when his royal highness visited Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress at Potsdam last fall.

[Inclosure 2.]

[Clipping from London Times of March 10, 1903.]

The Emperor William and Denmark.

[From our correspondent.]

Copenhagen, March 8.

It has, for a long time, been rumored that the Emperor William would come to Copenhagen in order to congratulate the venerable King Christian on the occasion of his eighty-fifth birthday on April 8. It is now officially reported that the Emperor is to arrive on April 2, but that he will not stay until the 8th of that month, because the latter date is in Holy Week.

Some months ago the Danish crown prince went to Berlin-a visit which created some sensation in view of the somewhat strained relations which still existed between Denmark and Germany on the question of North Schleswig. The Danish crown prince was received in Germany with great honor and regard by the always chivalrous Emperor, and the visit created an agreeable impression in Denmark. Here it was considered good policy on the part of the heir to the throne to cultivate better

political relations with the powerful German Empire, with which Denmark has an annual trade equal to that with Great Britain, each of them amounting roundly to one-third of all Danish trade with foreign countries. The Emperor, therefore, has had a double reason for making the short journey to the sound.

Most likely, however, there are reasons above and beyond these. To the English public the North Schleswig question might possibly appear a petty one. In Scandinavian countries it is, however, not forgotten that 200,000 Danes are living south of the Danish frontier, and that German officials by repressive and coercive methods persecute the Danish language in Danish-speaking districts, particularly in the schools, even though certain events of the last few months seem to point rather toward conciliation. According to the Austro-Prussian peace of 1866 North Schleswig was to be given back to Denmark if the inhabitants voted for that course. Prussia took no serious step to fulfill this treaty, and when King Christian's youngest daughter, Princes Thyra, in 1878 married the legitimate, but by Prussia unacknowledged, heir to the Kingdom of Hanover, the Duke of Cumberland, that ominous paragraph 5 in the convention was extinguished by a new convention. The Duke and Duchess of Cumberland are now here, and the general opinion was that they would stay till after April 8. A topic of the date is the question, Will they stay or leave?

The Danish court was officially informed on March 1 that the Kaiser would like to pay a visit, and on Friday last His Imperial Majesty, having received King Christian's invitation, fixed April 2 as the date of his arrival. The Emperor once before, immediately after his accession to the throne, visited Copenhagen. That is about fifteen years ago now. When he drove through the streets on that occasion some hooting was heard. Since that day he has grown in public opinion and esteem. He may be sure of a respectful, possibly a hearty, reception.

[Inclosure 3.]

[Clipping from London Times of March 12, 1903.]

The Duke of Cumberland.

[From our correspondent.]


The Danish newspapers publish only brief comments on the announcement of the Emperor William's intended visit to Copenhagen. This reserve may be connected with the presence of the Duke of Cumberland at the Danish court, where he intended, as usual, to stay till after King Christian's birthday, on April 8. It is confidently reported to-day that the duke and duchess and both their daughters are inclined to leave shortly, though his royal highness, out of respect for the Danish court, will feel bound to avoid anything which might be disagreeable to the German Emperor during the latter's visit here. Everything goes to show that the Emperor has not taken any effective steps toward a conciliation with the duke; otherwise, some evidence of the fact would certainly have become public by this time. The duke's political adviser, Herr von der Wense, arrived here last night and had a long conference to-day with his royal highness, the result of which is not yet known. telegram received here to-day states that the duke's youngest son, Prince Ernest Augustus, is lying ill with measles at Gmünden.



The question whether the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland would stay here during the Emperor William's visit is now answered by the official announcement that, in consequence of the illness of Prince Ernest Augustus, their royal highnesses, with their two daughters, will leave during the next few days, certainly not later than Monday next. This decision has caused some sensation in court and political circles here. Without commenting at length on the subject I may remark that the official communication would have probably been framed in different terms if the Emperor William had sought a more direct means of approaching the Duke of Cumberland instead of simply announcing that he would pay a visit to the Danish court at a time when he must know or presume that the duke would be in Copenhagen.

The Emperor himself is assured of a good reception here, since, notwithstanding the ever present North Schleswig question, public opinion is very favorable to him personally as a man of will and ideas.

No. 299.]

Mr. Swenson to Mr. Hay.

Copenhagen, April 28, 1903.

SIR: In addition to my No. 295, dated the 13th ultimo, on the subject of the German Emperor's visit at the Danish court, I have only to report that His Majesty arrived in the harbor of Copenhagen on board the imperial yacht Hohenzollern Thursday afternoon, the 2d instant. He was received most cordially with the usual official ceremony. The thousands that had assembled to witness the landing manifested their admiration and friendly sentiments for the distinguished visitor by enthusiastic cheers. It had been feared that the unfriendly demonstrations which took place on the occasion of the Emperor's visit here shortly after his accession to the throne would be repeated this time. Such apprehensions, however, proved groundless, and the contrast was commented upon with general satisfaction. The Emperor's magnetic and forceful personality captivated everybody that came in contact with him.

His visit was a pronounced success and will undoubtedly pave the way to a better understanding between the Danish and the German people. He prolonged his stay here a day beyond the time originally fixed in his programme, taking his departure Sunday morning, April 5. I have, etc.,



Mr. Swenson to Mr. Hay.

No. 298.]

Copenhagen, April 17, 1903.

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith, for your information, copies of correspondence dealing with the amenability of N. H. Lind and Ditley Eltzholtz, naturalized American citizens, formerly subjects of Denmark, to the military conscription laws of their native country in case of temporary residence therein.

