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Concord, they were met by a company of about one hundred militia and citizens; the English troops found little resistance, however, and marched on to Concord. There, and along the road on their return to Boston, they were met by fierce opposition from the militia and citizens, who formed in squads, some making direct attack, others in ambush, firing upon the soldiers, who were fearfully harassed and demoralized, having lost about two hundred and seventy men, whilst the colonists lost eighty-eight in all.

Things in Boston were leading to a crisis; 1765 witnessed one riot, 1770 another between the citizens and the British troops; 1773 another, known as the Boston Massacre. On the 20th of May, 1774, her Charter was taken by royal authority, but never replaced, for on the 19th of April, 1775, the Boston militia met the English troops at Lexington, and the result is known. New England was in a blaze. Boston was a scene of wildest activity, fighting the well equipped English regulars in hand to hand conflict. Soon came on the battle of Bunker Hill. During this time, the second Congress of the Colonies was sitting at Philadelphia. Its first act was to approve the conduct of Massachusetts, which alone took up the gauntlet thrown down by England, and was now single handed fighting it out. As yet the Colonies had no army-not a General, a gun, nor a pound of powder. This Congress resolved that the "Colonies be placed in a state of defense," and George Washington, who had shown great military skill under Braddock, was appointed Commander-inChief of the armies then raised and to be raised.

But no aid was yet in the field; the English troops were harassing the people of Boston, and delay was defeat. Putnam, Warren, and Pomeroy, took posses

sion of Bunker Hill on the evening of June 16th, and entrenched thereon, and on the morning of the 17th met Generals Howe and Pigot at the head of 3,000 well equipped soldiers, with field artillery. Thus the war was raging. George Washington was appointed to command the armies, June 15th, 1775, just two days before this important battle. But he was still in Virginia. Prescott and Warren, and Samuel Adams, and Cotton Mather, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Hancock, all of Massachusetts, and the latter President of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1779, and whose name appears first upon the Declaration of Independence, were leading the fearless spirits to victory. Two long months passed from the battle of Lexington until the 2d of July, the day upon which Washington arrived at Cambridge. At this time the population of Virginia was about 746,000, and the whole number of men that she contributed to the war was 32,288. The population of Massachusetts at the same time was about 375,000, just half the population of Virginia. She contributed 83,162 men; thus, we see that Massachusetts, with half the population, sent about three times the number of men, or six times as many as Virginia, in proportion to her population. The Southern States represented in the war were Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. All these States together supplied 69,377 men to the Revolutionary War, whilst Massachusetts alone sent 83,162, or 13,825 more than all the South. Virginia at this time (as her people said) had to remain at home to take care of her "niggers," for, at this time, she had about 290,000 of them-the crop that sprang from the twenty that she imported into Jamestown in 1620, when she cursed our land with that in

cubus, which has so completely disturbed the whole fabric of our Government to this day.

The struggle for independence continued for seven years, under difficulties and privations unparalleled; and the accomplishment and establishment of our Republican system of government forms one of the most brilliant chapters in the history of an oppressed people, battling for equal justice and manhood freedom.

During the time the dreadful line met in conflict, and the combatants in the field were reaping their harvest. of death, and while the Colonial soldier cast himself upon the altar of liberty to insure victory, the Continental Congress was moulding and giving vitality to that political system, whose corner-stone is based upon the political and religious liberty that to-day places the American Republic in the foremost rank of nations, and her citizens the first in freedom on the globe.

In accordance with the proposition of the first Congress, the second met at Philadelphia on the 10th day of May, 1775; and Peyton Randolph, who was the President of the first, was again elected President. This Congress took active measures to induce all the Colonies to enter upon a combined practical system of defense. The King had declared the Colonies in a state of rebellion, and had interdicted all trade with them. The last hope of reconciliation had vanished, and now, for the first time, thoughts of a separation from the Mother Country began to take hold of the minds of the people. England during this time was sending troops to America, and the colonists, by their representatives in Congress, on the 10th day of June, 1776, appointed a committee consisting of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston, who presented a resolution, "that these

Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States." This resolution was adopted on the 2d of July, and on the 4th of July, 1776, the Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Randolph having in the meantime resigned the Presidency of the Congress, John Hancock of Massachusetts was elected, and in his official position placed his name first to the Declaration of Independence.

As yet, no political form had been adopted for the government of the New Nation; Congress had elected Washington to be Commander-in-Chief of all the armies, and had issued three millions of dollars in bills, pledging each Colony to pay its proportion, and the United colonists were pledged for any amounts delinquent in the pro rata of any Colony. A treasury department was established, and laws were passed regulating the army and navy.

At this time there was no union of the Colonies, and the want of some system or Constitution of a national character, to enable the various departments of the embryo Government to execute their functions, was much needed. Just what kind of a Constitution it should be was not well understood; some propositions soon after the adoption of the Declaration of Independence were suggested, but not acted upon. On the 8th day of July, 1778, a compact, or solemn league, was adopted by Congress, which was styled "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States." (See Appendix-Articles of Confederation.)

The name of the Confederacy was to be, "The United States of America." It was left to the several States to adopt and ratify these articles, or to reject them. A majority of the States adopted them, some proposing amendments. Delaware, New Jersey, and Maryland,

offered serious objections to their ratification, unless their proposed amendments were adopted by Congress, and Maryland did not ratify them until March, 1781.

It must be kept in mind that the Revolutionary War was now raging, and that the circumstances of the times. were fast developing important events demanding a well regulated system and form of government.

The Congress, composed of delegates from the several States, elected by their Legislatures, had the power to declare war and conclude peace, to raise men and money; and although the powers were not so numerous as under the present Constitution, there can be but little doubt that the "perpetual union of the States," and the prohibition of any State to secede from the Union, without the consent of Congress, was as binding on the States as is the Constitution, or any of the laws of Congress enacted since the commencement of the late rebellion.

Article 6, Section 1, says:

"No State, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty, with any King, Prince, or State, nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

"SECTION 2. No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation, or alliance whatever, between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which such is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.

"ARTICLE 13. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, in all questions which by this Confederation are submitted to them; and the Ar

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