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Alusa oli Sana, ja se Sana oli Jumalan tykönä, ja Jumala oli se Sana. 2 Tämä oli alusa Jumalan tykönä. 3 Raikki ovat sen kautta tehdyt; ja ilman sitä ei ole mitän tehty, joka tehty on. 4 Hänesä oli Elämä, ja Elämä oli ihmisten Walkeus. 5 3a fe Walfeu8 pimeydeja paistaa, jota ei pimeys fäsittänyt. 6 Ori mie oli lähetetty Jumalalba, jonga nimi oli Johannes. 1 Se tuli siitä Walkeudesta todistamaan, että kaikki uskoisit hänan kauttansa. Ei hän ollut fe Walkeus, mutta hän oli lähetetty Walkeudesta todistamaan. 'Se oli totinen Walkeus, joka walistaa kaikki ihmiset, jotka mailmaan tulewat. 10 Se oli mailmasa, ja mailma on hänen kauttansa tehty; ja ei mailma händå tundenut.
; 11 Hän tuli omillensa, ja ei hänen omansa händå ottanet wastan. 12 Mutta niille jotka hänen otit wastan, andoi hän woiman Jumalan lapsiri tulla; jotka uffowat hänen nimensä päälle. 13 Fotka ei werestä, eikä lihan tahdosta, ei myös
uskomat miehen tahdosta, mutta Jumalasta syndynet owat. 14 Ja Sana tuli Lihari, ia asui meidän seasamme, (ia me näimme hänen kunniansa niinkuin ainoan Pojan kunnian Isästä,) täynnä armoa ja totuutta.
1.-GEOGRAPHICAL EXTENT AND STATISTICS. In the earliest periods of history of which we have any record, the northern regions of Europe and of Asia were inhabited by a race of men whom the Sclavonians called Tschudi. This name, which applies also to the Esthonians and Karelians, has of late been given more particularly in Russian works to the several tribes which people the north-east of Asia. But the general name by which the numerous hordes of the Finnish people should be called, is, Uralians; on account of their having started of old from the Ural mountains, as from a centre of dispersion, east and west over Asia and Europe, where they became known as Scythians. All the tribes of this race were subjugated by the German, Tartar, or Sclavonian nations; and, after having partly assimilated with them, in habits and in language, they went under different names, according to whether they were influenced by Germanic or by Tartar tribes. So that we find languages, originally one, now differing widely from one another; as for instance, the Tcheremissian and the Hungarian, or more properly, Ungarian. Thus we may divide the Finns into five principal tribes, or heads of nations:-1. The Germanized Finns, or Finlanders, who inhabit the shores of the Baltic.—II. The Finns of the Volga: such as the Mordvinians, Tcheremissians, etc.—III. The Permian Finns; themselves subdivided into the three heads of Wotiaks, Syrönes, Zirians, or Sirenians, and the Perms or Permian Finns properly so called.—IV. The Ugarian Finns, i.e., Wogules, Ungarians, and Ostiaks of the river Obi. Of these, the Ugarian hordes, called Onogurs, Saragurs, and Arogs, invaded Europe about A. D. 462. The most powerful of these appear to have been the Onogurs, who in later times were called successively, Ugurs, Uigurs, and Ungars. They are the ancestors of the present Hungarians, and are called in Russian, Anals Ugry.. In many instances thy were displaced by their conquerors, and driven to the most barren and mountainous districts of the north. In the extreme north-western portion of the Russian empire, we meet with one of the principal of these tribes, called the Finns, from whom the country which they inhabit derives its name. Finland formerly constituted one of the five divisions of Sweden, but since 1809 it has been subject to Russia; the rites of the Swedish Church are, however, still observed, and the inhabitants, who in 1851 amounted in number to 1,660,700, are, generally speaking, of the Lutheran faith. The Finns were converted to Christianity about the middle of the twelfth century, by means of an English missionary, who was the first bishop and martyr in Finland.
II.-CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LANGUAGE. The Finnish presents as a matter of course, several striking points of resemblance to the languages and dialects spoken by the Turks, Tartars, Mongols, Mandshurians, and Tungusians. Like them, its nouns are incapable of inflection, and an additional word is requisite to denote the variations of case, number, and sex; its prepositions and pronouns are suffixed to the words they modify, and, moreover, the vocabularies of all these languages are pervaded by a peculiar system of vocalic harmony, which is both rich and sonorous. Finnish verbs have only two tenses, the past and the present, and the future is expressed by adding to the form of the present some word indicative of a future action or state of being. Many Russian and Swedish words enter into the colloquial Finnish, in consequence of the political relations between these nations.