Having received no further communication from Mr. Lind, I presume that the authorities have taken satisfactory action on his case. Mr. Eltzholtz merely requests information bearing on eventual contingencies. My reply to his interrogatories is self-explanatory. I have, etc.,

[Inclosure 1.]


Mr. Lind to Acting Consul Ericksen.

SVENDBORG, January 20, 1903.

DEAR SIR: As a naturalized United States citizen I hereby call on you, kindly asking your estimable advice concerning my position toward the Danish military authorities.

I was born in Svendborg, from where I, in the year 1892, left for America, where I became naturalized as soon as I was of age, being then 17. In November, 1900, I returned home for a visit, intending to stay about a year or so, but on account of

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private circumstances was prevented from leaving, and will not be able to return to Chicago, where I am interested in business, before next June. Last October military conscription was held here in Svendborg, which I was ordered to attend, which I did, at the same time presenting my citizen paper, and having at that time not been at home the two years stipulated in the convention between the United States and Denmark, they were obliged to let me alone, telling me though to meet next October, 1903, if I still was in the country.

I was some time later called into court (still inside the above-mentioned two years) on charge of having not reported my return from abroad; but this being a law enacted by the military authorities of Denmark, I have not considered myself bound to acknowledge same, being a citizen of another country. Now, I have stated my objections to the court, who has turned the matter over to the conscription office from where it originated. They do not seem to be willing to grant me my rights, but want me to pay a fine.

Now, the question is this: Do I, by paying this fine, admit or acknowledge their right to enlist me as a soldier, which they exceptionally can do already in (June) the spring? And as I can not leave before June, it will be very inconvenient for me. Would you advise me to pay this fine, or see the judgment of a higher court? What do you think most advisable? I am posted by friends who have to deal with this affair to look out for eventualities. I deem this the proper way to go and to obtain my rights as a citizen of the United States. I should be much gratified if you would give this matter your kind attention, and, as I am booked to meet in court next Friday, you would do me a special favor in answering by return mail, if convenient. I remain, etc.,

N. H. T. LIND.

[Inclosure 2.]

Mr. Swenson to Mr. Lind.

Copenhagen, January 24, 1903.

SIR: Your letter of the 20th instant to Acting United States Consul Ericksen has been handed to me for reply. I inclose herewith a copy of a circular issued by the Department of State, under date of April 10, 1901, respecting the liability of citizens of the United States under the military and expatriation laws of their native country. This notice, you will observe, has special reference to American citizens, formerly subjects of Denmark, who contemplate returning to that country. I trust that you will find this brief synopsis of the Danish conscription laws valuable in so far as it has a bearing on your case.

I may add that your temporary residence in Denmark beyond the two-year limit referred to in your letter does not expatriate you as a citizen of the United States, and hence does not render you liable to military duty in the country of your birth, provided you intend to return to the United States within a reasonable time for the purpose of continuing your permanent domicile there.

You waive no rights on these points by paying such fine or fines as you may have laid yourself open to under the laws and regulations set forth in the circular

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The honorable legation is respectfully requested to make authentic reply to the following interrogatories:

My son was called out as guardsman in 1892; but owing to heart disease he was sent home after two months' service, with orders to meet again at the following session. He met, but was again sent home, with the same instructions. Meanwhile he emigrated to America, where he has resided nine years. He desires to visit his old home next summer and asks if in that event he would run the risk of being required to perform military service, or if he would be let off by paying a fine. How large would such fine be? Can the matter be arranged previous to his visit? He is an American citizen.



[Inclosure 4.]

Mr. Swenson to Mr. Eltzholtz.

Copenhagen, March 25, 1903.

SIR: Replying to yours of the 23d instant, I beg to say that under the military conscription laws of Denmark a person whose name has been or should have been entered on the conscription lists makes himself liable to a fine of from 25 to 100 kroner or imprisonment, or both, if he emigrates without reporting his intended departure to the local authorities.

A person above the age of 22 entered for military service must obtain a permit from the minister of justice to emigrate. Noncompliance with this regulation is punishable by a fine of from 20 to 200 kroner or imprisonment, or both.

Your son's American citizenship does not exempt him from penalties for offense committed against Danish law before his emigration. He is liable to military service that was due and unperformed at the time of his emigration. I have no means of knowing what action the Danish authorities would take in case your son should return to his native country on a visit. In a few similar cases the right to exact military service has been waived as a matter of courtesy. The penalty for the violations referred to above is generally fixed at 40 kroner, to which is sometimes added three days' confinement (husarrest). The circumstance that your son was sent home twice on account of physical disability would, it seems, dispose the authorities to deal leniently with him. I can take. no steps in the matter as long as the case is merely a hypothetical one.

I would suggest that your son bring with him his certificate of naturalization and that he procure a passport either from the Department of State at Washington, or, on his arrival here, from the legation.

Respectfully, yours,



Mr. Hay to Mr. Swenson.


DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, November 14, 1903.

Appropriately convey President's felicitations fortieth anniversary King's reign.


Mr. Swenson to Mr. Hay.

No. 322.]

Copenhagen, November 18, 1903.

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your telegram of the 14th instant, directing me to convey the President's felicitations to the King on the fortieth anniversary of his reign. Having ascertained that there would be no audience for the formal presentation of congratulations of this kind I sent the following telegraphic message to His Majesty's country residence, Fredensborg palace:

Court Marchal OXHOLM:

COPENHAGEN, November 15, 1903.

In a cablegram Secretary Hay charges me to convey the hearty felicitations of the President to His Majesty the King on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of his reign, coupled with the best wishes for His Majesty's health and a peaceful, happy, and prosperous continuation of his reign for many years to come.

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