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CHAPTER XX.

STRENGTH OF THE ARMY.-IMPORTANT BATTLES.-FALL OF RICHMOND.-DISORDERED FLIGHT OF THE INHABITANTS. SURRENDER OF LEE AND JOHNSTON.-NUMBER OF TROOPS IN THE FIELD.-NUMBERS SLAIN.NUMBER OF COLORED SOLDIERS.-POPULATION OF NORTH AND SOUTH.GRANT'S AND SHERMAN'S FAREWELL ADDRESSES TO THEIR SOLDIERS.— JEFF. DAVIS ISSUES A PROCLAMATION.-HIS FLIGHT SOUTHWARD. — HIS CAPTURE.

THE total strength of the army, early in the year 1865, has been already shown. On the 1st of January it was officered by 66 Major-Generals and 267 Brigadier-Generals.

The first event of the year was the arrival of Gen. Grierson at Vicksburg, January 5th, after having destroyed 100 miles of railroad in the rebel States, capturing 600 prisoners and 1,000 contrabands (colored citizens). Next followed the capture of Fort Fisher, already alluded to. February 6th, the Army of the Potomac gained a victory over the rebels at Hatcher's Run, Virginia: Union loss, 232 killed; rebel loss, 1,200 killed. February 22d, Wilmington, North Carolina, occupied. February 18th, Charleston, South Carolina, surrendered. March 10th, capture of Kingston, North Carolina: Union loss, 650 killed, and 1,500 wounded; rebel loss, 2,400 killed, wounded and missing. March 25th, battle of Fort Stedman, Virginia: Union loss, 171 killed, 1,236 wounded, and 983 prisoners; rebel loss, 3,200 killed and wounded, and 1,881 prisoners. March 29th, battle of Hatcher's Run and Five Forks, Virginia: Union loss, 5,000 killed, wounded and missing; rebel loss, 4,500 killed and wounded, and 7,000 prisoners.

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THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR, LENOX
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

April 2d, assault at Petersburg, Virginia: Union loss, 5,000 killed and wounded; rebel loss, 5,000 killed and wounded, and 8,000 prisoners. April 6th, battle of Deatonville, Virginia: Union loss, 1,000 killed and wounded; rebel loss, 7,700 prisoners, killed and wounded not reported.

The first of April found Gen. Grant planted before the gates of Richmond-the rebel Capital. His veterans were about him. President Lincoln was at City Point, Virginia, and in constant communication with the Army and with Washington by telegraph. Lee with his veterans was at Petersburg and Richmond, determined to hold his position; but the fates were against him. The armies of conquest were within sight of the smoke of the chimneys of the rebel Capital, eager for the assault that should destroy the rebel power. The impetuous Sheridan was dashing his invincible cavalry, ten thousand strong, in the face of the enemy. Meade, Ord, Warren, Griffin, Humphreys, Gregg, Gibbs, Merritt, McKenzie, Winthrop, Mills, Crawford, and a host of others, had concentrated their commands around Richmond and Petersburg, and it would seem as if the whole Army of the Republic was centered about the Capital of the Confederacy. The powerful armies of the Union were closing in upon the enemy. On the morning of the 1st of April a general advance was ordered by Gen. Grant along the whole line, and as if by magic the whole force advanced. Sheridan was in his glory. He had under his immediate command about ten thousand veteran cavalry, and soon they began to inflict terrible punishment upon the enemy. Grant's forces, under the command of the veteran Corps Commanders, moved steadily forward, and inch by inch

pushed the enemy at the point of the bayonet, who fell back before the resistless forces of the Union, as if it were an avalanche. Throughout the entire day of the 2d, the contest had been stubborn and hardfought; but each hour brought the soldiers of the Republic over new intrenchments and across the heaps of their slain comrades and of the enemy, and closer to the heart of the rebel Capital. The sky was lurid with smoke and flame; and for miles around the rebel stronghold, the scene was fearfully destructive and appalling. Before 10 o'clock on the morning of the 24, Lee, who was in command of the rebel forces and who had lost over 10,000 of his men within the last two days, saw the hopelessness of his position, and at 10 o'clock A.M., telegraphed from Petersburg to Jefferson Davis, at Richmond, who was at church, (it was Sunday,) the following message: "My lines are broken in three places; Richmond must be evacuated this evening." The Slave Power was now in the throes of death; the cold sweat of dissolution had enveloped the whole body-the jugular vein of treason was within reach of the iron grasp of Grant. Sheridan was lopping off its paralyzed limbs; his fierce cavalry were trampling the rebel dead beneath their feet; the artillery were cutting broad gaps through the rebel ranks; the solid columns of Grant's infantry, with their glittering bayonets, moved forward, tier after tier, like waves of the ocean, pouring their leaden rain of death upon the enemy; and now on they marched, banners waving, the fife and drum drowning the groans of the wounded and dying; the screeches of angry shells, as they burst with terrible destruction, seemed to mock with reckless defiance the struggle of the suffering. Volleys of artillery boomed out their loud proclamations of victory.

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