III.-VERSIONS OF THE SCRIPTURES IN THIS LANGUAGE. Soon after the introduction of the Reformation into Finland, the New Testament was translated into Finnish by Michael Agricola, rector, and afterwards bishop, of Abo. He was a native of Finland, and after having studied divinity at Wittenberg, was recommended by Luther to Gustavus I., king of Sweden. His version was printed at Stockholm, in quarto, in 1548. It contains a preface by Agricola
, in which he states that the translation was made from the Greek, with the aid of the Latin, German, and Swedish versions. A translation of the Psalms was undertaken about the same period by Paul Justèn, rector of the High School in Abo, in which work he engaged his scholars by way of exercise. The translation was revised by Agricola, and printed at Stockholm in 1551, with a curious poetical address to the reader, descriptive of the idolatry of the Finns. During the same year, several detached portions of the Old Testament were translated and published by Agricola. In his preface to these translations, he expressed his sorrow at the impossibility of proceeding with the work, unless adequate funds could be procured, and pledged himself to the completion of the translation of the Old Testament, provided that he met with encouragement in the sale of his previous editions. Certain political obstacles, however, impeded from time to time the publication of the entire Scriptures in Finnish; and at length, in 1636, the clergy of Finland appealed to Christina, queen of Sweden, to furnish them with a version in their vernacular tongue. In consequence of this petition, orders were given for the preparation of an accurate translation at Abo, the capital of the duchy of Finland, on account of the University established there, and the greater purity of the language spoken in that city. The execution of the work was intrusted to Æschilus Petræus, doctor and professor of divinity, and afterwards bishop of Abo; to Martin Stodius, professor of oriental languages in the university of Abo; to Gregory Matthæi, pastor of Puken; and to Henry Hoffman, professor of divinity, and pastor of Maschoen. The translation was made from the original texts, and Luther's marginal glosses were subjoined to the chapters. It was printed at Stockholm, in folio, with a dedication to Queen Christina. Another edition, in the same form, was published in 1644.
Another version, likewise executed from the inspired originals, by Henry Florin, pastor of Paemaren, was published at Abo in 1685; but this version is comparatively little known, the Bible sanctioned by Queen Christina having, from its first appearance, been received into general circulation as the authorised version of Finland.
Editions of the New Testament, from the text of Queen Christina's version, appeared in 1732, 1740, 1774, and 1776. But, except two quarto editions in 1758 and 1776 (the latter of which was published by subscription), no further attempt was made to publish the entire Bible in Finnish, until the introduction, in 1811, of the operations of the British and Foreign Bible Society in Finland. In consequence of the pecuniary aid afforded by that Society, and the zealous efforts of their agent, Dr. Paterson, a Bible Society was formed at Abo; a report was sent to the Emperor Alexander, and he contributed a large donation from his private purse, besides granting to the Society, for five years, that part of the corn tithes which was originally appropriated to printing the Scriptures, but which in latter times had been devoted to state purposes. Standing types were immediately prepared at St. Petersburg, and 8000 copies of the New Testament, in 8vo., were completed at Abo in 1815. In the following year, 5000 copies of the entire Bible, also in 8vo., left the press at Abo. A quarto edition of the whole Bible, aided by a further grant from the British and Foreign Bible Society, was commenced in 1821, and completed in 1827. A specimen copy may be seen in the Library of the British and Foreign Bible Society, but, with few other exceptions, this edition (consisting of 7500 copies) was destroyed in the extensive fire with which Abo was visited in 1827. Another edition of 5000 copies of the New Testament was, in consequence, immediately undertaken by the Society: this edition was completed at Stockholm in 1829. In 1832, the Bible Society of Abo was again in active operation, and had printed a new edition of the quarto Bible, and commenced an 8vo. edition of 10,000 copies of the New Testament.
Apart from the Finnish edition printed at Abo, the St. Petersburg Society undertook some editions for the purpose of supplying the Finns in their own neighbourhood; but eventually large supplies were forwarded to Abo. The New Testament was printed by this Society in 1814, and again in 1822. The entire Bible was completed in 1817.
Many large editions of the Scriptures have subsequently been issued by the joint agency of the Finnish Bible Society and the British and Foreign Bible Society.
A distribution of the Scriptures, unprecedented in extent, and justly regarded as one of the ablest and best executed projects in the records of Bible Societies, has of late ycars been carried on in Finland. This work commenced in 1841, under the auspices of the late metropolitan of Finland, Archbishop Melartin, and through the instrumentality of the British and Foreign Bible Society. From statistical documents collected at that period for the guidance of the Society's operations, it was ascertained that
1st, 47,254 Finnish families who possessed at least a New Testament. 2nd, 39,675 Finnish families who were unprovided, but were able to purchase the Scriptures at
cost price. 3rd, 31,334 Finnish families who were unprovided, and so poor as to be able to give only a little
for a New Testament. 4th, 50,442 Finnish families totally destitute of the word of God, and so extremely poor as to
require an entirely gratuitous distribution. On these statements being forwarded to the Committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society, the work of supplying, first of all, the 50,442 families, for whom an entirely gratuitous distribution had to be made, was immediately commenced. This provision was ere long effected, and subsequent efforts have gone far towards supplying the additional wants above referred to.
From a letter addressed by the present Archbishop of Finland (Dr. Bergenheim) to the British and Foreign Society's Agency at St. Petersburg, we derive the following interesting information in reference to the work thus happily in progress of accomplishment. During the thirteen years (1834-47) that the affairs of the Finnish Bible Society were under the superintendence of the late Archbishop Melartin, there were prepared and distributed in Finland three editions of the entire Bible, making in all 13,000 copies, -one in the Swedish language of 3000 copies, and the two others in Finnish; besides an edition of 10,000 Finnish New Testaments, with the Psalter. Further editions of 10,000 copies of
the entire Bible, and 20,000 New Testaments, have since been completed. The editions of the Finnish New Testament printed on account of the British and Foreign Bible Society, during the five years immediately prior to 1853, embraced :— Ist. An edition of 20,000 copies printed at Borga, in 1847; 2nd. An edition of 25,000 copies, also printed at Borga; 3rd. An edition of 20,000 copies, printed at Helsingfors, and to half the number of which the Psalms are to be appended.
By means of the above noble efforts on the part of the British and Foreign Bible Society, there have been distributed gratuitously in Finland, since 1841, altogether 50,086 copies of the New Testament in the Finnish language, while a further number of 43,914 copies have been sold at an extremely moderate price. The total number of copies of the Finnish Scriptures printed directly for the British and Foreign Bible Society up to the close of 1859, amounted to 134,000 (consisting of 10,000 Bibles and 124,000 Testaments), besides 15,000 copies of the Testament and Psalms.
It is difficult, in a thinly-populated country like Finland, to observe the immediate results of Scripture distribution among the great body of the inhabitants. But particular instances of the good that has already been effected are not wanting, and there is no doubt that a great and increasing desire for the possession of the sacred volume has been excited among the whole of the Finnish population. The Finnish clergy, too, especially the younger portion of them, are said to be much more abundant in their labours than formerly, and great numbers of the population are being converted to a reformed life. The exertions that have been made, it may be fairly hoped, will eventually be found, under the blessing of God, the means of preserving the Lutherans of Finland from the insidious advances of the Russian Greek Church.
SPECIMEN, FROM ST. JOHN, CHAP. I. v. 1 to 13.
[HERNOSANDIÆ, 1811.] Algosne lei pako, ja pafo lei Jubmelen ludne, ja pako lei Jubniel. Tattek lei algosne Jubmelen ludne: ja tan pakto läh kaif åmeh takkatum nau atte tan wana i aftek le taffatum kaif taste, mi taffatum le. Tan fijne lei tägled ja bägga lei alnatji tjuoufes. Tat tjuoufes tjuoufa feudnjedesne, ja sjeudnjed i le tab tåbdam. Te lei tal fames ålma rajatum Jubmelest, kuten namma lei Johannes. Tat påti wittenen, wai kalfai wittenastet tan tjuofasen pit, wai kaikah kalfin so pafto puoktetowet jakfoi. Ilam sodn tjuofes, walla sodu påti wittenastet tan tjuoufagen pir, juffo le tat sadnes tjuoufes, mi le wäraldi påtam, ja paijastjuoufa kaikeit almatjist. Sodn li wäraldessne, ja riralt le to pakto takfatum, walla wärald idtji likan so tåbdå. Sodn påti etjes landei ja alde åigoh lifan istjin sita io tuostotet: walla taiti kuteh so tuostotin, tat le jakfin so naman nal, waddi jodn rekteb, Jubmelen manan sjarit, maggaren almats fågatowa i säiwa rägatemen pakto, ådtjelats uston jälla juonken ålman situden melt, ainat Jubmeleft.
1.-GEOGRAPHICAL EXTENT AND STATISTICS. LAPLAND, the most northerly country of Europe, comprehends under its three general divisions of Russian, Swedish, and Norwegian Lapland, an area of about 150,000 square miles, two-thirds of which belong to Russia, and the rest to Sweden. The population has been loosely estimated at 60,000, of whom 9000 only are Laplanders, the rest being Swedes, Norwegians, and Russians. The Laplanders under the
sway of Russia belong to the Greek Church, and those subject to Sweden are professedly Lutherans; but they did not, as a nation, assume the Christian name before the seventeenth century, and in many parts of the country they are said still to retain many of their heathen customs.
II.-CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LANGUAGE. The Laplanders and Finns are said to have originally constituted one nation, and the Lapponese, from its great similarity in structure to the Finnish language, affords proof of this fact. Lapponese has been considerably changed by the number of foreign words that have been engrafted on it; for the ignorant Laplanders had no terms of their own expressive of any objects not strictly connected with their uncivilised mode of life. In the Lapponese version of 1 Tim. iii. 16, not fewer than six of the words are of foreign origin, and of these six not fewer than five are Swedish. Several different dialects of Lapponese prevail in Lapland; and it has been found necessary, as will be hereafter mentioned, to prepare a separate version of the Scriptures for the inhabitants of Norwegian Lapland.
III.—VERSIONS OF THE SCRIPTURES IN THIS LANGUAGE. In the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Laplanders were wholly ignorant of letters, and did not possess a single book written in their language. Before the year 1619, Gustavus Adolphus began to establish schools for their instruction, and a primer was published containing, among other things, the Ten Commandments and the Lord's Prayer in Lapponese. A manual, containing the Psalms, the Proverbs, the book of Ecclesiasticus, the dominical Gospels and Epistles, with several religious tracts, was published at Stockholm in 1648. The translator and editor was John Jonae Tornaeus, a native of Sweden, and pastor in Tornea. This work was not generally understood, on account of the peculiarity of the dialect in which it was written, and accordingly another manual was compiled by Olaus Stephen Graan, a schoolmaster and pastor in the Umea-Lappmark. This second manual, written in a more generally intelligible dialect, contained extracts from the dominical and festival Gospels and Epistles, and was printed at Stockholm in 1669.
It is unknown at what time, or under what circumstances, the New Testament was translated into Lapponese. The first printed edition of which we have any account was published at Stockholm in 1755. A copy of this edition is in the library of the British and Foreign Bible Society. No further edition appears to have been issued till 1810, when the Committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society availed themselves of the assistance of the Evangelical Society at Stockholm to print an edition of 5000 copies of the New Testament from the edition of 1755, which was then completely exhausted. The bishop of Tornea undertook to superintend the publication, and it was printed at Hernosand, in 8vo., in 1811. A version of the Bible in Lapponese was published in quarto at the same place, and during the same year; and a copy of this work (which does not appear to have been committed a second time to the press) may be seen in the library of the British and Foreign Bible Society. With the exception of a quarto edition of the Testament, likewise published in 1811, and some copies of the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark, printed at Christiania in 1838, no further editions have appeared.
Features of striking interest in reference to the moral and religious condition of the Lapland population have recently manifested themselves. A great religious revival appears to be in progress in that country. “The continual and increasing awakenings in Lapland (wrote Dr. Polvsander to the St. Petersburg Agency of the British and Foreign Bible Society, in 1851), particularly in the frontier territories, through which the rivers Tornea and Muonio flow, occupy at present my greatest attention. The Scriptures are still much sought after.” In reference to the facilities for introducing into the country a new edition of the New Testament and Psalms in the Lapponian tongue, it has been stated that the local hierarchy would readily further the work.